Presentation on theme: "“Almost a War”: Modernization of the North Caucasus?"— Presentation transcript:
“Almost a War”: Modernization of the North Caucasus?
Almost a War? Some 750 people were killed in 2011, and with over six hundred deaths in 2012
North Caucasian Conflicts ‘Many in the Russian government have come to understand the limitation of a counter- insurgency policy that employs only hard-security measures…A long-term comprehensive approach that joins ethnic policies, inter- confessional dialogue, reintegration of ex-fighters, rule of low and strengthened institutions is more likely to bring success’ The Challenges of Integration: Ethnicity and Conflict. International Crisis Group’ report, 2012. ‘The insurgency that carries out almost daily attacks in the region and has also targeted Moscow and other cities was first associated with Chechen separatist and now is mainly jihad-inspired… But the causes of violence are as much about unresolved ethnic issues, lack of the rule of low and the region’s poor integration into Russia as about religion’ The Challenges of Integration: Ethnicity and Conflict. International Crisis Group’ report, 2012.
The North Caucasus and modernization Industrial economy and developed market, rational governments and mass participation, individualism and civil society.
Government discourse “The North-Caucasian Federal District has favorable conditions for development of agriculture, tourism, recreations, the electric power industry, other sectors of the industry, and also it has developed transit functions. However, these natural advantages are non-using till present times as the North- Caucasus still does not show investment appeal because of instability of economic and socio-political conditions ” ‘Strategy of Social and Economic development of the North Caucasus till 2025’
Stereotypes about highlanders: Archaic North Caucasus? ‘Caucasian Muslim identity of highlanders, which was formed in Pre-Soviet period, was changed in two steps. The first one was period of reforms of second half of 19 th century... The second one is collectivization and sovietisation of the 1920-1950 when Soviet national-language project was realized. Contemporary ‘Highlanders’ are now not highlanders at all, but only descendants of those people who once lived in highlands. Deportations of people, resettlements of highlanders onto plain, and urbanization have changed face of the region. Under the Soviet cultural revolution local cultures were secularized. There is a strong demand for educated mullahs in the Caucasus as well as for lawyers who can create Post-Soviet shariat legislation’
Historical specific of the Caucasian modernization Imperial and Soviet Caucasian modernizations Gradual weakening of central power Ethnocratisation of local elites Ineffective regional economy
Archaic Caucasus or Archaic Russia ? Central government interest Regional governments discourse ‘Applied archaic’ ?
The North Caucasian separatism: from self-determination idea to Islamic inspirations Who are Islam followers? People form criminality Yong people who would like to be ‘trendy’ Social marginally