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What is a Euphemism? (Kristin) A neutral or positive expression instead of one that carries negative associations. A few examples: Correctional Facility.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Euphemism? (Kristin) A neutral or positive expression instead of one that carries negative associations. A few examples: Correctional Facility."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Euphemism? (Kristin) A neutral or positive expression instead of one that carries negative associations. A few examples: Correctional Facility – Prison Downsize/Laid Off – Fired Pleasantly Plump – Fat Passed Away – Died Pre-Owned – Used Euphemism's make something sound more appealing.

2 Dysphemisms Dysphemisms are the opposite of Euphemisms. These are used to produce a negative effect on a listener's or reader's attitude toward something to tone down the positive associations it may have. Examples: Cancer stick – Cigarette Snail Mail – Postal mail Pig – Policeman Worm food – Dead person

3 A Fun Video Example: Question for the class: Is this a good example of a euphemism, or dysphemism, or something else? What about this ?

4 Red Herring Logical Fallacy Something that is brought up in conversation that distracts from the original point, especially if the new topic is introduced in order to distract the person. *Fun Fact: Why is this called “Red Herring?” Because dragging a Red Herring across a trail will cause a dog to leave the original trail and follow the path of the herring. Example: “You forgot to lock the front door again!” Response: “You never listen to me.” Example in Politics: What is called the “October Surprise” is when something special happens or information is released just before the elections in November. The intent is to distract voters from more serious issues.

5 Smoke Screen Definition: An irrelevant topic or consideration introduced into a discussion to divert attention from the original issue. Topics introduced into the discussion are relevant to the topic but smoke screens tend to pile on issues or to make them extremely complicated until the original topic is lost in verbal “smoke.” *A smoke screen is designed to obscure, confuse or mislead

6 Innuendo (Steph) Innuendo Definition: using words with neutral or positive associations to insinuate something derogatory. A hint or insinuation. Allows for a person to say something about a person without actually saying it.

7 Examples of Innuendo “ Can the mayor be trusted? You be the judge." · This implies without stating that the mayor cannot be trusted. “ I heard they found him inside the bank at 2 a.m." · This implies that he was robbing or burglarizing the bank. Maybe he was actually the janitor.

8 A Video Example: Groucho Marx

9 Logical Fallacies: Argument from Popularity, Tradition, and Common Practice Argument from popularity (or appeal to popularity) · Urging someone to accept a claim (or falling prey to someone ’ s doing it to us) simply on the grounds that all or most or some substantial number of people believe it. · Substantial number of people not being authorities or experts. · Two kinds of argument from popularity: 1. Tradition 2. Common practice

10 1. Argument from tradition (or appeal to tradition) · Attempting to convince someone that a claim is true or that a practice is legitimate of the basis of tradition. · Tradition being an inherited, established, or customary pattern of thought, action, or behavior. 2. Argument from common practice (or appeal to common practice) · Justifying or defending an action or practice on the grounds that it is common. · Common being of or related to a community at large.

11 Differences between the two arguments from popularity Common practice – “ Everyone else is doing it ”, “ Everyone speeds, so I shouldn ’ t get a ticket. ” Tradition- “ It ’ s always been done this way ”

12 Wishful Thinking (Sara) Defined As: Accepting a claim because the individual wants or wishes for it to be true; or rejecting it because the individual wants or wishes that it weren’t true. Typically, Moral Subjective claims or beliefs, which is the idea that what is right or wrong is merely a matter of opinion, that thinking something is right or wrong makes it right or wrong for that individual. Often a belief by the individual, that if the individual will gain from their belief, then this “gain” is a sufficient reason to believe.


14 Wishful Thinking Wishful Thinking begins with an individuals belief in P, their belief in P can often be overestimated by their desire for it to be true. Often overlooking evidence that may suggest its falsity. Ex: “I stand to gain natural healing power through crystals.” “Hence, I should believe in crystal healing.” In all reality, the crystal is merely a pretty rock, whether or not it provides healing power is dependent on what the independent facts are, not what the individual believes or wishes to believe. Wishful thinking is never cogent in that it does not provide evidence for its conclusion.

15 Stereotypes Defined As: A generalization or assumption about all members of a group that is based on an image of those in the group. Such assumptions can/are developed by social norms that is often supported by a prejudice, which is an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought or reason. hawaii-asians_n_2410563.html

16 Stereotypes Stereotypes can also be categorized as Grouping Ambiguity's (Fallacy of Division or Composition)In such instances, stereotypes can be positive or negative. Ex: “All Asians are good at math.” Does not assess the “Asians” individual mathematical competency.However, stereotyping is not always a conscious reaction. Humans are constantly judging situations and people that surround them to make a decision whether the individual that is near them is a potential threat.

17 Rationalizing Defined As: When individuals use false pretense to satisfy their own need. When we offer a “better” or more acceptable reason for our actions, instead of the actual reason. Is also described as creating excuses for why we participate in certain activities.

18 Rational vs. Rationalizing Rational is comprised of an individuals ability to make or conclude to a sensible judgment. Ex: “ It’s chilly outside, I should bring a jacket tonight.” Rationalizing involves a confusion in thinking, allowing the individual to become subdued by the real intention of their action. Ex: “I’m going to learn Spanish so I can impress this girl I met.” -Eludes to the true motivation of why an individual does or says something.

19 Loaded Questions (Keith) Definition: A question that rests on one or more unwarranted or unjustified assumptions. Don’t use because they tend to be negative and come across as entrapment. Example 1: “Have you stopped beating your wife?” Tend to have an emotive and unspoken assumption.

20 Rhetorical Questions Definition: Figures of speech in the form of questions that are asked in order to make a point and without the expectation of a reply. Shouldn’t be used because they can simply persuade someone to believe in a position. Example 1: “Can’t you do anything right?” Example 2: "And how many deaths will it take till we know, that too many people have died?" Bob Dylan.

21 Two Wrongs Make a Right Definition: A pattern of fallacious reasoning. “It’s acceptable for A to do X to B because B would do X to A”, said where A’s doing X to B is not necessary to prevent B’s doing X to A. Not good to use because it attempts to change or distract from the issue. Example 1: Since my parents cheat on taxes, I can cheat on mine too.

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