Presentation on theme: " Besides views of slavery, economies of Northern & Southern states differed drastically. Both sides had small farms, but Northern states developed."— Presentation transcript:
Besides views of slavery, economies of Northern & Southern states differed drastically. Both sides had small farms, but Northern states developed and relied on industry & commerce. Southern states relied on slave labor and plantation-sized farms.
As Northern cities grew, immigrants were led to northern factories for work. Immigrants not paid well, but are paid. Some Northerners want slavery abolished (ended) -- viewed it as immoral. Factory workers want slavery abolished; feared owners would use slave labor if workers became too expensive.
Southern economy was based on farming. Small percentage of wealthy landowners dominated profits of South. Wealthy southern landowners made money from: Hard work of slaves Cash crop trade Most Southern farmers: Were poor Couldn’t afford/didn’t own slaves ▪ Still supported slavery because of feeling of superiority Some resented those rich plantation owners
Debate over slavery led to following excuses used for justifying it: Whites were superior to African Americans. Slavery helped introduce Christianity to more “lost souls”. Slavery was an improvement over their lives in Africa. Slaves were fed and clothed better as slaves than as freed men in Africa.
1. What did Northern states rely on for money (what was their economy based on)? 2. What was the Southern states economy based on (how did they make their money)? 3. Why did factory workers in North want slavery abolished (ended)? 4. How did plantation owners make their profits (2 answers)? 5. List one of the excuses southern whites used to justify the existence of slavery.
Arguments over slavery continue as new states are added to U.S. Maintaining balance in Congress between Slave and Non-slave states was vital. Wilmot Proviso is proposed to Congress stating: Slavery should be outlawed in ANY new territory acquired by U.S. Proviso is unanimously rejected by Southern states. California applies for statehood as free state; balance of Congress is threatened.
With possible admission of California as free state creating tension, Compromise of 1850 is passed. Compromise states: California allowed as free state & slavery in Washington D.C. abolished. (North) Congress wouldn’t pass anti-slave laws in new southwest territories & also pass stronger slave laws to help slaveholders. (South) Compromise soothes tensions… temporarily.
One of the stronger slave laws passed by Congress was the Fugitive Slave Act. Under this law: Fugitive slaves could be jailed without trial. Federal Commissioner ruled on slave case; paid $5 for freeing slave, $10 for sending slave back. Northerners expected to help in capturing runaway slaves. Southern slave catchers permitted to roam northern states looking for runaways (often took freed African-Americans too).
Fugitive Slave Act creates more tension between North & South. Southerners complain about Northerners not being punished for refusing to follow law. Some Northerners complain about being forced to follow law they morally disagree with. During tension of slave act, Harriett Beecher Stowe writes a novel titled “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”. Novel portrays slavery for what it is: cruel and immoral. Book is wildly popular in North; Southern slave owners argued it portrayed slavery unfairly.
1. What bill is proposed to Congress stating that slavery should be outlawed in ANY new territory? 2. What state is admitted in as a free state under the Compromise of 1850? 3. Under the Fugitive Slave Act, how much were federal commissioner's paid for freeing a slave? How much for sending a slave back to owners? 4. What was the South’s complaint about the Fugitive Slave act? 5. Who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin?
As tensions worsen, Sen. Stephen Douglas (R – IL) sends bill to Congress to organize Nebraska Territory. Goal of bill was to separate the territory into Kansas & Nebraska. Popular sovereignty is suggested to help determine if territories will become free states or slave states. 5,000 residents of Missouri cross border for election in March 1855, voting Kansas a pro-slave state. Voting results showed more votes cast than total population, but election results stood.
Violence erupts in Kansas as anti-slave settlers reject election results. Lawrence, KS (antislavery town) is looted (burned/vandalized) by pro-slave settlers. In retaliation, John Brown (extreme abolitionist) and 7 other men mutilate 5 proslavery settlers at Potawatomie Creek. Attack sparks violence in Kansas; nearly 200 people are killed in Kansas over 3 yr. period following election. Kansas earns nickname of “Bleeding Kansas” due to spread of violence.
In May 1856, Sen. Charles Sumner spoke out against proslavery settlers in Kansas. During his speech, Sumner insulted Sen. Andrew P. Butler (pro-slave) of South Carolina. Rep. Preston Brooks (Butler’s cousin) hears of the speech and the insult given.
Brooks walks into the Senate chambers; beats Sen. Sumner over the head with his cane repeatedly until unconscious. Sumner was disabled for years following the attack. Brooks was arrested, found not guilty, and allowed to resume House duties 2 months following attack.
1. What was held to decide if Kansas would be a free state or slave state? 2. Who led the massacre at Potawatomie Creek? 3. What nickname was given to Kansas following the fighting that took place there? 4. Who was beaten in the Senate Chambers for a speech he gave?
As slavery debate intensifies, political parties are created based around views on slavery. Members of the Whig party (original political party of U.S.), break away and create new party called Republican Party. Nominate John Fremont for President in 1856, but lose due to party being unknown.
In 1857, U.S. Supreme Court (which had been silent of slavery issue) gets 1 st opportunity to rule on slavery. Dred Scott, a former slave, was suing for his freedom. Dred Scott v. Sandford argues the following Constitutional issues were unresolved: Was Scott a LEGAL U.S. citizen? Did Scott earn freedom by living in free territory? Does Congress/U.S. gov’t have power to limit slavery anywhere?
Dred Scott’s argument: Emerson family moved north to parts of MN, IL, & WI for 4 years. By living in free territory, Scott argues he earned his freedom. Family moves back to Missouri in 1838. John Emerson dies soon after move and Scott sues for freedom. He wins suit against widow for his freedom in Circuit Court. Overturned by MO Supreme Court; sent to U.S. Supreme Court for final decision.
Supreme Court’s decision, read by Judge Roger Taney: Scott was NOT a U.S. citizen, so couldn’t legally sue for something he doesn’t have (freedom). Scott was to remain a slave because he had lived & was purchased in Missouri (slave state). Slavery could/should NOT be limited anywhere because it infringed on slaveholder’s property rights (5 th Amendment).
Court’s decision outraged northern states (some refused to comply with ruling of allowing slavery anywhere). Southern states rejoiced knowing that slavery was legally protected by the Constitution.
1. What political party was created after the Whig party broke apart? 2. Do you agree with the Supreme Court’s decision, yes or no? Support your answer with facts from the notes (3-4 sentences min.)
As nation moves closer to conflict over slavery, a Senate race in Illinois captures nations’ attention. Stephen Douglas goes head-to-head with Abraham Lincoln for IL Senate seat. Douglas was incumbent Many expected winner of election to be next President. Douglas wins re-election for Senate; Lincoln wins respect of Republican party (nominate him for 1860 Presidential Election).
In 1859, John Brown (Bleeding Kansas fame) plans a raid on the town of Harper’s Ferry, VA. Hopes to capture the U.S. Army arsenal Use the weapons to incite a slave rebellion in south On October 16, Brown and 18 others capture the arsenal. They’re quickly surrounded by U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee. Some of Brown’s men escape but most are either killed/captured, including Brown himself.
John Brown is tried in court; found guilty of treason & murder; sentenced to death. The day John Brown is executed: Northern abolitionists ring bells and fire guns in salute. Southerners celebrate the death of a terrorist determined to end slavery.
With the nation breaking apart, 1860 Presidential election was more important than usual. Election of 1860 consisted of 4 candidates: Stephen Douglas (Democrat) John Breckinridge (S. Democrat) Abraham Lincoln (Republican) John Bell (Constitutional Union)
Election becomes two races between Northern & Southern states. Lincoln & Douglas battle for North Bell & Breckinridge battle for South Lincoln wins election with only 40% of popular vote. Voting results show divide among country on slavery; Despite promise to not abolish slavery, Southerners don’t vote for Lincoln; his name is never shown on ballots.
Before election happens, southern states warn they would secede if Lincoln was elected. After election, southern states discuss secession; claim state’s rights were violated. Argued that states have certain rights Fed. Gov’t can’t control. If states had voluntarily joined union, they can voluntarily leave.
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina is first state to secede from the union. Within weeks, 6 other states joined South Carolina (AL, MS, FL, GA, LA, & TX). Seceded states meet; new gov’t called Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis was chosen to lead the new “country”. Even adopt Constitution similar to existing one.
President James Buchannan argues against secession; does nothing to try and keep country together. In his inauguration speech, President Lincoln: Spoke out against secession. Tried to reassure South he wouldn’t abolish slavery. Stated he didn’t want to invade Southern states, but wouldn’t abandon federal property in the south.
1. Who captured the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA? 2. Who was the Republican candidate for the Presidential Election of 1860? 3. Who won the Presidential Election of 1860? 4. What state was the first to secede from the United States? 5. Who was placed in charge of the Confederate States of America?
4 states (MO, KY, MD, DE) still undecided about seceding or pledging allegiance to Union. Losing all 4 would be catastrophic for North – each had strategic military positions for Northern military.
Lincoln, careful not to upset Border States, takes action. Suspends Habeas Corpus of those living in the Border States. Arrests those who openly supported secession in those states. Lincoln’s approach works; all four states stay in the union. Thousands move south & join Confederate army.
Strengths: Larger population. More industries/railroads to support war. A better banking system. A strong navy. Weaknesses: Fought war in South. Northern public opinion split over war. Some Northerners believed South had good chance of winning.
Strengths: Unified support of population. Fighting in their homeland. Better military leadership. Stronger economy to support war. Fighting for independence. Weaknesses: Lack of resources/industries/railroads. Smaller population. No navy. State’s Rights
Main goal(s): Win the war. Bring Southern states back into Union. Strategies for Northern army: Blockade the Southern states. Take control of the Mississippi river. Take Richmond (Confederate capital).
Main goal(s): Win the war. Be recognized as independent nation. Strategies for Southern army: Use knowledge of territory to help in a defensive war. South expected Britain and France to pressure North to end war so cotton trade would continue.
1. Which states were undecided about seceding from the United States (4 total)? 2. What were 2 strengths of the Northern side heading into the war? 3. What were 2 strengths of the Southern side heading into the war? 4. What were the 3 strategies the North planned on using to win the war? 5. What were 2 strategies the South planned on using to win the war?
President Lincoln receives a letter from Fort Sumter (S.C.) stating the fort is running out of supplies. President Lincoln writes Confederate leaders informing them of supply ships heading to Fort Sumter. States he has no intention of attacking, just re-supplying the fort. Confederate leaders decide to attack, knowing re-supplied fort would be difficult to capture.
The Confederate army opens fire on the fort on April 12, 1861. The fort is shelled for 34 continuous hours. Fort surrenders. Gives Confederates their first victory. No one was killed in the battle, but the war officially begins, w/ Confederacy firing first shots. Two days after the battle, President Lincoln asks for 75,000 militia be enlisted to the Union army.
Union leaders looked to defeat Confederate forces at Manassas, Virginia (close to Washington D.C.). Northerners thought that if Confederates lost at Bull Run, they’d quickly move to Richmond and end the war. July 16, 1861, both sides clash near a creek called Bull Run. Hundreds of spectators also attended to witness the battle. The Union, led by Gen. Irvin McDowell push back the Confederates, led by Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard.
The battle seemed to be nearly over until Confederate counter-attack. Led by Gen. Thomas Jackson & defeated the Union. Gen. Jackson earns nickname “Stonewall” during battle. During the counter-attack, Rebel soldiers were have said to let out a blood-curdling scream Later nicknamed a “Rebel Yell”. Frightened, confused Union soldiers quickly retreat, along with spectators that came to watch.
Casualties (wounded & dead) of the battle: The Union suffered 2,700 The Confederacy suffered 2,000. Both sides learn that this war will: Be bloody. Take longer than expected. Be fought fiercely by South. President Lincoln calls for: Additional troops Gen. George McClellan to lead Union army.
1. What state was Fort Sumter located in, making it difficult for President Lincoln to resupply? 2. Why did the Confederacy attack Fort Sumter? 3. Who won the battle of Fort Sumter? 4. What town did the Battle of Bull Run take place? 5. Who won the Battle of Bull Run?
Once the war begins, civilians on both sides rush to enlist in army. Most who fight in this war have NEVER been in the military, let alone fighting a war. The average age of soldiers who fought in this war was between 18-30 yrs. old. African Americans wanted to fight in the war but were denied admission by both North & South armies.
Soldiers in Northern army received navy blue uniforms and weapons. Quality of both was poor due to suppliers often providing sub- standard goods. Soldiers in Southern army were given gray uniforms and weapons when supplies were available. Some Southern soldiers lacking shoes or other supplies would often take from other dead soldiers following a battle.
WWhile military technology improved, the quality of life in military camps was horrible. SSoldiers would go weeks without bathing or washing their clothes. CCamps often smelled from odors from latrines (bathrooms) and garbage just laying around the camp. CClothes, bedding, and bodies became infected with lice and fleas. DDiseases spread quickly and easily due to poor hygiene.
Primitive medical practices were used, often leading to spread of disease and more casualties than necessary. Doctors performing surgeries didn’t wash hands very often, if at all. Utensils used for surgery were only washed/sanitized occasionally leading to spread of disease and increase in deaths.
Prison camps during the war were just as bad as military camps. Prisoners often died of sickness, starvation, or disease. Due to lack of shelter, prisoners were also exposed to severe weather or heat causing more deaths.
Abolitionists begin pressuring Union gov’t to act on the issue of slavery. President Lincoln resisted acting on slavery for two reasons: Didn’t believe he had Constitutional power to abolish slavery in every state. Didn’t want to upset border states and send them to Confederacy. As war dragged on, Lincoln began favoring emancipation. Not wanting to seem desperate, Lincoln was waiting for Union army to win a battle.
Following the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln saw his opportunity. On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. The Proclamation declared all slaves in Confederate-held territory were now freed. Union troops posted fliers about the Proclamation throughout the Southern states they were fighting in. While the Proclamation made an impact on the public, it freed few slaves. Most slaves lived in Confederate territory; southern states ignore order given from President Lincoln.
Lincoln was criticized for not freeing ALL slaves. Because freeing slaves could weaken southern states, it was seen as a military action, not unconstitutional. The Emancipation Proclamation creates chances for African-Americans to join the Union army. By the end of the war 180,000 African-Americans enlist in the Union army. White southerners are outraged by Proclamation because it causes an increase of slave runaways.
166 all-black regiments are created; all were led by white officers. Black union soldiers are: Paid less than white soldiers. Left out of fighting in major battles. Usually given grunt work (building camps, cooking food, etc.). Most white officers/soldiers change their racist views of black soldiers after fighting side-by-side with them.
One of the first all-black regiments created was the Massachusetts 54 th. Led by Col. Robert Gould Shaw, a known abolitionist, the 54 th led the Union army into battle at Ft. Wagner, SC Highest honor for a military regiment. All black soldiers faced risks while fighting for the Union. If captured black soldiers were warned that: They would be executed. They would be sent back to plantations as slaves.
1. What was the average age of soldiers who fought in the war? 2. What minority wanted to fight in the war, but were denied admission? 3. What color uniforms did Union soldiers wear? What color for the Confederate troops (if available)? 4. What did doctors unknowingly spread by not washing/sanitizing their hands and utensils? 5. What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? 6. Why did the Emancipation Proclamation free very few slaves? 7. What were African-Americans allowed to enlist in following the Emancipation Proclamation? 8. What is significant about the Mass. 54 th ? Who led this regiment?
After victories at Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg, Gen. Lee (C) decides to invade northern states. Late June 1863, Lee crosses into southern Pennsylvania into a small town called Gettysburg. His troops begin rummaging through the town looking for supplies (shoes) when Union army discovers them. Both sides called for reinforcements; they arrive on July 1, 1863 and the Battle of Gettysburg began.
The Union army quickly took position on top of a hill called Cemetery Ridge. The Confederate army spent the next two days trying to take the hill from the Union army. On July 3, the Confederacy sent a regiment of troops to attack the middle of the Union lines. 15,000 troops, led by Gen. George Pickett, marched through the open field. The attack, Pickett’s Charge, was a failure as the entire regiment was killed.
The Confederacy waited for a Union counterattack that never came. Gen. George Meade (U), decided to wait to attack Lee’s weakened forces. Due to his failure to take out Lee’s army, Meade is fired by President Lincoln a week after the battle. The South, defeated and wounded, retreated back to Virginia. The Union suffered 23,000 casualties in the battle (1/4 of their army) while the Confederacy suffered 28,000 casualties (1/3 of their army).
1. What were the Confederate troops looking for when they were discovered in Gettysburg? 2. Why did the Confederates want to take the hill from Union control? 3. What was the name of the charge that wiped out an entire regiment? 4. How many casualties for the Union? How many for the Confederacy? 5. Why was Gen. Meade fired following the Battle of Gettysburg?
While the Battle of Gettysburg was ending in Pennsylvania, Gen. Grant (U) was busy winning in Vicksburg. Gen. Grant had surrounded the city of Vicksburg, cutting off all supply routes in/out of city. Confederate troops and civilians endure a month and a half of shelling before surrendering due to lack of supplies. The Union now had complete control of the Mississippi River as Grant began to move east towards Richmond.
As he headed east, President Lincoln sent word to Gen. Grant that he had been promoted to head of Union army. In March 1864, Grant coordinates Union attack on Confederate forces: Grant would focus on defeating Gen. Lee. Gen. William Sherman would focus on fighting in Deep South, further dividing southern states. Heading south from Tenn., Sherman reaches Atlanta, GA in Sept. 1864. After winning in Atlanta, Sherman set out to end the war for good.
SSherman begins his “March to the Sea” from Atlanta after he burned the city down. HHis “march” included: AA path of destruction that totaled 300 miles from Atlanta to Savannah. TThe path was 60 miles wide. BBrought “total war” to the southern states. ““Total War” was Sherman’s way of living off the land. AAny supplies his troops needed, they took while destroying everything else. CCattle, crops, etc. were either killed/destroyed. RRailroads were disabled with Sherman leaving his “bow ties” as a reminder of where he’d been.
While Sherman was destroying Georgia, Gen. Grant was pursuing Gen. Lee throughout Virginia. Grant and Lee fought 4 different times (Spotsylvania, Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Petersburg) during Grant’s Virginia campaign. Every battle Grant fought, he left the battlefield with staggering losses, but so did the Confederacy. Grant knew he could replace fallen soldiers and that Lee couldn’t. Grant’s soldier would often pin their name/address on back of jackets for ID later (birth of dog tags). It took Grant a year to finally corner Gen. Lee and force his surrender.
In April 1, 1865, Lee knew he was cornered and sent word to Richmond for Confederate gov’t to flee city. Confederate leaders leave the next day (April 2 nd ), burning most of the city to the ground. Most Confederate gov’t leaders go into hiding, hoping to avoid arrest. When the Union army arrived on April 3 rd, most of the city was still in flames.
On April 9, 1865, Gen. Lee sent a message to Gen. Grant informing him of his surrender; the war was over. Both sides met at Appomattox Court House in Virginia to discuss the terms of surrender. Grant’s terms were generous: Con. Soldiers were free to leave w/ private possessions once they laid down their weapons. Grant also issued 3 days worth of rations for soldiers to use to get home.
With the war over, the loss of human life was staggering: Union casualties for war totaled 360,000. Confederate casualties totaled 260,000. Over 600,000 men (combined) died throughout this 4 ½ year conflict. The southern states lay in ruin, both sides were dealing with struggling economies due to amount of money spent on war.
1. What victory by Gen. Grant gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River? 2. What is “total war”? Who used this tactic? 3. How did Sherman’s “bowties” ruin railroads? 4. What did Gen. Grant’s soldiers often wear before going into battle? 5. What city was burnt to the ground? 6. What happened at Appomattox Court House? 7. How many people (combined) were killed in the Civil War?