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The Facts and Problems of Eating Disorders in Our Society and the Search to face it up Yadira Bonilla Cuevas INTD 3355, sec. 001 (M, J) Professor: Liz.

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Presentation on theme: "The Facts and Problems of Eating Disorders in Our Society and the Search to face it up Yadira Bonilla Cuevas INTD 3355, sec. 001 (M, J) Professor: Liz."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Facts and Problems of Eating Disorders in Our Society and the Search to face it up Yadira Bonilla Cuevas INTD 3355, sec. 001 (M, J) Professor: Liz Pagan

2 Introduction: Overview Eating disorders involve series disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feeling of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Eating disorders involve series disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feeling of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Eating disorders is related to obesity since they are part of a range of weight related problems. Eating disorders is related to obesity since they are part of a range of weight related problems.

3 Introduction (Terminology) These problems include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviors, unhealthy dieting practices, binge eating disorder and obesity. These problems include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviors, unhealthy dieting practices, binge eating disorder and obesity. Anorexia nervosa is self starvation; in which preoccupation with dieting and thinness leads to excessive weight loss. Anorexia nervosa is self starvation; in which preoccupation with dieting and thinness leads to excessive weight loss. Bulimia nervosa is the recurrent episodes of binge eating an excessive amount of food within a discrete period of time and by a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode. Bulimia nervosa is the recurrent episodes of binge eating an excessive amount of food within a discrete period of time and by a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode.

4 Cont. Introduction: Terminology Binge eating disorder is ingesting an unusually large amount of food very fast while feeling out of control over the eating episode. Binge eating disorder is ingesting an unusually large amount of food very fast while feeling out of control over the eating episode. Anorexic and bulimic are undue influence of body weight or shape on seld evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight; self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or others; fasting; excessive exercise. Anorexic and bulimic behaviors are undue influence of body weight or shape on seld evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight; self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or others; fasting; excessive exercise. Obesity means having an abnormally high proportion of body fat. Obesity means having an abnormally high proportion of body fat. Unhealthy dieting practices is such as restrictive dieting. Unhealthy dieting practices is such as restrictive dieting.

5 Eating Disorders Eating is controlled by many factors, including appetite, food availability, family, peer, and cultural practices, and attempts at voluntary control. Eating is controlled by many factors, including appetite, food availability, family, peer, and cultural practices, and attempts at voluntary control.

6 Cont. Eating Disorders Eating Disorders are serious and complex emotional and physical addictions. Eating Disorders are serious and complex emotional and physical addictions. Without treatment eating disorders lead to mood swings, physical problems, and potential death. Without treatment eating disorders lead to mood swings, physical problems, and potential death. Include a range of conditions that involve an obsession with food, weight and appearance to the degree that a person's heath, relationships and daily activities are adversely affected. Include a range of conditions that involve an obsession with food, weight and appearance to the degree that a person's heath, relationships and daily activities are adversely affected. Are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. Are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.

7 Eating Disorders Biological Risk Factors a. Eating Specific Factors (direct risk factors): _ Eating specific generic risk _ Eating specific generic risk _ Physiognomy and body weight _ Physiognomy and body weight _ Appetite regulation _ Appetite regulation _ Energy metabolism _ Energy metabolism _ Gender _ Gender b. Generalized Factors (indirect risk factors): _ Genetic risk for associated disturbances _ Genetic risk for associated disturbances _ Temperament _ Temperament _ Impulsivity _ Impulsivity _ Neurobiology _ Neurobiology _ Gender _ Gender

8 Eating Disorders Psychological Risk Factors a. Eating Specific Factors (direct risk factors): _ Poor body image _ Poor body image _ Maladaptive eating attitudes _ Maladaptive eating attitudes _ Maladaptive weight beliefs _ Maladaptive weight beliefs _ Specific values or meanings assigned to food and body _ Specific values or meanings assigned to food and body _ Overvaluation of appearance _ Overvaluation of appearance b. Generalized Factors (indirect risk factors): _ Poor self image _ Poor self image _ Inadequate coping mechanisms _ Inadequate coping mechanisms _ Self regulation problems _ Self regulation problems _ Unresolved conflicts, deficits, posttraumatic reactions _ Unresolved conflicts, deficits, posttraumatic reactions _ Identity problems _ Identity problems _ Autonomy problems _ Autonomy problems

9 Eating Disorders Developmental Risk Factors a. \Eating Specific Factors (direct risk factors): _ Identifications with body concerned relatives, or _ Identifications with body concerned relatives, or peers peers _ Aversive mealtime experience _ Aversive mealtime experience _ Trauma affecting bodily experience _ Trauma affecting bodily experience b. Generalized Factors (indirect risk factors): _ Overprotection _ Overprotection _ Neglect _ Neglect _ Felt rejection, criticism _ Felt rejection, criticism _ Traumata _ Traumata _ Object relationships (interpersonal experience) _ Object relationships (interpersonal experience)

10 Eating Disorders Social Risk Factors a. Eating Specific Factors (direct risk factors): _ Maladaptive family attitudes to eating and weight _ Maladaptive family attitudes to eating and weight _ Peer group weight concerns _ Peer group weight concerns _ Pressures to be thin _ Pressures to be thin _ Body relevant insults and teasing _ Body relevant insults and teasing _ Specific pressures to control weight (through ballet, athletic, _ Specific pressures to control weight (through ballet, athletic, pursuits) pursuits) _ Maladaptive cultural values assigned to body _ Maladaptive cultural values assigned to body b. Generalized Factors (indirect risk factors): _ Family dysfunction _ Family dysfunction _ Aversive peer experiences _ Aversive peer experiences _ Social values detrimental to stable, positive self image _ Social values detrimental to stable, positive self image _ Values assigned to gender _ Values assigned to gender _ Social isolation _ Social isolation _ Poor support network _ Poor support network _ Impediments to means of self definition _ Impediments to means of self definition

11 Eating Disorders Obesity Risks High blood pressure Stroke Cardiovascular disease Gallbladder disease Diabetes Respiratory problems Arthritis Cancer Emotional problems such as depression and anxiety

12 Eating Disorders Overall Health Risks Factors Stunted growth Stunted growth Delayed menstruation Delayed menstruation Damage to vital organs such as the heart and brain Damage to vital organs such as the heart and brain Nutritional deficiencies, including starvation Nutritional deficiencies, including starvation Cardiac arrest Cardiac arrest Emotional problems such as deppression and anxiety Emotional problems such as deppression and anxiety

13 Signs and Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to sustain a minimally normal body weight Refusal to sustain a minimally normal body weight Intense fear of gaining weight, despite being underweight Intense fear of gaining weight, despite being underweight Distorted view of one’s body or weight, or denial of the dangers of one’s low weight. Distorted view of one’s body or weight, or denial of the dangers of one’s low weight.

14 Anorexia nervosa medical consequences Anorexia nervosa starves the body of the essential nutrients it needs to function. In an effort to conserve energy and the small amount of nutrients available, the body's processes will slow down. This "slowing down” can have grave medical consequences, including: Anorexia nervosa starves the body of the essential nutrients it needs to function. In an effort to conserve energy and the small amount of nutrients available, the body's processes will slow down. This "slowing down” can have grave medical consequences, including: An abnormally low blood pressure and slow heart rate caused by weakening heart muscles. This increases the risk for heart failure. An abnormally low blood pressure and slow heart rate caused by weakening heart muscles. This increases the risk for heart failure. Muscle loss and weakness, Muscle loss and weakness, Osteoporosis. Reduced bone density causing dry and brittle bones prone to breakage. Osteoporosis. Reduced bone density causing dry and brittle bones prone to breakage.

15 Cont. Anorexia nervosa medical consequences Severe dehydration, which may result in kidney failure. Severe dehydration, which may result in kidney failure. Fatigue, fainting spells and weakness. Fatigue, fainting spells and weakness. Lanugos, a downy layer of hair that appears all over the body including the face in an effort to keep the body warm. Lanugos, a downy layer of hair that appears all over the body including the face in an effort to keep the body warm. Dry skin and hair. Dry skin and hair. Hair loss. Hair loss.

16 Anorexia Treatment Treatment of anorexia calls for a specific program that involves three main phases: Treatment of anorexia calls for a specific program that involves three main phases: Restoring weight lost to severe dieting and purging Restoring weight lost to severe dieting and purging After restoring weight lost psychotropic medication is used. After restoring weight lost psychotropic medication is used. Treatment of psychological disturbances such as distortion of body image, low self esteem, and interpersonal conflicts Treatment of psychological disturbances such as distortion of body image, low self esteem, and interpersonal conflicts Achieving long term remission and rehabilitation, or full recovery Achieving long term remission and rehabilitation, or full recovery

17 Signs and Symptoms of Bulimia Episodic binge eating that may occur as often as several times a day. Episodic binge eating that may occur as often as several times a day. Self induce vomiting Self induce vomiting Fluctuation of weight; the weight will usually stays within normal range because of the use of diuretics, laxatives, vomiting, and exercise. Fluctuation of weight; the weight will usually stays within normal range because of the use of diuretics, laxatives, vomiting, and exercise. Hyperactivity, peculiar eating habits or rituals, frequent weighing Hyperactivity, peculiar eating habits or rituals, frequent weighing Person always perceive herself with distorted body image Person always perceive herself with distorted body image

18 Bulimia Treatment The primary goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate binge eating and purging behavior: The primary goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate binge eating and purging behavior: Nutritional rehabilitation, psychological intervention, and medication management strategies. Nutritional rehabilitation, psychological intervention, and medication management strategies. Establishing a pattern of regular, non binge meals. Establishing a pattern of regular, non binge meals. Improvement of attitudes related to the eating disorder. Improvement of attitudes related to the eating disorder. Encouragement of healthy but not excessive exercise. Encouragement of healthy but not excessive exercise. Resolution of co-occurring conditions such as mood or anxiety disorders. Resolution of co-occurring conditions such as mood or anxiety disorders. Individual psychotherapy. Individual psychotherapy. Group psychotherapy. Group psychotherapy.

19 Signs and Symptoms of Binge Eating "Rapid weight gain "Rapid weight gain Eating large quantities of food even when not hungry Eating large quantities of food even when not hungry Disgust and shame after overeating Disgust and shame after overeating Depressed and anxious mood Depressed and anxious mood Eating food to the point that one is uncomfortable and even in pain Eating food to the point that one is uncomfortable and even in pain Going from one diet to the next constantly Going from one diet to the next constantly Feeling out of control over food Feeling out of control over food

20 Cont. Sign and Symptoms of Binge Eating Eating late at night Eating late at night Hiding food around the home, anticipating the binge Hiding food around the home, anticipating the binge Does not use any measures (whatsoever) to purge the binged food Does not use any measures (whatsoever) to purge the binged food Constant weight fluctuations Constant weight fluctuations Sexual avoidance Sexual avoidance Exhibits an abnormally low self-esteem Exhibits an abnormally low self-esteem Attributes any successes or failures to weight Attributes any successes or failures to weight Avoids many social situations Avoids many social situations

21 Binge Eating Treatment Most people requiring binge eating treatment tend to binge on foods high in sugar and refined flour. One of the first steps in treatment is detox. Most people requiring binge eating treatment tend to binge on foods high in sugar and refined flour. One of the first steps in treatment is detox. Most people will experience significant mood swings when discontinuing their binge foods. A physician can prescribe detox medications to help those suffering with extreme discomfort during this process. Most people will experience significant mood swings when discontinuing their binge foods. A physician can prescribe detox medications to help those suffering with extreme discomfort during this process. When detox is complete, individualized treatment begins with a nutritionist who designs a healthy eating plan for each person needing binge eating treatment. When detox is complete, individualized treatment begins with a nutritionist who designs a healthy eating plan for each person needing binge eating treatment. After the plan is implemented each patient will begin to participate in a variety of clinical activities focused on addressing the root causes of their binge eating. After the plan is implemented each patient will begin to participate in a variety of clinical activities focused on addressing the root causes of their binge eating.

22 Facts Founds: Eating Disorders 80% of women who answered a People magazine survey responded that images of women on television and in the movies make them feel insecure. 80% of women who answered a People magazine survey responded that images of women on television and in the movies make them feel insecure. A study asked children to assign attractiveness values to pictures of children with various disabilities. The participants rated the obese child less attractive than a child in a wheelchair, a child with a facial deformity and, a child with a missing limb. A study asked children to assign attractiveness values to pictures of children with various disabilities. The participants rated the obese child less attractive than a child in a wheelchair, a child with a facial deformity and, a child with a missing limb. The average US woman is 5’4” and weighs 140 pounds. In contrast, the average US model is 5’11” and weighs 117 pounds. The average US woman is 5’4” and weighs 140 pounds. In contrast, the average US model is 5’11” and weighs 117 pounds.

23 Cont. Facts Founds: Eating Disorders A study found that adolescent girls were more fearful of gaining weight than getting cancer, nuclear war or losing their parents. A study found that adolescent girls were more fearful of gaining weight than getting cancer, nuclear war or losing their parents. Bulimia can cause damage to the reproductive system, kidney failure, cardiac arrest, and ulcers of the intestinal tract. Bulimia can cause damage to the reproductive system, kidney failure, cardiac arrest, and ulcers of the intestinal tract. Many people with eating disorders are addicted to exercise. Many people with eating disorders are addicted to exercise. The average lifetime duration of anorexia was 1.7 years, compared to 8.3 years for bulimia and 8.1 years for binge eating disorder. The average lifetime duration of anorexia was 1.7 years, compared to 8.3 years for bulimia and 8.1 years for binge eating disorder.

24 Cont. Facts Founds: Eating Disorders

25 Searching and methods used Searching about eating disorders was done in different ways: Searching about eating disorders was done in different ways:  Searching through the internet:  Agencies  Arbitrates magazines  Books  Popular magazines  Searching through the library catalog:  After searching through it looking for the resource in the library through books, magazines, thesis and periodicals:  At circulation area  At Reserve area  At computer area

26 Conclusion: Overview Eating disorders are potentially life threatening, resulting in death for as many as 10% of those who develop them. Eating disorders are potentially life threatening, resulting in death for as many as 10% of those who develop them. They can also cause considerably psychological distress and major physical complications. They can also cause considerably psychological distress and major physical complications. Important relationships are eroded as the eating disorder takes up time and energy, brings about self absorption, and impairs self esteem. Treatment should be initiated as quickly as possible, focus upon immediate distress experienced by the individual, and aim to help the patient and family become powerful enough to overcome the eating disorder. Important relationships are eroded as the eating disorder takes up time and energy, brings about self absorption, and impairs self esteem. Treatment should be initiated as quickly as possible, focus upon immediate distress experienced by the individual, and aim to help the patient and family become powerful enough to overcome the eating disorder.

27 Conclusion: Suggestions for recovery to people that suffer Eating Disorders Make sure you are medically stable and consult a doctor. Make sure you are medically stable and consult a doctor. Get support: a counselor and nutritionist (both trained eating disorders specialist), and eating disorders support group's. Get support: a counselor and nutritionist (both trained eating disorders specialist), and eating disorders support group's. Try new ways of thinking: Try new ways of thinking:  Focus on solutions to your issues.  Focus on what is working.  Take responsibility for your choices.  Keep being honest.  Express your feelings safely.  Notice what is right and whaty is good in your world.  Treat yourself as if you are your best friend.  Confront ill attitudes and behaviors in your self.

28 Cont. Conclusion: Suggestions for recovery to people that suffer Eating Disorders Try new behaviors: Try new behaviors:  Make a list of what your eating disorder does for you, and come up with alternatives that deliver the same result.  When feeling down or uncomfortable, ask: “What would you be doing if you felt better?” and then do it.  Talk about your mistakes and what you want to do differently next time.  Explore new ways to communicate and set boundaries, you will be taking: this would be taking care of yourself and self esteem will benefit.

29 Conclusion: Difficulty to find information It was not too difficult to find information about this topic cause is one of the biggest problems that overlays in our society and around the world. It was not too difficult to find information about this topic cause is one of the biggest problems that overlays in our society and around the world.

30 References Arenson, Gloria (2nd Ed.). (1989). A substance called food: how to understand, control and recover from addictive eating. Bradenton, Florida: Human Resources Institute. Arenson, Gloria (2nd Ed.). (1989). A substance called food: how to understand, control and recover from addictive eating. Bradenton, Florida: Human Resources Institute. Williamson, Donald A. (Ed.). (1990). Assessment of eating disorders: obesity, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa. New York: Pergamon Press. Williamson, Donald A. (Ed.). (1990). Assessment of eating disorders: obesity, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa. New York: Pergamon Press. Sherry, Clifford J. (Ed.). (1994). Drugs and eating disorders. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. Sherry, Clifford J. (Ed.). (1994). Drugs and eating disorders. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

31 Cont. References Kubersky, Rachel (1996). Everything you need to know about eating disorders: anorexia and bulimia (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. Kubersky, Rachel (1996). Everything you need to know about eating disorders: anorexia and bulimia (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. Joos, Andrea A.B., MD, Cabrillac, Emmanuelle, MD, Armin Hartmann, PhD, Wirsching, Michael, MD, Zeeck, Almut, MD. (2008). Emotional Perception of Eating Disorders [Electronic Version] International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, Joos, Andrea A.B., MD, Cabrillac, Emmanuelle, MD, Armin Hartmann, PhD, Wirsching, Michael, MD, Zeeck, Almut, MD. (2008). Emotional Perception of Eating Disorders [Electronic Version] International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, Berkman, Nancy D. (2006, April). Management of eating disorders. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieve May 4, 2009, from Berkman, Nancy D. (2006, April). Management of eating disorders. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieve May 4, 2009, from

32 Cont. References Warren, Fiona, Saman, Sajdah, Dolan, Bridget, Norton, Kignsley, and Evans, Chris. (2006). Eating Disturbance and Severe Personality Disorder: Outcome of Specialist Treatment for Severe Personality Disorder. European Eating Disorders Review. Retrieve May 4, 2009, from Warren, Fiona, Saman, Sajdah, Dolan, Bridget, Norton, Kignsley, and Evans, Chris. (2006). Eating Disturbance and Severe Personality Disorder: Outcome of Specialist Treatment for Severe Personality Disorder. European Eating Disorders Review. Retrieve May 4, 2009, from stract stract  National Women’s Health Resource Center. (2008). Eating Disorders. Prevention. Retrieved from disorders/NW180/health disorders/NW180/health disorders/NW180/health

33 Cont. References International Eating Disorder Referral Organization. Eating Disorders Referral and Information Center: Consequences of Eating Disorders. Retrieved from International Eating Disorder Referral Organization. Eating Disorders Referral and Information Center: Consequences of Eating Disorders. Retrieved from  Ellin, Abby. (2009, February 26). Eating disorders, Diet, Parents & parenting, Children & youth, Anxieties, Nutrition. The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2009, from


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