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Bronze C HUMAN FACTORS. FITNESS TO FLY PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELEVANT TO GLIDER PILOTS.

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Presentation on theme: "Bronze C HUMAN FACTORS. FITNESS TO FLY PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELEVANT TO GLIDER PILOTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bronze C HUMAN FACTORS

2 FITNESS TO FLY PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELEVANT TO GLIDER PILOTS

3 PSYCHOLOGICAL AFFECTING OR ARISING IN THE MIND

4 PHYSIOLOGICAL THE WAY IN WHICH A LIVING ORGANISM OR BODILY PART FUNCTIONS.

5 FITNESS TO FLY AGE MEDICALS PHYSICAL WELL BEING

6 AGE NO MINIMUM AGE CAN SOLO AT 16 NO MAXIMUM AGE BUT PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FITNESS MAY REDUCE WITH AGE

7 MEDICALS TO FLY SOLO YOU MUST HAVE A SELF DECLARATION FORM ENDORSED BY YOUR DOCTOR. AT AGE 45 A NEW SELF DECLARATION MUST BE MADE & ENDORSED BY THE PILOTS DOCTOR. THIS MUST BE RENEWED AT 50, 55, 60, 65 & THEN ANNUALLY.

8 NOTE IT IS THE PILOTS RESPONSIBILITY TO CHECK THAT THEIR MEDICAL IS VALID. IF YOUR DRIVING LICENCE IS REVOKED ON MEDICAL GROUNDS YOU AUTOMATICALLY BECOME UNFIT TO FLY SOLO IN A GLIDER

9 PHYSICAL WELL BEING ANYONE KNOW THE ACRONYM :- I’M SAFE

10 PHYSICAL WELL BEING ILLNESS MEDICATION STRESS ALCOHOL FATIGUE FLYING CURRENCY EATING

11 ILLNESS MINOR ILLNESS CAN DISTRACT EG :- HEADACHE. STOMACH UPSET. COLDS…. COVERED LATER.

12 MEDICATION MANY MEDICINES CAUSE DROWSINESS. READ THE INSTRUCTIONS. DO NOT FLY FOR 24 HOURS AFTER A LOCAL ANAESTHETIC (DENTIST) 48 HOURS AFTER GENERAL ANAESTHETIC. DON’T FLY WITHIN 24 HOURS OF BLOOD DONATION.

13 STRESS OR OTHER DISTRACTION ARGUMENT WORK PROBLEMS DEBTS DEPRESSION FAMILY ILLNESS LAUNCH POINT AGGRAVATION MENSTRUAL CYCLES IN FLIGHT NOISE EG WIND NOISE

14 ALCOHOL ALCOHOL IS A DEPRESSANT A PINT OF BITTER WILL AFFECT JUDGEMENT AND THUS HIGHER RISKS THAN NORMAL ARE ACCEPTED.

15 RAILWAYS AND TRANSPORT ACT STATES 20MG/100ML IE A QUARTER OF THAT WHICH APPLIES TO DRIVING A CAR. NOTE THAT THIS APPLIES TO ANYONE INVOLVED IN GLIDING OPERATIONS EVEN A WING TIP HOLDER.

16 HOW LONG HOW MUCH ? ABOUT AN HOUR TO REMOVE 1 UNIT OF ALCOHOL FROM BLOOD FOOD HAS LITTLE EFFECT ON THE ALCOHOL ABSORBED LET’S LOOK AT SOME EXAMPLES OF DRINKS :-

17 LAST ORDERS AS IT WERE

18 FATIGUE A GOOD NIGHTS SLEEP IS ESSENTIAL. EXCESSIVE FLYING MAY CAUSE YOUR CONCENTRATION TO WANE. BOREDOM ON A LONG FLIGHT CAN CAUSE FATIGUE. SILVER DURATION A PARTICULAR CASE. TRY TO HAVE A PURPOSE SUCH AS LOCAL TRIANGLES.

19 CURRENCY IF YOU FEEL OUT OF PRACTICE GET A CHECK FLIGHT ! SIMPLY STAYING WITHIN YOUR CLUBS CURRENCY RULES MAY NOT BE ENOUGH. A LOG BOOK MUST BE KEPT UNTIL YOU HAVE A SILVER BADGE.

20 FOOD HUNGAR REDUCES ALERTNESS MAINTAIN BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS. COMPLEX FOODS BREAD, PASTA AND FRUITS PROVIDE LONG LASTING ENERGY. SUGARY SNACKS ONLY PROVIDE A SHORT TERM BOOST FOLLOWED BY A SHARP REDUCTION IN ENERGY LEVELS.

21 COMFORT DISCOMFORT WILL REDUCE CONCENTRATION LEVELS. HOWEVER DO NOT USE SOFT CUSHIONS TO IMPROVE COMFORT. THEY WILL COMPRESS DURING HIGH “G” POSSIBLY PREVENTING YOU FROM REACHING CONTROLS AND IN THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT MAY INCREASE SPINAL INJURY. USE DYNAFOAM.

22 TO PEE OR NOT TO PEE YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO CONCENTRATE WITH A FULL BLADDER A HEAVY LANDING MAY CAUSE YOUR BLADDER TO ………… EXPLODE ! MAKE SOME SORT OF PROVISION TO EMPTY BLADDER AVOID DIURETICS EG CAFFEINE.

23 PREGNANCY BEST AVOIDED BUT IF YOU MUST CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR ERRR…. IF YOU SEE WHAT I MEAN PROBABLY DON’T FLY FOR FIRST 3 MONTHS OR THE LAST 3 MONTHS

24 PSYCHOLOGY FACTORS WHICH ARE RELEVANT TO YOUR STATE OF MIND WHEN YOU FLY :- MINIMISE WORK LOAD SPEAK UP ATTITUDE

25 WORK LOAD WAYS TO REDUCE WORKLOAD:- MNEMONICS. SYSTEMATIC APPROACH. WRITE INFORMATION DOWN. CHECK LISTS. CURRENCY. RIGGING DON’T GET DISTURBED. IDENTIFY AIR BRAKE LEVER IN CIRCUIT FOR EXAMPLE.

26 COURAGE OF CONVICTIONS WE ARE ALL TAUGHT FROM AN EARLY STAGE THAT ANY BODY CAN STOP A LAUNCH. IF YOU ARE WITH AN EXPERIENCED PILOT EXPRESS YOUR CONCERNS IF YOU FEEL AN UNSAFE COURSE OF ACTION IS BEING FOLLOWED.

27 INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDES CAN YOU THINK OF ANY ? START YOU OFF :- PEOPLE WITH NO FEAR !

28 CHARACTERISTICS MACHO ANTI AUTHORITY BOMB PROOF IMPULSIVE FATALIST VERY NERVOUS GUNG HO

29 EMO TENDANCIES YOU CAN FLY SAFELY EVEN IF YOU HAVE SOME OF THE WORRISOME TENDANCIES ON THE PREVIOUS SLIDE. JUST BE AWARE OF THEM.

30 PHYSIOLOGY THE WAY IN WHICH BODILY PARTS FUNCTION :-

31 TOPICS EYE SIGHT BAROTRAUMA EARS SPATIAL DISORIENTATION DEHYDRATION OXYGEN HYPERVENTILATION SCUBA DIVING HYPOTHERMIA “G” CARBON MONOXIDE

32 BAROTRAUMA WIND ! AIR IN YOUR INTESTINES BECOMES PAINFUL AS PRESSURE REDUCES WITH HEIGHT. AVOID FOOD THAT MAY EXAGERATE THE PROBLEM ! RARELY AIR CAN BE TRAPPED IN TEETH WHICH CAN CAUSE TREMENDOUS PAIN.

33 EYE SIGHT HAVE YOUR EYE TESTED EVERY 2 YEARS UK DRIVING REQUIREMENT IS READING A NUMBER PLATE AT 20 METRES. CONSIDER SUN GLSSES TO PROTECT EYS FROM UV RADIATION CARRY A SPARE PAIR OF GLASSES.

34 EARS THREE PARTS TO THE EAR :- OUTER EAR MIDDLE EAR INNER EAR

35

36 EUSTACHIAN TUBE A BLOCKAGE IN THE EUSTACHIAN TUBE WILL CAUSE SEVERE DISCOMFORT DURING FLIGHT. AIR IN THE MIDDLE EAR EXPANDS DURING THE DESCENT ESCAPING THROUGH THE EUSTACHIAN TUBE. IT IS EASIER FOR AIR TO GO INTO THE MIDLE EAR THAN IT IS TO GO OUT. THUS THE EUSTACHIAN TUBE STAYS CLOSED UNLESS ACTIVELY OPENED BY MUSCLE ACTION SUCH AS SWALLOWING.

37 IF THE TUBE IS NOT REGULALRY OPENED DURING DESCENT A PAINFUL PRESSURE DIFFERENCE CAN RESULT. OTHER PROBLEMS COULD BE TEMP’ DEAFNESS, DIZZINESS& NAUSEA. IF YOU SUFFER PAIN DURING A RAPID DESCENT TRY THE VALSALVA PROCEDURE.

38 VALSALVA PROCEDURE CLOSE NOSE AND MOUTH PUT TONGUE AGAINST ROOF OF MOUTH BLOW GENTLY AGAINST THE RESISTANCE

39 COLDS TISSUE IN THE NOSE SWELLS DURING A COLD AND THUS MORE LIKELY TO SUFFER THE PROBLEMS PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED. THE PAIN CAN DISTRACT FROM THE PRIMARY TASK OF FLYING THE AIRCRAFT.

40 SPATIAL DISORIENTATION THE SEMI CIRCULAR CANALS PROVIDE BALANCE AND ORIENTATION THROUGH THE SEMI CIRCULAR CANALS.

41 SEMI CIRCULAR CANALS

42 HOW DOES THE BALANCE SYSTEM WORK Movement of fluid in the semicircular canals signals the brain about the direction and speed of rotation of the head--for example, whether we are nodding our head up and down or looking from right to left. Each semicircular canal has a bulbed end, or enlarged portion, that contains hair cells. Rotation of the head causes a flow of fluid, which in turn causes displacement of the top portion of the hair cells that are embedded in the jelly-like cupula

43 MOTION SICKNESS THE MISMATCH BETWEEN VISION AND THE SENSORY INPUTS FROM THE INNER EAR. DISOREINTATION CAN OCCUR IN CLOUD. INNER EAR STOPS SENDING INFO TO BRAIN AFTER 10 TO 20 SECONDS. LOW RATE OF TURN INNER EAR FAILS TO SENSE ANY ROTATION. THEREFORE PILOT MAY BE IN A TURN WITHOUT KNOWING IT.

44 ACTION PILOT MUST RELY ON THE INSTRUMENTS THIS REQURES TRAINING DO NOT TRY TO TEACH YOURSELF CLOUD FLYING.

45 DEHYDARATION AN INSIDUOUS CONDITION THAT CAUSES :- TIREDNESS IRRITABILITY CONFUSION HEADACHE VISUAL SNOW

46 THIRST THE BODIES MECHANISM FOR AVOIDANCE IS NOT VERY GOOD. ONCE YOU FEEL THIRSTY YOU ARE ALREADY DEHYDRATED. PERHAPS A BETTER INDICATOR IS THE COLOUR OF YOUR URINE !

47 URINE DEEP YELLOW URINE INDICATES THAT YOU ARE DEHYDRATED. DRINK WATER AND DO NOT FLY AGAIN UNTIL YOUR URINE IS CLEAR

48 WATER LOSS A PERSONS BODY, DURING AN AVERAGE DAY IN A TEMPERATE CLIMATE SUCH AS THE UK LOSES APPROX 2.5 LITRES OF WATER. THIS CAN BE THROUGH THE LUNGS AS WATER VAPOUR, THROUGH THE SKIN AS SWEAT OR THROUGH THE KIDNEYS AS URINE.

49 WATER REPLACEMENT Water loss can increase by an order of magnitude or more through perspiration; all of which must be promptly replaced. In extreme cases, the losses may be great enough to exceed the body's ability to absorb water from the gastrointestinal tract; in these cases, it is not possible to drink enough water to stay hydrated, and the only way to avoid dehydration is to reduce perspiration (through rest, a move to a cooler environment, etc.). Probably not a cockpit !

50 WORLD HEALTH ORG’ RECOMMENDATION FOR WATER INTAKE AVERAGE CONDITIONS MANUAL LABOUR IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MALE ADULT2.9 LITRES/DAY 4.5 LITRES/DAY FEMALE ADULT 2.2 LITRES/DAY 4.5 LITRES/DAY

51 OTHER FACTORS AVOID DIURETICS E.G. TEA & COFFEE WEAR A SMALL BRIMMED HAT AVOID ALCOHOL THE NIGHT BEFORE CARRY ENOUGH WATER IN THE COCKPIT WHAT DOES ENOUGH LOOK LIKE ?

52 OXYGEN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FALLS WITH HEIGHT :- AT SEA LEVEL = 1013 MB 10,000 FEE T = 700 MB 18,000 FEET = 500 MB

53 OXYGEN NOTE :- THE PROPORTION OF OXYGEN IN THE AIR REMAINS CONSTANT WITH INCREASING ALTITUDE. THE LOWER PRESSURE MEANS LESS OXYGEN DIFFUSES THROUGH THE LUNGS INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

54 MORE OXYGEN RECEPTORS IN THE BRAIN MONITOR LEVELS OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE. THE RECEPTORS ARE MORE SENSITIVE TO CARBON DIOXIDE SO IT THE LEVEL OF C02 THAT REGULATES THE BREATHING. LACK OF OXYGEN IS CALLED HYPOXIA

55 NOTE ANOXIA RESULTS WHEN OXYGEN IS NOT BEING DELIVERED TO A PART OF THE BODY. IF THE CONDITION DOES NOT INVOLVE TOTAL OXYGEN DEPRIVATION, IT IS OFTEN CALLED HYPOXIA, ALTHOUGH THE TWO TERMS HAVE BEEN USED INTERCHANGEABLY

56 HYPOXIA PERSONALITY CHANGE LACK OF INSIGHT LOSS OF JUDGEMENT LOSS OF SELF CRITICISM OVER CONFIDENCE EUPHORIA LOSS OF MEMORY MENTAL AND MUSCULAR INCOORDINATION SENSORY LOSS CYANOSIS SEMI CONSCIOUSNESS, ULTIMATELY DEATH

57 WHEN DO YOU NEED OXYGEN YOU CAN ONLY TELL BY USING THE ALTIMETER AS YOU MAY BE SUFFERING FROM SYMPTONS MENTIONED ! AIR NAV ORDER IS BEING AMENDED FOR MANDATORY CARRYING OF OXYGEN FOR FLIGHTS ABOVE FL130 OR IF FL100-FL130 FOR MORE THAN 30 MINS. LAWS AND REGS STATES ABOVE 10,000FEET AMSL. 35,000 FEET IS THE SAFE LIMIT WITH OXYGEN SYSTEMS.

58 SMOKING & BLOOD OXYGEN SMOKING REDUCES BLOOD OXYGEN LEVELS BY 4 TO 8 PERCENT ! CARBON MONOXIDE THE MAIN COMPONENT IN TOBACCO SMOKE HAS 300 TIMES GREATER AFFINITY FOR HAEMOGLOBIN THEN OXYGEN. PIGGOT SUGGESTS SMOKERS USE OXYGEN 3,000 FEET LOWER !

59 HYPERVENTILATION ANXETY MAY GIVE RISE TO BREATHING TOO HARD AND TOO RAPIDLY I.E. HYPERVENTILATION. SYMPTONS BEING :- LIGHT HEADEDNESS DIZZINESS ANXIETY TINGLING IN HANDS, FEET AND LIPS.

60 CURE ? DON’T PANIC ! CONSCIOUSLY REDUCE THE RATE OF BREATHING SYMPTONS OF HYPOXIA & HYPERVENTILATION SIMILAR. IF SURE IT IS HYPERVENTILATION BREATH INTO A BAG.

61 SCUBA DIVING DIVERS BREATHE AIR UNDER PRESSURE FORCING AIR INTO THE BLOOD. THE NITROGEN IN THE BLOOD TAKES TIME TO DISPERSE AFTER SURFACING. DO NOT FLY WITHIN 24 HOURS OF DIVING TO A DEPTH GREATER THAN 30 FEET BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS (BENDS). TRAPPED NITROGEN FORMS BUBBLES IN THE JOINTS AND BODY ORGANS.

62 HYPOTHERMIA LOWER TEMPERATURE AT HEIGHT IN COLD WEATHER MAY GIVE RISE TO :- DROWSINESS WEAKNESS & LOSS OF COORDINATION SLURRED SPEECH SHIVERING AGRRESIVE OR WITHDRAWN BEHAVIOUR CONFUSION

63 G EFFECTS HIGH G MANOEUVRES CAN CAUSE BLACK OUT EVEN AT LOW ALTITUDE. GREY OUT STARTS AS LOW AS 3G. WHAT G DO WE PULL IN A K21 LOOP ? TOLERANCE VARIES FROM INDIVIDUAL TO INDIVIDUAL. NEGATIVE G IS GENERALLY MUCH MORE UNPLEASANT. A FEW PEOPLE ARE VERY SENSITIVE TO NEGATIVE G.

64 CARBON MONOXIDE MOTOR GLIDER LEAKING EXHAUST CAN GIVE RISE TO :- HEADACHE FATIGUE SHORTNESS OF BREATH CONFUSION DIZZINESS AND FAINTING

65 CONCLUSION PHYSICAL & MENTAL STATE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN FLYING SAFELY KEEP A GOOD LOOK OUT MAINTAIN CURRENCY BE AWARE OF YOUR MENTAL ATTITUDE DO NOT GET DEHYDRATED AWARE OF HEIGHT NEEDING OXYGEN MINIMISE WORKLOAD DON’T FLY WITH A COLD BE AWARE OF EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

66 ENJOY YOUR FLYING


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