Presentation on theme: "400BC-300BC Ancient Greece - because of their physical geography individual communities developed. The city-state of Athens introduced democracy which."— Presentation transcript:
400BC-300BC Ancient Greece - because of their physical geography individual communities developed. The city-state of Athens introduced democracy which laid the foundation for Europe’s government and culture
27BC – 180AD The Romans founded a Republic which eventually encompassed Europe, SW Asia, & NW Africa. Throughout the empire the Romans built a network of roads, bridges, & aqueducts (water carriers) that connected outlying areas to Rome. Roman government, law, and engineering influenced other cultures
300AD Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Eventually the Roman Empire was divided and ruled by 2 emperors – One in the West and the East. Each region developed its own politics. Religions, & cultural traditions.
400AD Germanic groups from the north overthrew the Roman rule in the western half of the empire, they began separate kingdoms, and accepted the western form of Christianity (Roman Catholic). The eastern half eventually became the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople (today called Istanbul). The eastern form of Christianity became known as Eastern Orthodox.
500AD Slavic people migrated from Ukraine into eastern and central Europe.
ADAfter the fall of Rome - Western Europe enters the Middle Ages - the period between ancient times and modern times. Feudalism - A system where monarchs or lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty replaced centralized government.
600ADBeginning of Islam. Started by the prophet Mohammed in Southwestern Asia – Islam believes in one God and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Arab achievements included math, science and medicine. These advances took years to spread into European culture.
1000s AD The Crusades were a series of brutal religious wars to win Palestine. Christians wanted to “free” the birthplace of Christ from Muslim rule. Europeans did not win permanent control of Palestine, but did develop new trade routes in the eastern Mediterranean.
1300s AD The 300 year period of discovery and learning known as the Renaissance renewed interest in ancient Greece and Roman culture led to scientific advances. One of the major advances was movable type. This helped spread new ideas more quickly and easily.
1400s AD The Ottoman Empire gained control of nearly all the lands on the Balkan peninsula.
1400sAD Seafaring explorers from Portugal developed new trade routes to Africa and Asia. Spain, France, & England also sent explorers around the world in search of resources. These voyages of exploration brought great wealth & power to Western Europe, but often destroyed the culture of the conquered lands
1492 AD - Christopher Columbus reached the Americas (New World). This era known as the Age of Exploration brought great power and wealth to Western European nations..
By mid 1500s AD - Availability of printed material spread the ideas of the Reformation. These new ideas weakened the power of the Roman Catholic Church and led to the rise of Protestantism. This movement is also known as the Protestant Reformation. Religious wars engulfed Europe and enabled monarchs to strengthen their power over nobles and church leaders.
Late 1600sAD to early 1700sAD - The Age of Reason was also called the Enlightenment - Europeans began to question long standing values and traditions. This movement led to political and economic revolutions.
1700s AD Industrial Revolution begins in England. Power driven machines and new methods of production transformed life in Europe. New social groups emerged: the Middle class of merchants and factory owners and the working class of factory laborers. Industrial Capitalism – economic system in which business leaders used profits to expand their companies. Rise of the middle class
Late 1700s AD The French Revolution overthrew the monarch and spread the ideas of democracy
1805 – 1815 AD The Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte led France in its quest for territorial gain in Europe. Napoleon’s allies were Holland, Italy, Naples, Warsaw, Bavaria, Saxony, and Denmark. The Allies of the United Kingdom were Austria - Hungary, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain and Sweden. Early victories led Napoleon to believe he could invade Russia. Napoleon was eventually defeated at Waterloo.
1914 – 1918 AD Rivalries among European powers for colonies and for economic power led to World War I. In Russia, the people were not prepared to fight. The high cost of the war in human life and money forced the czar (emperor) to abdicate (step down from the throne)
1917 AD Bolshevik Revolution – Communist Revolution led by V.I. Lenin. He wanted to base the government on the teachings of Karl Marx - a 19th Century German philosopher. Marx believed in the government owning and managing everything. No capitalism. Many disagreed and a civil war broke out in Russia
1918 AD The Slavic people united to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In 1929, this Kingdom was renamed Yugoslavia
1919 AD The peace treaty that ended WWI (known as the Treaty of Versailles) found Germany guilty of starting WWI. As punishment they had to pay reparations (payment for damages) to the victorious countries
Monarchies collapsed in Germany, Austria – Hungary, and Russia. Several Central and Eastern European nations gained independence. Unresolved political problems and widespread economic depression enabled dictators such as Benito Mussolini (Italy) and Adolf Hitler (Germany) to gain power.
1921 AD Bolsheviks win the civil war in Russia. The country is renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union
1939 CE Germany invaded Poland (Sudetenland) that was an ally of the UK. The United Kingdom declares war on Germany which caused the start of World War II
AD The Axis Powers were Germany, Italy and Japan. The Allied Powers were the US, the UK, France, and USSR. During WWII - 6 million European Jews and others were killed by Germany’s Nazi leaders. This horror is known as the Holocaust.
1945 – 1950 AD Europe is ruined and divided. Eastern Europe came under communist control led by USSR. Western Europe’s democracies received millions of dollars and military aid to rebuild under the Marshall Plan.
1949 – 1989 AD Cold War – power struggle between the communist world, led by the USSR, and the non-communist world led by the US. There were no actual battles in this “war”, but Vietnam, Korea, and Cuba could be considered part of the Cold War.
1960s AD East Germany built the Berlin Wall and other barriers to keep Eastern Europeans from escaping to the West. Western European democracies became more productive and economically secure, but communist Eastern Europe had a low standard of living and little economic growth
1980 AD Polish workers formed Solidarity - the first free labor union in the Communist World. Solidarity worked toward reform and economic change.
1990 AD Germany reunited. The USSR broke up into 15 independent republics.
1990s AD Free elections brought democracy and the fall of command economies in much of Eastern Europe and Russia.
AD Several Yugoslav republics declared independence; civil war broke out and ravages many areas of the Balkan Peninsula
1992 AD The Maastricht Treaty was signed and formed the European Union. Member countries have a central bank and common currency (known as the Euro). Goods, workers, and services move across borders of member nations without passports or tariffs. The EU is the world’s largest trading block. Working toward a common parliament.
2007AD Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU bringing the number of members to 27 and 3 candidate members. The EU is the largest trading entity in the world and a major competitor of the US on world markets.