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Unit 4 Important Dates 1. Your projects are due TOMORROW!  PRINT OUT AT HOME! 2. You need headphones on Thursday & Friday (June 3 rd & 4 th ) 3. Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Important Dates 1. Your projects are due TOMORROW!  PRINT OUT AT HOME! 2. You need headphones on Thursday & Friday (June 3 rd & 4 th ) 3. Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Important Dates 1. Your projects are due TOMORROW!  PRINT OUT AT HOME! 2. You need headphones on Thursday & Friday (June 3 rd & 4 th ) 3. Unit 4 Test: Tuesday, June 8th

2 Political Map of the Middle East

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4 U.S. Interests in the Middle East

5 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Promoting regional peace and stability

6 U.S. Military Bases in the Middle East

7 Arms Sales to the Middle East

8 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Maintaining access to the region’s oil Which percentage of the world’s oil reserves does the Middle East have?

9 Who are the top three oil producers in the Middle East?

10 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Ensuring Israel’s security

11 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Resolving Israeli- Palestinian conflict

12 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Strengthening ties with Arab allies (label on your map with a star) Egypt Saudi Arabia Jordan Kuwait UAE Bahrain WHAT HAPPENED TO HIM???

13 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Containing Iran

14 Who are the 2 people here? What is the significance of an olive branch? What is the point of this cartoon?

15 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Combating extremism and terrorism that fuel anti-Western views

16 U.S. Interests in the Middle East Stabilizing and withdrawing from Iraq

17 Two Rival Branches of Islam Sunnis & Shiites (Shia)

18 The Divided Islamic World According to the map, where does it appear that most of the Shia Muslims reside?

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20 What 4 countries on the map are majority Shiite?

21 Sunni vs. Shiite Muslims  85-90% of Muslims are Sunni.  Only 10-15% are Shiite (Shia)  Shiites are the persecuted minority  Shiites make up majority in only four countries:  Iraq  Iran  Bahrain  Azerbaijan

22 CHECK OUT THE READING! Answer the following questions from the reading on Sunnis and Shi’ites: 1) What is the difference in the origins of these branches of Islam? 2) How different are these religions in practice? 3) What makes the leadership of the two branches different? 4) What are the differences in religious texts?

23 The Rise of Iran

24 Power Shift: The Rise of Shiite Dominated Iran

25 Power Shift:  The end of Saddam Hussein’s Sunni controlled government in Iraq left majority Shiite Iran in a far more powerful position.  Sunni Arab governments like Egypt and Saudi Arabia are concerned about the rise of Shiite power in the Middle East  Israel and the US are also concerned about the Shiite rise of power. Why? Who are our allies in the ME?

26 Can Iran Be Contained? By the U.S.?By Israel? By its Sunni neighbors?

27 Conflict in Iraq

28 Iraq’s Divided Population  Sunni Arabs 20%  Shiite Arabs 60%  Sunni Kurds 17%

29 Iraq’s Sunni Arabs  20% of Iraq’s population.  Sunni Baathists controlled the government under Saddam Hussein.  Lost power when U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003.

30 Iraq’s Shiite Arabs  60% of Iraq’s population.  Harshly persecuted under Saddam Hussein.  Now control Iraq’s elected government. Have developed close ties with Iran. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki Iraqi Parliament

31 Saddam Hussein’s Anti-Shiite Propaganda, 1980s

32 Iraq’s Sunni Kurds  17% of Iraq’s population.  Sunni Muslims, but not Arabs.  Fairly liberal Muslims, the Kurds often wear Western-style clothes, and Kurdish women never hide their faces  Hated Saddam Hussein. Fought with U.S. against him.  Largely autonomous and want their own state.

33 Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against Kurdish villages in Several hundred thousand Kurds died in these gas attacks. Saddam’s Gassing of the Kurds, 1988

34 U.S. Invasion of Iraq 2003 Iraqi army easily defeated. Iraqi government collapsed. Saddam Hussein eventually captured, tried, and hanged by Iraq’s new government.

35 The Fall of a Tyrant

36 The Sunni Insurgency in Iraq  Violent Sunni insurgency began soon after the U.S. invaded Iraq.  Most were local Baathists: Iraqi Sunnis trying to regain power and reestablish Sunni- controlled government.  Many were former members of Iraqi military.

37 Al Qaeda in Iraq  A minority of Sunni insurgents are foreign jihadists – Islamic extremists who came to Iraq to fight jihad against the U.S.  “Al Qaeda in Iraq,” tied to al Qaeda and responsible for worst atrocities and attacks.

38 Iraq’s Sectarian Violence  Violence between Sunnis and Shiites.  Sunni jihadists targeted Shiite civilians in order to ignite civil war.  Shiite militia “death squads” retaliated by targeting Sunni civilians.

39 Shiite Extremists in Iraq  Many Shiite militias – some with close ties to Iran.  Mahdi Army – Radical Shitte group led by Moqtada al-Sadr (radical cleric).  Took up arms against coalition forces in 2004.

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41 Why the Decline in Violence in Iraq During Second Half of 2007?  “The Surge” – Bush sent 30,000 more troops to Iraq.  Many Sunni insurgents persuaded to turn against foreign extremists.  Muqtada al Sadr declared cease-fire.

42 U.S. Withdrawal from Iraq  Obama following the same withdrawal schedule as Bush.  All U.S. combat troops withdrawn by the end of  Forces in peacekeeping role

43 Iraq After the U.S. Leaves What concerns about the future of Iraq does this graphic express?

44 The Arab-Israeli Conflict Video Overview of Conflict

45 Unit 4 Day 3 Thurs. June 3rd Notes from “Arab-Israeli Conflict” until “Yasser Arafat: Terrorist or Freedom Fighter? Part 1 of documentary, complete worksheet on pg  You can access the video 2 ways, in my Stu-Public folder and on my Wiki streamed from the internet. Check “1967:Six Day War” article if I didn’t already Last packets given out HW: Bring headphones for tomorrow

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47 Why the hate?

48 The Zionist Movement  Movement to establish Jewish state in Palestine, the biblical homeland of the Jews.  European Jews emigrated to Palestine in large numbers following World War I, with support of League of Nations and the British government.  World’s support for creating Jewish state increased after World War II / Holocaust.

49 The Palestinians  Palestinians were the Arab inhabitants of Palestine.  Opposed creation of Jewish state in their homeland.  Violent conflicts broke out in Palestine between Arabs and Jews. Hundreds died.

50  U.N. partitioned British- controlled Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.  Jews accepted partition plan.  Arabs rejected it U.N. Partition Plan

51 1948 First Arab-Israeli War  May 15 – Israel declared itself an independent state.  Led to first Arab-Israeli War.

52 Israel immediately attacked by five Arab countries.  Egypt  Syria  Jordan  Iraq  Lebanon

53  Israel defeated the combined Arab countries – and seized territory UN had designated for the Palestinians.  Cease-fire agreement ended fighting but Arabs refused to sign peace treaty.  No Arab country recognized Israel.  750,000 Palestinian refugees fled to Arab states. Victorious Israeli soldiers 1948 Palestinian refugees 1948

54 1956 The Suez War  Egypt nationalized Suez Canal.  Israel, Britain and France attacked Egypt and captured the canal and Sinai peninsula.  U.S. opposed attack and U.S. and U.N. imposed a cease-fire and a withdraw from Sinai. Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser

55 1967 The Six Day War  Israel preemptively attacked Egypt after Egypt mobilized its army.  Jordan and Syria attacked Israel.  War ended with decisive victory for Israel and Israel tripled amount of territory it controlled.

56 Results of Six Day War (label on your map) Israel captured this territory in 1967:  Golan Heights from Syria.  West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan.  Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt.

57 Results of the Six Day War  Israel now governed 1 million Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank.  UN Security Council passed Resolution 242 calling for Israel to withdraw from the occupied territories. Israel refused.  Also called for Arab states to recognize Israel and guarantee security of Israel’s borders.

58 Results of the Six Day War  Arab’s suffered humiliating defeat, but Arab leaders remained committed to Israel’s destruction.  Many Palestinians became radicalized and turned to guerilla groups like the PLO.

59 The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)  Yasser Arafat’s group, Fatah, took control of the PLO (1969).  Under Arafat, PLO fought a decades-long guerilla war against Israel to “liberate Palestine.”  Goals: Destruction of Israel and establishment of secular Palestinian state. PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat

60 Israel and U.S. branded Arafat as a terrorist, but he was admired as a freedom fighter by Palestinians and their allies throughout the world. Yasser Arafat: Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?

61 Unit 4 Day 4 Fri. June 4 th (Prom) Notes from “PLO Terrorism” to “New Palestinian Leadership 2004” Part 2 of documentary, complete worksheet on pg  You can access the video in your share drive, my Stu- Public folder or on my Wiki streamed from the internet. HW: Have fun & be safe! Your Middle East Test is on Tuesday!

62 PLO Terrorism Munich Olympics 1972 Palestinian terrorist from “Black September” 11 Israeli athletes and coaches were killed at Munich

63 Yom Kippur War, 1973  Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Jewish holy day.  Israel repelled attack and cease-fire declared.

64 1979 Camp David Accords  Peace treaty signed by Israel and Egypt.  Egypt became first Arab state to recognize Israel.  Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.  Anwar Sadat assassinated by Islamic extremists in President Carter with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin

65 Israel’s Invasion of Lebanon, 1982  Israel invaded Lebanon to destroy PLO bases.  Negotiated settlement allowed Arafat and PLO fighters to go to Tunisia.  Israeli army occupied southern Lebanon for almost 20 years (until 2000)

66 Hezbollah (“Party of God”) Lebanese resistance group formed in response to Israel’s occupation.  Islamic extremists who oppose Israel’s existence.  Supported by Iran and Syria.  Considered to be terrorist group by the U.S. Hezbollah leader Hassen Nasrallah and Hezbollah fighters

67 First Intifada  Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza.  First suicide attacks in Israel.  1,500 Palestinians and 400 Israeli’s died over six years.

68 Hamas  Islamic militant group founded in 1987 with vow to “liberate Palestine through violent jihad.”  Has carried out scores of suicide bombings against Israel during past decade.  Supported by Iran and Syria.

69 1993 Oslo Accords  President Clinton brokered peace agreement between Israel and the PLO.  PLO recognized Israel’s right to exist and renounced use of violence.  PLO goal now a Palestinian state next to Israel. Clinton with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat

70 Oslo Accords: “Land for Peace”  Israel agreed to gradual Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and West Bank as first steps towards establishment of Palestinian state.  Palestinian Authority (PA) created to govern Palestinian territories.  Arafat became first leader of the PA.

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72 Jordanian-Israeli Peace Agreement 1994  Jordan became only the second Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

73 Second Intifada  Clinton’s attempt to reach final settlement between Israel and Palestinians in 2000 failed.  Led to second, more violent, Palestinian uprising.  Dozens of suicide bombings in Israel and Israeli crack- down in Gaza / West Bank left thousands dead.

74 Hamas Suicide Attacks

75 New Palestinian Leadership 2004  Yasser Arafat died in  Mahmoud Abbas elected as Arafat’s successor.

76 Unit 4 Day 5 Mon. June 7th Notes from “Israeli Disengagement” to the end Read “Abbas, Netanyahu spurn US Approach” on pg. 23 and answer questions on pg. 21 HW: Study for your test tomorrow. Don’t forget about the maps!

77 Israeli Disengagement 2005 Israel acted to “disengage” from Palestinians by evacuating all Gaza settlements and withdraw- ing all troops from Gaza.  Also began construction of a controversial security barrier separating Israel from the West Bank.  Israel Dismantling of Settlements Israel Dismantling of Settlements

78 Lebanon War 2006 Hezbollah attacked Israeli civilian areas with rockets and killed eight Israeli soldiers.  Israel responded by bombing and invading Lebanon again to destroy Hezbollah.  Month-long war leaves 1,500 dead before U.N. brokered cease-fire agreement.

79 Hamas Election Victory 2006  Hamas won surprise victory over Fatah in Palestinian elections and takes control of Palestinian parliament.  Creates bitter division b/w Fatah and Hamas.  Western nations cut off aid to Palestinian Authority.

80 Palestinian Civil War 2007  In 2007 fighting broke out in Gaza between Hamas and Fatah forces.  Hamas defeated Fatah and took control of Gaza.  Fatah now controls only the parts of the West Bank not under Israeli occupation. Hamas fighters Fatah fighters

81 Palestinian Power Struggle Today

82 Hamas Fatah Islamic extremists. Supported by Iran and Syria. No recognition of Israel. Controls all of Gaza. Secular moderates. Supported by U.S., E.U. and most Arab states. Wants peace with Israel. Controls parts of West Bank not under Israel control. Hamas vs. Fatah: How They Compare

83 War in Gaza 2008  Almost daily rocket attacks against Israeli towns provoked Israeli air strikes and ground assault against Hamas in Gaza.  Three week long war killed 1,400 Palestinians and 13 Israelis.  Both sides accused of war crimes (deliberately targeting civilians) and Israel widely criticized for using excessive force.

84 Unresolved Issues What are the unresolved issues preventing a final peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinians? President Obama with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Malmond Abbas.

85 Unresolved Issue # 1 Permanent Borders of Palestinian State  Palestinians want Israeli to withdraw to pre-1967 borders  Future Palestinian state most likely in Gaza Strip and West Bank but exact borders are still undecided  Israel still occupies and controls parts of the West Bank. 300,000 Jewish settlers now live in the West Bank and Israel has annexed some West Bank territory.

86 Israeli West Bank Settlements

87 Peace Process Stalled Over Settlements  Palestinians insist that Israel halt expansion of all settlements before they’ll return to peace talks.  Current Israeli government has so far refused. Building 700 apartments in East Jerusalem as of Dec. 09  Obama has backed off demands for complete halt to construction.  Palestinians have accused U.S. of “backpedaling” on settlement issue. Obama and Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu Obama and Palestinian President Abbas

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89 Unresolved Issue # 2 Palestinian Refugees and Right of Return  Four million displaced Palestinians today living in refugee camps in occupied territories and neighboring Arab states.  Palestinians want refugees or their descendants to be able to return to homes they lost in  Israel has rejected idea of refugees returning to Israel. Would threaten existence of Israel as a Jewish state.

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91 Unresolved Issue # 3 Control of East Jerusalem  Palestinians want East Jerusalem as the capital of their future state.  Israel has annexed East Jerusalem and has vowed it will never give it up.  Residents of East Jerusalem mostly Palestinians, but 250,000 Israelis now live there as well.

92 Unresolved Issue # 4 Secure Borders for Israel How to guarantee security of Israel’s borders if radicals refuse to recognize Israel’s right to exist and continue to launch cross- border attacks?

93 Unit 4 Day 6 Tues. June 8th Middle East Test Complete crossword for “Conflict and Cooperation” Review Final Exam Essay work

94 Map of the Middle East: Label me correctly using the countries below please Iran Iraq Syria Saudi Arabia Lebanon Israel Jordan Kuwait Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan Oman Yemen

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96 #3#3 Please label the territories captured by Israel in the 1967 Six Day War: 1. Golan Heights 2. West Bank 3. Gaza Strip 4. Sinai Peninsula

97 Unit 4 Day 1 Tues. June 1st Test Video of Arab-Israeli Conflict in Lab Copy into your share drive Label Map of the Middle East in lab and answer question at the bottom Add Bahrain, Egypt and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

98 Unit 4 Day 1 Tues. June 1 st (continued) PP Notes until “Can Iran Be Contained?” 1. Go to “My Computer” 2. WST_SHARES 3. Besack 4. STU_PUBLIC 5. IR Unit 4 Middle East PowerPoint Review map HW: Your final projects are due tomorrow whether you are here or not!

99 Unit 4 Day 2 Wed. June 2nd Middle East Test Review given out Notes from “Conflict in Iraq” until ‘Iraq After the US Leaves” Video overview of “Arab-Israeli Conflict” Read and answer questions to “1967: Six-Day War” article on pg Read timeline first. HW: Finish article questions if you didn’t in class. You need headphones for tomorrow & Friday!

100 Unit 4 Day 3 Thurs. June 3rd Notes from “Arab-Israeli Conflict” until “Yasser Arafat: Terrorist or Freedom Fighter? Part 1 of documentary, complete worksheet on pg  You can access the video 2 ways, in my Stu-Public folder and on my Wiki streamed from the internet. Check “1967:Six Day War” article if I didn’t already Last packets given out HW: Bring headphones for tomorrow

101 Unit 4 Day 4 Fri. June 4 th (Prom) Notes from “PLO Terrorism” to “New Palestinian Leadership 2004” Part 2 of documentary, complete worksheet on pg  You can access the video in your share drive, my Stu- Public folder or on my Wiki streamed from the internet. HW: Have fun & be safe! Your Middle East Test is on Tuesday!

102 Unit 4 Day 5 Mon. June 7th Notes from “Israeli Disengagement” to the end Read “Abbas, Netanyahu spurn US Approach” on pg. 23 and answer questions on pg. 21 HW: Study for your test tomorrow. Don’t forget about the maps!

103 Unit 4 Day 6 Tues. June 8th Middle East Test Complete crossword for “Conflict and Cooperation” Review Final Exam Essay work


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