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1 3:1 attributed copies permitted Your Class web-page:www.parshift.com/678/ L3.htmwww.parshift.com/678/ L3.htm Support docs & links:www.parshift.com/678/support.htmwww.parshift.com/678/support.htm ES/SDOE 678 Reconfigurable Agile Systems and Enterprises Fundamentals of Analysis, Synthesis, and Performance ES/SDOE 678 Reconfigurable Agile Systems and Enterprises Fundamentals of Analysis, Synthesis, and Performance Session 3 – Requirements Analysis: Response Types, Metrics, Values School of Systems and Enterprises Stevens Institute of Technology, USA File

2 3:2 attributed copies permitted The project MUST engage everyone's passion. Make sure the whole group is in favor of the choice, you will live with it all week...perhaps for 10 weeks. You must see that this system is non-trivial, has a future, and is the subject of further development, improvement, or increased understanding. Give time and care to producing your system statement, as though your boss’s bosses would be interested and intrigued, not only by your choice, but also by your statement. Task - Form into project teams - Name your team - Name your work file: Ex-teamname.ppt - Write a descriptive statement of your agile-system project (uncertain environment, effective response) - List strategic “response” objectives/values Prepare two slides for brief out FEEDBACK REVIEW

3 3:3 attributed copies permitted Session 1 – Overview and Introduction to Agile Systems Session 2 – Problem Space and Solution Space Session 3 – Response Types, Metrics, Values Session 4 – Situational Analysis and Strategy Exercise Session 5 – Architecture and Design Principles Session 6 – Design Exercise and Strategy Refinement Session 7 – Quality: Principles, Reality, Strategy Session 8 – Operations: Closure and Integrity Management Session 9 – Culture and Proficiency Development Session 10 – The Edge of Knowledge, Projects Integration Fundamentals Tools Perspective Analysis Synthesis Course Roadmap Have You Signed The Attendance Roster?

4 3:4 attributed copies permitted Response Requirements Performance metrics of: Time Cost Quality Scope Proactive/Reactive response dimensions Requirements-development methods/issues

5 3:5 attributed copies permitted  Viability: The ability to meet minimum requirements of continued operation. Resilience. Ability to seize opportunity and follow another’s lead.  Leadership: The ability to shape the operating environment and set requirements of continued operation. Innovative. Marked by followers.  Agile: RA state marked by high competence at both proactive and reactive change. Typically open minded, curious, experimental, interactive, sharing, and listening.  Resilient: RA state marked by good reactive change competency, at least sufficient to be generally viable. Typically follows best-in-class practices, listens to the customer, responds well to competitive moves. Not good at leading.  Innovative: RA state marked by good proactive change competency, at least sufficient to be a market influencer. Typically introduces new technologies, services, strategies, and concepts that change the competitive rules. Not good at following.  Fragile: RA state marked by small competency at change. Insufficiently reactive to shrug off adversity. Insufficiently proactive to influence the market. Typically doesn’t interact well, poorly connected with the market, procedure driven, unresponsive, afraid of failure, non-experimental, full of punch- clock people, and managed by administration. Proactive Innovative/Composable Creates Opportunity Takes Preemptive Initiative Reactive Resilient Seizes Opportunity Copes with Adverse Events Reactive Proficiency Proactive Proficiency Innovative (Composable) Agile FragileResilient

6 3:6 attributed copies permitted Discussion Where would you classify these enterprises, and why? Microsoft General Motors Google Intel AMD al Qaeda Cyber security attackers Reactive Proficiency Proactive Proficiency Innovative (Composable) Agile FragileResilient

7 3:7 attributed copies permitted Change Proficiency - The competency available for accomplishing a transformation. Change Proficiency Metric - A four dimensional performance indicator that quantifies a relative competency value for change proficiency: a)Time [t]: A measure of elapsed time to complete a change. Fairly objective. b)Cost [c]: A measure of monetary cost incurred in change. Somewhat objective. c)Quality [q]: A measure of prediction quality in meeting change time, cost, and specification targets robustly. Somewhat subjective. d) Scope [s]: A measure of the latitude or range of possible change, typically bounded by mission or charter. Fairly subjective. Change Proficiency Issue - 1) A transformation considered of sufficient import to be included as an issue of concern that must be considered and addressed; 2) A transformation with sufficiently inadequate change proficiency that it is an issue of concern; 3) A transformation that the change proficiency metric is applied to, e.g., formation of a partnership, expansion of production capacity, replacement of a faulty supplier, changeover of a process, etc.

8 3:8 attributed copies permitted Scope Examples Product Number of peripheral devices possible on PC Max load on pickup truck while still offering good unloaded family ride Web site hits/hr peak Variety of desktop technology available on the corporate network Working relationship defined by a contract Amount of learning required to use a product effectively Process Economic production capacity, both upper and lower limits Order entry fast ramp-up limits Minimum economic limit on a service call Range in counter customers serviceable within 60 seconds Electricity available for delivery in the summer Recruitment and hiring ramp-up rate limits Practice Min/max economic volume by salesperson Min/max effective training class size New knowledge and thought leadership for consulting practice Size of town required to support retail chain Business quantity needed for local presence Range of people productively applied to a project People Effective intercorporate cultural interface range Vision and mission in- tune with market developments Likelihood that a service tech can fix whatever the problem is Breadth of available technology expertise to product development Breadth of alternate use for employees already attuned to the culture Effective knowledge reuse

9 3:9 attributed copies permitted... the ability to survive and thrive in an unpredictable and uncertain environment Agility is Risk Management: decreasing vulnerability and risk by increasing options and predictability The ability to respond effectively at all times, reactively and proactively...within mission Reactive (Viability) Proactive (Leadership) Fragile Agile Innovative Resilient Agility is...

10 3:10 attributed copies permitted Agile Software Development is a family of systems-engineering processes that we will examine as an agile-system …not a single approach to software development. In 2001, 17 prominent figures in the field of agile development (then called “light-weight methodologies”) came together at the Snowbird ski resort in Utah to discuss ways of creating software in a lighter, faster, more people-centric way. They created the Agile Manifesto, widely regarded as the canonical definition of agile development, and accompanying agile principles. The publishing of the manifesto spawned a movement in the software industry known as agile software development. In 2005, Alistair Cockburn and Jim Highsmith gathered another group of people — management experts, this time — and wrote an addendum, known as the PM Declaration of Interdependence. From Wikipedia 5/28/07 10

11 3:11 attributed copies permitted Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tool s Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Kent BeckJames GrenningRobert C. Martin Mike BeedleJim HighsmithSteve Mellor Arie van BennekumAndrew HuntKen Schwaber Alistair CockburnRon JeffriesJeff Sutherland Ward CunninghamJon KernDave Thomas Martin FowlerBrian Marick © 2001, the above authors this declaration may be freely copied in any form, but only in its entirety through this notice. 11

12 3:12 attributed copies permitted Principles behind the Agile Manifesto 1.Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2.Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. 3.Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4.Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. 5.Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6.The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. 7.Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8.Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 9.Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10.Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. 11.The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12.At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. 12

13 3:13 attributed copies permitted Associated/Related Agile Development Processes Spiral – Barry Boehm (1988) Evo – (Evolutionary Project Management) – Tom Gilb (1988) RAD (Rapid Application Development) – James Martin (1991) DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method) – DSDM Consortium (1995) SCRUM – Ken Schwaber (1996) RUP* (Rational Unified Process) – Booch/Jacobson/Rumbaugh (1998) XP (Extreme Programming) – Kent Beck (1999) ASD (Adaptive Software Development) – Jim Highsmith (1999) FDD (Feature Driven Development) – Jeff DeLuca (1999) (Agile Manifesto – 2001) Crystal Methodologies – Alistair Cockburn (2002) Lean Software Development – Mary and Tom Poppendieck (2003) AUP (Agile Unified Process) – Scott Ambler (20??) Pipelining / Perpetual Beta – [Google is generally cited example] Name shown is strongly associated with the concept and generally writes on its employment extensively; often, not always, is considered the “inventor/founder” Most popular

14 3:14 attributed copies permitted Discipline Required Incremental and Iterative Requirements influence solution evolution Solutions influence requirements evolution Waterfall Method Actual Designer Problem Solution Analyze data Formulate solution Implement Gather data Time Since Beginning of Design Session Wicked Problems: Naming the Pain in Organizations, E. Jeffrey Conklin & William Weil, Shows what the mind of expert designers focus on during design

15 3:15 attributed copies permitted Guest Speaker: Hamid Shojaee Intro to Agile Scrum in Under 10 Minutes File8.5 Video and text at: Learn Scrum in under 10 minutes. This video is an introduction to the Scrum software development methodology. By the end of this fast-paced video, you'll practically be a scrum master. You'll know about burn down charts, team roles, product backlogs, sprints, daily scrums and more. You'll also be ready to start implementing Scrum in your own team. For a Scrum Overview Diagram, visit: For an easy to use tool to help implement scrum, you can visit For Scrum software, visit:

16 3:16 attributed copies permitted The UURVE Environment Drives the Response Need Agile systems are defined in counterpoint to their operating environments. Words used to describe the general nature of the target environment often include and combine dynamic, unpredictable, uncertain, risky, variable, and changing, with little attention to clear distinction among them. To design and develop a system that can deal effectively with changing environments it is useful to articulate the nature of changes that should be considered. Agile systems have effective situational response options, within mission, under: Unpredictability: randomness among unknowable possibilities. Uncertainty: randomness among known possibilities with unknowable probabilities. Risk: randomness among known possibilities with knowable probabilities. Variation: randomness among knowable variables and knowable variance ranges. Evolution: gradual (relatively) successive developments. The difference between risk and variation in this framework is that risk is viewed as the possible occurrence of a discrete event (a strike keeps all employees away), while variation is viewed as the intensity of a possible event (absenteeism varies with the season).

17 3:17 attributed copies permitted Proactive and Reactive Response Types Proactive response domains of: Creation Improvement Migration Modification Reactive response domains: Correction Variation Expansion Reconfiguration

18 3:18 attributed copies permitted Proactive responses are generally triggered internally by the application of new knowledge to generate new value. They are still proactive responses even if the values generated are not positive and even if the knowledge applied is not new – self initiation is the distinguishing feature here. A proactive change is usually one that has effect rather than mere potential; thus, it is an application of knowledge rather than the invention or possession of unapplied knowledge. Proactive change proficiency is the wellspring of leadership and innovation in system capability. Change/Response Domains Correction Variation Reconfiguration Expansion (of Capacity) Migration Improvement Modification (of Capability) Creation (and Elimination) Proactive Reactive Change Domain Reactive responses are generally triggered by events which demand a response: problems that must be attended to or fixed, opportunities that must be addressed. The distinguishing feature is little choice in the matter – a reaction is required. Reactive responses often address threatening competitive or environmental dynamics, new customer demands, agility deterioration/failure, legal and regulatory disasters, product failures, market restructuring, and other non-competitor generated events. Reactive change proficiency is the foundation of resilience and sustainability in system capability.

19 3:19 attributed copies permitted Creation/Elimination What range of opportunistic situations will need modules assembled into responsive system configurations; what elements must the system create during operation that can be facilitated by modules and module pools; what situational evolution will cause obsolesce of modules which should be removed? The distinguishing feature is the creation of something new or reincarnated that is not currently present. To note, this is not about the situation that calls for the original creation of an agile system, but rather about the evolution of the agile system during its operational period. Situations to identify are those that require system configuration assemblies during operation, and those that require new modules for employment in those assemblies. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) project management strategy (t); project team (t, c); system requirements (t, p); system architecture (t, s); system design (t, c, p); development activity plans (t); V&V/test plans (t); team collective understanding and learning (t, p); product development [software code, hardware build documentation] (t, c, p).

20 3:20 attributed copies permitted Improvement What improvements in system response performance will be expected over the system’s operational life? The distinguishing feature is performance of existing response capability, not the addition of new capability. Situations to identify are generally those involving competencies and performance factors, and are often the focus of continual, open-ended campaigns. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) activity effort estimating (p); activity completion to plan (t, c, p); reducing uncertainty and risk (t, p, s).

21 3:21 attributed copies permitted Migration What evolving technologies and opportunities might require future changes to the infrastructure? The distinguishing feature is a need to change the nature of the plug-and-play infrastructure, not the addition of new modules. Situations to identify are generally those that enable the transition to possible and potential next generation capabilities. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) compelling new technology availability (t, c, s); project scope change (s); lean process principles (p).

22 3:22 attributed copies permitted Modification (of capability) What evolving technologies and opportunities might require modification of the available modules and roster of module pools? The distinguishing feature is a necessary change in available module capabilities. Situations are generally those that require something unlike anything already present, or the upgrade or change to something that does exist. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) new added team member unfamiliar/uncomfortable with management strategy (t); new environmental dynamics (t, c, p, s).

23 3:23 attributed copies permitted JIT Assembly Systems (t = time of change, c = cost of change, q = quality of change, s = scope of change) Key Proactive Issues Creation Designing (50-100/year) short-run assembly lines for new parts that come with long-run tooling [t] Improvement Productivity of limited space while increasing part variety [s] Migration Production of non-GM parts with non-GM tooling [qs] Modification Absorb employees from closed GM plants with different union work rules into cross-trained Production Team Member positions [ts] Key Reactive Issues Correction Union refusals to accommodate necessary work rule changes [cs] Variation High part production variety [s] Time available for new line design [t] New parts to accommodate with the JIT system [s] Expansion Absorb growing part variety [s] Absorb growing inventory of tooling [s] Reconfiguration Short-run assembly line construction/tear-down [t] Weld Tips Controllers Production Team Members (PTMs) Hemmers Roller Tables Standing Platforms Mastic Tables Racks Components System Examples * * * Ctrl Programs ** Assem Areas P41 Deck Lid System Area B A47 Fender System Area A (Old-Form Agile Architecture Pattern) Integrity Management Module Evolution: Component team Module Readiness: Component team Assembly: Production teams Infrastructure Evolution: Configuration team

24 3:24 attributed copies permitted Reactive responses are generally triggered by events which demand a response: problems that must be attended to or fixed, opportunities that must be addressed. The distinguishing feature is little choice in the matter – a reaction is required. Reactive responses often address threatening competitive or environmental dynamics, new customer demands, equipment malfunctions, legal and regulatory disasters, product failures, market restructuring, and other non-competitor generated events. Reactive change proficiency is the foundation of resilience and sustainability in system capability. Proactive responses are generally triggered internally by the application of new knowledge to generate new value. They are still proactive responses even if the values generated are not positive and even if the knowledge applied is not new – self initiation is the distinguishing feature here. A proactive change is usually one that has effect rather than mere potential; thus, it is an application of knowledge rather than the invention or possession of unapplied knowledge. Proactive change proficiency is the wellspring of leadership and innovation in system capability. Change/Response Domains Correction Variation Reconfiguration Expansion (of Capacity) Migration Improvement Modification (of Capability) Creation (and Elimination) Proactive Reactive Change Domain

25 3:25 attributed copies permitted Correction What types of response activities might fail in operation and need correction? The distinguishing feature is a dysfunction or inadequacy during attempted response. Situations to identify are those that require a recovery from response malfunction, recovery from unacceptable side effects of a response, and inability to assemble an effective response. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) wrong requirement (t); inadequate developer (t); failed V&V/test (t, c); non-compliant supplier (t, c).

26 3:26 attributed copies permitted Variation What aspects of operational conditions and resources vary over what range when response capabilities must be assembled? The distinguishing feature is predictable but uncertain variance. Situations to identify are those that manifest as variances in module availability, module performance, and module interactions. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) expertise and skill levels among team members (p); grace period on schedule (t, c); deliverable performance range (p); availability, interaction, and expertise of customer involvement (s).

27 3:27 attributed copies permitted What are the upper and lower bounds of response capacity needs? The distinguishing feature is capacity scalability. Situations to identify are those that can be satisfied with planned capacity bounds, as well as those that have indeterminate and unbounded capacity needs. Expansion/Contraction Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Management) 2x project scope change (t, c, p, s); team-size changes of x-y engineers distributed across n-m locations (t, s).

28 3:28 attributed copies permitted Reconfiguration What types of situations will require system reconfiguration in order to respond effectively? The distinguishing feature is the configuration and employment of available modules for new or reincarnated response needs. Situations to identify are those that are within the system mission boundaries, and that may require a reconfiguration of an existing system assembly, perhaps augment with removal of modules or addition of available modules. Agile Systems-Engineering (Project Mgmnt) unanticipated expertise requirement (t); development activity-sequence priority change (t).

29 3:29 attributed copies permitted Wikispeed’s Modular Cars Detroit Auto Show, 11Jan2011 File5 Modular design – Development is rapid because the design of the car is modular. The engine is able to be switched from a gasoline to an electric engine in about the time it takes to change a tire. The car body can be switched to a pickup truck. Modular design enables Wikispeed to make changes and develop quickly. Simplicity and modularity reduce costs in making changes, in tooling, in machinery and in complexity. Accelerating the response to problems – Wikispeed has steadily increased its velocity in resolving issues. For instance, on one occasion, within hours of getting a video back from a side impact test, the team realized that there was four inches of penetration into the cabin. It was still survivable, and still road-legal, but it wasn’t the five star crash rating that the team wanted. So within hours, they had a volunteer team update the side impact crash structure and bolt it onto the car. The first time Wikispeed did a safety iteration like this, it took many weeks. Now they are able to accomplish it within a seven day sprint cycle. Video and text at: (Eight Modules)

30 3:30 attributed copies permitted JIT Assembly Systems (t = time of change, c = cost of change, q = quality of change, s = scope of change) Key Proactive Issues Creation Designing short-run assembly lines for new parts that come with long-run tooling [t] Improvement Productivity of limited space while increasing part variety [s] Migration Production of non-GM parts with non-GM tooling [qs] Modification Absorb employees from closed GM plants with different union work rules into cross-trained Production Team Member positions [ts] Key Reactive Issues Correction Union refusals to accommodate necessary work rule changes [cs] Variation High part production variety [s] Time available for new line design [t] New parts to accommodate with the JIT system [s] Expansion Absorb growing part variety [s] Absorb growing inventory of tooling [s] Reconfiguration Short-run assembly line construction/tear-down [t] Integrity Management Module Evolution: Component team Module Readiness: Component team Assembly: Production teams Infrastructure Evolution: Configuration team Weld Tips Controllers Production Team Members (PTMs) Hemmers Roller Tables Standing Platforms Mastic Tables Racks Components System Examples * * * Ctrl Programs ** Assem Areas P41 Deck Lid System Area B A47 Fender System Area A (Old-Form Agile Architecture Pattern)

31 3:31 attributed copies permitted Infrastructure evolution: System assembly: Module evolution: Module readiness: Union Contract Hemmer Standards Allen Bradley Controls Infrastructure Drag & Drop Components Plug & Play Standards Integrity Management Active Passive Configuration-Process Team Production Teams Component Team TDA Buddies Flexibility Culture P41 Deck Lid System Area B A47 Fender A47 Fender System Area A Hemmers Weld Tips Roller Tables Racks Controllers Production Team Members Standing Platforms Mastic Tables * * * Ctrl Programs Assem Areas Turn Tables Agile JIT Assembly Line Construction at GM Plant for Low-Volume High-Variety After-Market Body Parts Agile Architectural Pattern Diagram (format to be used in Term Projects) (New-Form Agile Architectural Pattern Diagram)

32 3:32 attributed copies permitted Key Proactive Issues Creation Create a new broad product family approximately every three years [tcs] Improvement Manufacturing cost [s] Machine calibration time [s] Customer yield curve [s] Migration Develop expertise in a new generation of science/ technology approximately every three years [ts] Modification Include new process capabilities in a machine when it becomes available [s] System Examples Systems Integrity Management Module Evolution: Engineering Module Readiness: Product manager Assembly: Installation crew Infrastructure Evolution: Product manager AA A DE BD A BA D C BAE A A B B E D C Dedicated Parallel Processing Step Variable Steps Under Constant Vacuum Control Panels Transfer Robots Process Chambers Utility Bases Docking Modules Material Interfaces Modules Key Reactive Issues Correction Time to return malfunctioning equipment to service, and effect that equipment outage has on total throughput [t] Variation Equipment configurations and process options [cs] Expansion Selectively expand/contract process-step capacity to meet (relative) long term product mix changes [ts] Reconfiguration Optional assembly procedures must meet local content needs of international contracts [qs] Cluster Machine (Metric focus legend: t = time of change, c = cost of change, q = quality of change, s = scope of change) Note: Analysis is sparse mix of both supplier and user needs (Old-Form Agile Architecture Pattern)

33 3:33 attributed copies permitted Production Cell (t = time of change, c = cost of change, q = quality of change, s = scope of change) Key Proactive Issues Creation Design/install new-part production capability frequently and quickly [tcq] Improvement Customers are demanding a reduction in short run costs [t] Migration Moving from transfer line technology to next generation flexible machines brings different concepts [cs] Modification Higher product change frequency requires production process modification rather than replacement [tcs] System Examples Systems Integrity Management Module Evolution: Operations manager Module Readiness: Operations manager Assembly: Customer account engineer Infrastructure Evolution: General manager Components # # # # # # # # Pallet Changers Work Setup Stations Loader/ Unloaders Guided Vehicles Rail Sections Work Setters Flexible Machines 3 Station Cell 6-8 Station Seasonal Cell Key Reactive Issues Correction Cost of lost production due to equipment malfunction and repair time [tc] Variation Prototype runs are more frequent, and require more varied machining options [tcs] Expansion Expansion and contraction of production capacity must accommodate unforecastable demand [tcs] Reconfiguration Salvage and reuse old production stages in new production configurations [cs] (Old-Form Agile Architecture Pattern)

34 3:34 attributed copies permitted Delivery Time Development Perceived Effectiveness 100% Gen 2 OperationGen 1 Operation agile system Infrastructure Migration Module Mix Modifications Delivery Time Development Perceived Effectiveness life-cycle end Agile system would continue ROI, but does age, and can suffer integrity failure 100% In-agile system Operation Did your Objectives recognize next generation migrations? If they should have … correct that.

35 3:35 attributed copies permitted BREAK

36 3:36 attributed copies permitted Typical Integrated System Management Art: Jamcracker

37 3:37 attributed copies permitted Case: Greenfield Semiconductor Foundry Background October 1999 (dot.com bubbling, semi-slump ending) Silterra is a start-up semiconductor foundry in Malaysia, with interim USA top management and ex-pat process experts Funded mainly by government designated sources Mixed Cultures: 60% Malay, 30% Chinese, 10% Indian CEO has a vision for a preemptive modern-day competitor... Goal: Build a uniquely superior foundry business Strategy: Best practices + Agile IT infrastructure under logistics CIO (interim exec) is writing book on systems agility... Goal: Meet CEO's goals with Agile Systems design principles Strategy: Design a differentiation strategy and apply principles

38 3:38 attributed copies permitted Opportunity New company: No operating culture, performance metrics, or infrastructure legacy. + New technology: Internet. Broadband. PDAs. XML. Enterprise IT. eBusiness. + New environment: More uncertain, connected, knowledgeable. Faster. Always changing. + New customer expectations: Personal attention. Immediate response. Self service. Lots of information. = New Opportunity to design a company IT support system fit to the new and changing environment, and focused on new values

39 3:39 attributed copies permitted Guiding Concepts Enterprise IT Value:Must not dictate or limit corporate capability Remove the ERP/Technology lock-in Provide freedom to use best tools Enable fast use of new technology in support of business strategy Value:Must exploit new electronic connectivity opportunities Real-time visibility of all enterprise activity and information Everyone wired for immediate self-service Dashboards and "agents" to bring focus on desired information Assist and structure key management processes Quick connections to information-sharing partners Attitude:InfoTech shifts from financial reporting to enterprise infrastructure View as a logistics service, not as a financial function Distribute control and responsibility to the users

40 3:40 attributed copies permitted Refined Objectives Supporting strategy with best-fit tools is enabled rather than inhibited Switching/upgrading to new technology and applications is enabled rather than inhibited. Accommodating custom electronic "partner" relationships is enabled rather than inhibited. Integrating new plants, facilities, mergers, and acquisitions is enabled rather than inhibited. All information is accessible electronically to those authorized to see it. Electronic "dashboards" will provide real-time vision and monitoring of operational and strategic activities. Provide competitive advantage through enterprise visibility, adaptability, and latest technology

41 3:41 attributed copies permitted Rules of Engagement Get the best plans and designs and technologies possible, wherever they may be found. For implementation and evolution, employ internal and local resources whenever possible, else transfer responsibility to local resources as fast as possible. Build internal spec/test/management/operating capability, and outsource implementation projects (locally). Make up the rules as you go along, and refine them until they work.

42 3:42 attributed copies permitted General Strategy Business System Analyst (BSA) Group: Assigned to IT-assist dept managers (cross dept responsibilities) Business Process IT application configuration/evolution IT tool selection/acquisition Strategic System Analyst (SSA) Group: Evolution of infrastructure framework Enforcing infrastructure usage rules User Collaboration: Mandatory response-requirements analysis COTS Applications Only: No customization of purchased software IT Internal Responsibilities – not to be outsourced: Infrastructure architecture design and evolution Management of integration projects Configuration of applications

43 3:43 attributed copies permitted Response Requirements – IT Infrastructure Response Metrics: c=cost, t=time, q=quality, s=scope Proactive Dynamics Creating new customer/supplier/partner business net-link [t,q,s] Creating acquisition business net-link [t,q,s] Creating interface to a new application [t,c,s] Improvement of interface performance [t,s] Migration to NT and COM/DCOM [c,q] Addition of new foundry facility [q,s] Addition of new customer/supplier/partner data interface [t,s] Addition of new industry data-standards [t,s] Replacing the bus vendor [c,t,s] Reactive Dynamics Correcting an interface bug that surfaces later in time (original engineer gone) [t,q] Variation in quality of data from production MES system [t] Variation in competency/availability of infrastructure operating personnel [t,s] Variation in real-time on-line availability of applications [t,s]. Expand the number of interfaced applications and business net-links [s] Reconfiguration of an interface for an application upgrade/change [t,c,q,s]

44 3:44 attributed copies permitted file

45 3:45 attributed copies permitted Modular Data Centers Correction Variation Reconfig- uration Expansion (Capacity) Migration Improve- ment Modification (Capability) Creation Proactive Reactive Response Type Response Situations What performance characteristics will the system be expected to improve during operational life cycle? Power efficiency (c) Processing box What major events coming down the road will require a change in the system infrastructure? Solar/hydrogen powered (s) Wireless What modifications/evolutions in modules might be needed during the operational life cycle ? Power generation modules Cross brand platforms (t, c, q, s) What can go wrong that will need an automatic systemic detection and response? Damage and theft Hack attack What process variables will range across what values and need accommodation? Ambient temperature/humidity Local power reliability and nature What are “quantity-based” elastic-capacity needs on resources/output/activity/other? Infinite scalability of modules Internal storage What types of resource relationship configurations will need changed during operation? What box is where What must the system be creating or eliminating in the course of its operational activity? Create IT capacity anytime anywhere (q) L3 Modular Data Systems Deployment and Operational Life Cycle Environmental exposure risk Remote component failure Interface options ? ? Box size and amount of content Follow-the-sun power economics Distributed data center Processing capacity per volume ?

46 3:46 attributed copies permitted Tassimo Beverage System Drag-and-Drop – Plug-and-Play BR A UN - File

47 3:47 attributed copies permitted In-Class Tool Applications Class Warm-upsTeam TrialsTeam Project Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 ConOps: Objectives Reactive/Proactive RS Analysis Framework/Modules RRS + Integrity RS Analysis RRS Analysis Integrity Reality Factors RS Analysis: Case RRS Analysis: Case Reality + Activities Closure Tassimo AAP Analysis: Case

48 3:48 attributed copies permitted Response Issues Tassimo Beverage System Response Situations (Amalgam) Correction Variation Reconfig- uration Expansion (Capacity) Migration Improve- ment Modification (Capability) Creation Proactive Reactive Response Type Hot beverages New recipe creation New T-disk creation Make better tasting stuff Faster Easier cleaning Travel mug accommodation User custom-recipes Other mfg’ers disks Other kinds of drinks (eg cocktails) Other kinds of stuff (eg soups) Add features (eg Auto-start timer) Bar-code reader failure Power failure (graceful recovery) Fluid overflow Taste preferences Volume variation per cup Seasonal changes in market tastes? Number of process steps Two cups simultaneously Process steps per disk Homemade disk inserts Multi-disk recipes x Battery for camping x Night light x Wrong-size-cup detector (these change framework, not modules) maybe modification migration or Correction Variation Reconfig- uration Expansion (Capacity) Migration Improve- ment Modification (Capability) Creation Proactive Reactive Response Type Response Situations What must the system be creating in the course of its operational activity? ? What performance characteristics will the system be expected to improve over time? ? What major event coming down the road will require a change in the system infrastructure? ? What modifications/evolutions in modules might be needed during the operational life cycle? ? What can go wrong that will need an automatic systemic detection and response? ? What process variables will range across what values and need accommodation? ? What are “quantity-based” elastic-capacity needs on resources/output/activity/other? ? What types of resource relationship configurations will need changed during operation? ?

49 3:49 attributed copies permitted Getting it Right Requirements shall statements define exactly what must be accomplished. If you miss even one you could have a dysfunctional result. For Response Situation Analysis… you do not need to develop a comprehensive list of shall statements, but rather a sufficient list of response capabilities – which if accomplished, will stretch the envelope of agile response capability to encompass all necessary response needs, even if they were not on the list.

50 3:50 attributed copies permitted creation expansion correction Variation reconfiguration creation expansion correction improvement Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration correction improvement modification creation migration correction improvement modification Variation creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration

51 3:51 attributed copies permitted creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration creation migration expansion correction improvement modification Variation reconfiguration

52 3:52 attributed copies permitted "When I am working on a problem, I never think about beauty, but when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong." -- R. Buckminster Fuller “Quality is practical, and factories and airlines and hospital labs must be practical. But it is also moral and aesthetic. And it is also perceptual and subjective.” -- Tom Peters Projected Operational Story Architectural Concept & Integrity Response Situation Analysis RRS Principles Synthesis ConOps Objectives & Activities Reality Factors Identified Closure Matrix Design Quality Evaluation RAP Tools & Process

53 3:53 attributed copies permitted In-Class Tool Applications Class Warm-upsTeam TrialsTeam Project Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 ConOps: Objectives Reactive/Proactive RS Analysis Framework/Modules RRS + Integrity RS Analysis RRS Analysis Integrity Reality Factors RS Analysis: Case RRS Analysis: Case Reality + Activities Closure AAP Analysis: Case

54 3:54 attributed copies permitted EXERCISE 1.Incorporate review feedback into project (rewrite project statement) 2.Establish general reactive and proactive response requirements (don’t break them down any finer into change domains) Get Exercise Templates at: (preferred) or on the supplied CD Prepare one new slide and update old slide for brief out 1. Assemble Diverse Team 3. Brainstorm General Issues ProActive ReActive 2. Define Edge of Analysis Subject

55 3:55 attributed copies permitted Proactive – Further Clarification Proactive – Originally coined by the psychiatrist Victor Frankl in his 1946 book Man's Search for Meaning to describe a person who took responsibility for his or her life, rather than looking for causes in outside circumstances or other people. Man's Search for Meaning The term was popularized in the business press in Stephen Covey's 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Though he used the word in Frankl's original sense, the word has come to mean… "to act before a situation becomes a source of confrontation or crisis" vs. after the fact. It is frequently misused to mean simply “active” …the opposite of passive. [Wikipedia – ]

56 3:56 attributed copies permitted Proactive Reactive General Issues System: __________________________


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