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The War to End War 1917-1918 Chapter 30. WWI Wilson = commitment to Neutrality January 31, 1917  Unrestricted submarine warfare  Sinking all ships,

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Presentation on theme: "The War to End War 1917-1918 Chapter 30. WWI Wilson = commitment to Neutrality January 31, 1917  Unrestricted submarine warfare  Sinking all ships,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The War to End War Chapter 30

2 WWI Wilson = commitment to Neutrality January 31, 1917  Unrestricted submarine warfare  Sinking all ships, including America’s in the War Zone  Germany = luxury they cannot afford

3 War by Act of Germany Zimmermann Note  Telegram from German foreign minister to German ambassador in Mexico  Intercepted by British agents  Proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico  Said if war broke out with the U.S. Germany would support Mexico in recovering “Lost Territory”

4 Cont. Germany then sunk 4 unarmed American merchant ships  36 lives lost Final step  Russia replaced its oppressive monarchy with a representative government Became a war of democracies against brutal monarchies

5 America Acts April 2, 1917  Gather to hear President Wilson deliver his war resolution  April 6, 1917  6 senators – 50 representative voted against  “Safe for Democracy”  Needed to join the war to pave the way for future order of peace and freedom

6 Creel Manipulates Minds Propaganda  Committee on Public Information (CPI)  Biased communication  George Creel  Former muckraking journalist = Head of CPI  75 million = pamphlets, booklets, leaflets, posters “Liberty Loan” --- Bonds  Only “a friend to Germany” would refuse to buy war bonds

7 Forging a War Economy Food Administration  Herbert C. Hoover  Voluntary Compliance  Propaganda  “Gasless Sundays”  “Lightless nights”  Conserve fuel  Daylight-savings times

8 Economy Most incomes rose during war years  Food prices and housing costs also increased “Gospel of clean plate”  Meatless  Sweetless  Wheatless  Porkless Victory gardens American food shipments to Allies tripled

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10 Enforcing Loyalty Anti-Immigrant hysteria  Americans with German names lost their jobs  Orchestras refused to play Mozart, Bach, Beethoven and Brahms  Towns with German names changed  Schools stopped teaching German language  Libraries removed books by German authors  German Measles – “Liberty Measles”  Hamburger – “Salisbury Steak”  Sauerkraut – “Liberty Cabbage”  Dachshunds – “Liberty Pups”

11 Cont. Espionage and Sedition Acts  Person fined up to $10,000 – sentenced to 20 yrs in jail  Saying anything disloyal, profane or abusive about the government or the war  20,000 prosecutions  ½ convicted  Newspapers / Magazines --- who opposed war  Lost mail privileges  Schenck v. United States 1919  Freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a “clear and present danger” to the nation

12 Nations Factories Mild Preparedness  Only 100,000 men in service  Very few had combat experience Selective Service Act --- May 1917  Register with the government to be randomly selected for military service  million men had registered  3 million called up = conscription

13 Factories Cont. War Industries Board = 1917  Encouraged companies to use mass production techniques  Increase efficiency  Eliminate waste --- standardizing products  Set production quotas  Allocated raw materials  Price controls

14 Workers in Wartime “Labor Will Win the War” “Work or Fight” National War Labor Board  Chaired = Taft  Head off labor disputes that might hamper war effort  AF of L = Gompers = supported war  Industrial Workers of the World = Against  sabotage

15 Great Migration Movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks to cities in the North Sought to escape racial discrimination More job opportunities Overcrowding intensified racial tensions

16 Women Women moved into jobs that had been held by men  Railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, bricklayers, coal miners Bolstered public support for woman suffrage 1919  19 th Amendment --- granting women the right to vote

17 Cont. Most women gave up jobs when war was over Congress gave support for women in their traditional roles  Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act 1921  Federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care  Expanded responsibility of federal government for family health welfare

18 Fighting in France Convoy System  Heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across Atlantic  Cut shipping loss Main contribution the U.S. made was freshness and enthusiasm  Doughboys

19 Collapse of Germany November 3, 1918  Austria-Hungary surrendered to Allies  Same day German soldiers mutinied against government  Organized revolutionary councils November 9, 1918  Socialist leaders - established German Republic

20 Surrender Germans to exhausted to fight  Agreed to cease-fire  11 th hour, 11 th day, 11 th month 1918  Signed the Armistice --- truce Bloodiest war in history up to that time  22 million died  Half were civilians  20 million wounded  10 million became refugees

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22 Flu Epidemic Fall 1918  Effected about ¼ of the U.S. population  Effect on economy devastating  Mines shut down  Telephone service cut in half  Cities ran short on coffins  Doctors did not know what to do  Cleanliness and Quarantine  ¼ of soldiers caught disease  Spread by soldiers  500,000 Americans died  30 million worldwide

23 Wilson’s 14 Potent Points Wilson = Moral leader of Allied Cause 14 Point Plan  Proposal to abolish secret treaties  Freedom of the seas  Removal of economic barriers among nations  Reduction of armament  Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of both native peoples and the colonizer  Held out the hopes of independence = oppressed minority  League of Nations  Forum to discuss and settle grievances without resorting to war

24 Treaty of Versailles Allies met January 1919  Palace of Versailles  Outside of Paris  Only the big 4 met  U.S., France, Britain, and Italy Allies reject Wilson’s plan  Anger felt by allied leaders  France lived through 2 invasions by Germany  Britain wanted to make Germany pay  Italian prime minister wanted control of Austrian-held territory  Russia now under a communist government

25 Cont. Big 4 worked out treaty amongst themselves  Wilson conceded most of his 14 points  Established League of Nations June 28, 1919  Big 4 and leaders of the defeated nations met  Sign Peace Treaty  Anger held

26 Treaty Treaty of Versailles  Established 9 new nations  Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia  Shifted boundaries of other nations  Carved 5 areas out of the Ottoman Empire  Gave them to France and Britain and mandates  Temporary colonies  Barred Germany from maintaining an army  Made Germany pay reparations --- war damages  Amounting to $33 Billion to Allies

27 Cont. Treaty’s weakness  Sowed the seeds of postwar international problems  Humiliated Germany  War-Guilt Clause  Forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI  Stripped of colonial possessions  Russia --- highest casualties  Excluded from peace conference  Lost the most territory  Now called = Soviet Union

28 Wilson’s Tour Opposition  September 1919 = Wilson campaigns to join  8,000 mile tour  34 speeches in 3 weeks  Senate voted in November 1919  Rejected  Wilson refused to compromise  “I will not pay for position”  “This is not the time for tactics”  Senate voted in March 1920  Rejected  U.S. finally signed treaty with Germany in 1921

29 Cont. Too many unresolved issues  Treaty of Versailles settled nothing Many Europeans wanted to resume fight  Adolf Hitler  Veteran of the War  “It cannot be that two millions Germans should have fallen in vain ….. No we do not pardon, we demand – Vengeance!”

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32 Trench Warfare Filth Lice Rats Polluted water – dysentery Poison gas Lack of sleep Shell shock  Emotional collapse Trench foot Infection of gums and throat  Trench mouth

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35 Weapons  Machine gun --- changed nature or war  Tank  Bullets bounce off  Clearing paths  Airplane  Dogfights  Mounted machine guns  Observation balloons

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40 1920 Election of 1920  Republicans = Warren G. Harding  Ohio  V.P. Calvin Coolidge  Democrats = James M. Cox  Ohio  V.P. Franklin D. Roosevelt  Supported League of Nations  Socialist Party = Eugene V. Debs  Pulls a million votes  Jail  Harding wins


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