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PSYCHOLOGY 3e Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Modified by Jackie Kroening
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 ***Unique and stable ways people think, feel, and behave ersonality
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Theories of Personality Temperament Character Value judgments of morality and ethics Enduring characteristics each person is born with
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Trait Four Main Perspectives
The Man and the Couch: Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Freud and Psychoanalysis Founder, psychoanalytic movement Cultural background –Victorian era Sexual repression, sex for procreation, mistresses satisfied men’s “uncontrollable” sexual desires Sigmund Freud 13.2 How did Freud’s historical view of the mind and personality form a basis for psychodynamic theory?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Freud’s Conception of the Personality ID Superego Ego Conscious: Contact with outside world Preconscious: Material just beneath the surface of awareness Unconscious: Difficult to retrieve material; well below the surface of awareness The most important determining factor in human behavior and personality Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue ** Unconscious mind - level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness..
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Freud’s Theory: Parts of Personality Id - part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. Libido - the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior. Pleasure principle - principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences. ** Ego - part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical. Reality principle - principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Freud’s Theory: Parts of Personality Superego - part of the personality that acts as a moral center. Ego ideal - part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior. Conscience - part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Psychological defense mechanisms: Unconscious distortions of a person’s perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety The Psychological Defense Mechanisms
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 The Psychological Defense Mechanisms
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Stages of Personality Development Fixation: Unresolved psychosexual stage conflict –“Stuck” in stage of development Psychosexual stages: –Five stages of personality –Tied to sexual development
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Stages of Personality Development First stage, first year Mouth = erogenous zone Weaning is primary conflict Age 6 to puberty Sexual feelings repressed, same-sex play, social skills 3 to 6 years Superego develops Sexual feelings ** Oedipus complex 1 to 3 years Ego develops Toilet training conflict Expulsive vs. retentive personalities Puberty Sexual feelings consciously expressed LATENCY STAGE ANAL STAGE GENITAL STAGE ORAL STAGE PHALLIC STAGE FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Neo-Freudians The Neo-Freudians Developed competing psychoanalysis theories Jung: Personal and collective unconscious, archetypes Adler: Inferiority and compensation, birth-order theory Horney: Basic anxiety and neurotic personalities Erikson: Social relationships across the lifespan 13.3 How did Jung, Adler, Horney, and Erikson modify Freud’s theory?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Modern Psychoanalytic Theory Current research has found support for: Defense mechanisms Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior ** Free Association –method of exploring the unconscious –person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing –Latent content of patients’ dreams Other concepts cannot be scientifically researched.
The Behaviorist and Social Cognitive View of Personality
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Behaviorist and Social Cognitive View of Personality Behaviorists define personality as a set of learned responses or habits. Social cognitive theorists emphasize the importance of others’ behaviors and one’s own expectations.
Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy ** Reciprocal Determinism: Environment, characteristics of the person, and behavior itself all interact Self-efficacy: Perception of one’s competence in a certain circumstance
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Rotter’s Social Learning Theory: Expectancies Personality is set of potential responses to various situations, including: Locus of control Sense of expectancy
The Third Force: Humanism and Personality
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 ** Humanistic view: Focuses on traits that make people uniquely human Reaction against negativity of psychoanalysis and behavioral determinism 13.6 How do humanists such as Carl Rogers explain personality? The Third Force: Humanism and Personality
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Carl Rogers and Self-Concept Self-actualizing tendency Self-concept Striving to fulfill innate capabilities Image of oneself that develops from interactions with significant people in one’s life
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Carl Rogers and Self-Concept Real self: One’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities Ideal self: What one should or would like to be IDEAL SELF REAL SELF ** Match = Harmony IDEAL SELF REAL SELF ** Mismatch = Anxiety
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Unconditional positive regard: Positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached Carl Rogers and Self-Concept Conditional positive regard: Positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish ** Positive regard – warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one’s life.
Trait Theories: Who Are You?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 rait Consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Trait Theories of Personality Source traits: More basic traits forming core of personality Example: Introversion is source trait in which people withdraw Surface traits: Can be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 The Big Five Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 The Big Five
The Biology of Personality: Behavioral Genetics
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Twin and Adoption Studies Source: Loehlin (1992)
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Current Findings Variations in personality traits are about 25 to 50 percent inherited. Environmental and cultural influences apparently account for the other (approximately) 50 percent.
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Individualism/collectivism Power distance Masculinity/femininity Uncertainty avoidance Hofstede’s Four Dimensions Cultural Personality
Assessment of Personality
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Eclectic Assessment Who Uses Which Method?
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Interviews 13.9 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following measures of personality: interviews, projective tests, behavioral assessment, personality inventories, and online personality tests? Interview: Professional asks questions of client, structured or unstructured ** Halo effect: Allowing client’s positive traits to influence assessment of client
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Projective Tests Projection: Projecting one’s unacceptable thoughts or impulses onto others Projective tests: Ambiguous visual stimuli presented to client who responds with whatever comes to mind –Rorschach inkblot test: 10 inkblots as ambiguous stimuli (Have proven not to work) –Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations Subjectivity problems with projective tests
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Thematic Apperception Example
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Behavioral Assessments Direct observation: Professional observes client; clinical or natural settings Rating scale: Numeric value assigned to specific behavior Frequency count: Frequency of behaviors is counted Problems: Observer effects/bias Lack of control
Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Personality Inventories NEO-PI: Based on the five- factor model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Based on Jung’s theory of personality types MMPI-2: Designed to detect abnormal personality Personality inventory: Questionnaire with standard list of questions Response format: Yes, no, can’t decide, etc. Include validity scales to prevent cheating, but such measures are not perfect
PSYCHOLOGY 3e Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White Copyright © Pearson Education 2012 Modified by Jackie Kroening.
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