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Reading into writing Shared reading into writing PGCE FT - Week 4.

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1 Reading into writing Shared reading into writing PGCE FT - Week 4

2 Objectives To understand how talk and reading are integral to the writing process To appreciate the complexity of the writing process To consider the place of purposeful activities for writing

3 Talk to Text ‘ It is through language, especially spoken language, that teachers teach and children learn ’. (Alexander 2004, p2)

4 KS2 English SATs results (2009) Achieving Level 4 or above English 81% (85% for girls, 76% for boys) Reading 86% (89% for girls, 83% for boys) Writing 67% (74% for girls, 60% for boys) Increase of 1% in English, up 2% in reading, no change in writing from 2007, but girls’ performance in writing down by 2%

5 The teacher’s role “The aim is not to impart knowledge about language but to develop each child’s individual writing voice. Having something to say – and knowing that whatever it is will be valued by the reader is the first step to effective communication in writing.” Mary Hilton (2001)

6 Writing as a tool for thinking? Writing as art? Writing communication? Writing as record? Writing as design? Writing as personal response? Writing as…..?

7 An unresolved dilemma? Composition (author) Getting ideas, selecting words, grammar Transcription (secretary) Physical effort of writing, spelling, capitalisation, punctuation, paragraphs, legibility Smith (1982)

8 PLANNING GENERATING ORGANIZING GOAL SETTING REVIEWING EVALUATING REVISING a.word level b.sentence level c.discourse level Metacognition – Declarative and Procedural THE WRITER’S LONG TERM MEMORY Knowledge of Topic Knowledge of Audience Stored Writing plans Modification of the Hayes-Flower Model for beginning and developing writing. (Berninger and Swanson, 1994) TRANSLATING Affect Social Context Motivation WRITING PROCESSES (Advanced) THE WRITER’S WORKING MEMORY Hold knowledge retrieved from LTM while planning, translating and revising. (Post –translating) On-line planning Off-line planning 1.Text generation a.Word level b.Sentence level c.Discourse level 2. Transcription (Idea generating)

9 A writing process? Reading Ideas Drafting Writing Evaluating Re-drafting Outcome

10 ‘…turning verbal thought into text is a demanding task…’ Hayes and Flower, 1980, p. 39

11 Why? Rhona Stainthorp & Nafisa Rauf

12 Talk to Text Process talk to support idea generation and communicative intent (Idea generation) Presentational talk to support text generation and linguistic choices. (Write Alouds) Reflective talk to develop metacognitive knowledge and communicative awareness. (Reflection) The challenge: time versus pace

13 ‘The reader in the writer’ “Reading aloud seemed to be a particularly helpful way of foregrounding the tunes and rhythms of a text in a way that subsequently influenced writing.” “It seems unlikely that there can be any fundamental writing development without reading development and vice versa. Progress in one is intimately related to and dependent on progress in the other.” Barrs & Cork (2001)

14 Reading supports writing “Just as exposure to print is essential for reading, so it is for writing. Children who have a wide experience of story form find it easier to reproduce coherent narratives.” (p.61) Flynn & Stainthorp (2006)

15 What do you need to know? That writing is made up of compositional and transcriptional elements That the two elements need to be understood and approached in different ways That you need to consider the kinds of writing activities you plan for That there is a language needed about writing

16 Things you may see/hear in school Grammar for Writing (document) Read/Write Inc. (scheme) Big Writing (approach) VCOP (linked to Ros Wilson’s Big Writing) Pie Corbett - Storymaking, talk for writing Text, sentence, word level Teachers as Writers

17 What do you want to be? A writing teacher or a teacher of writing? Bearne (2002)

18 Research into writing More is written about reading Writing is complex Key researchers: Donald Graves (1970s) Frank Smith (1980s) Hayes & Flower (1980s) Berninger & colleagues (1990) David Wray (1990s) Jane Medwell (1990s/2000+) Eve Bearne (1990s/2000+)

19 Approaches to writing Genre approach - NLS Process approach – Graves, Smith, Bearne Skills approach – Hayes & Flower, Berninger et al, Wray & Medwell

20 Useful research - Eve Bearne Writing is not a ‘one off’ activity - evidence in late 1980s & 1990s sees writing as a verb - an activity - something that is the process of construction. Process of putting text is seen as central to creating meaning - seen as a series of activities rather than a single piece of evidence. Writing results in writing - so also results in a product. In the 1980s research from Australia focused on the notion that there was too much ‘recount’ writing - ‘do it then write about it’ and not enough on all forms of writing.

21 More research… Writing is not just how to structure a text but is shaped by social and cultural factors. Vygotsky emphasised the need for a social element - ‘inner speech’ develops from social speech and this is critical for writing as writing is speech without the person there. In writing they are taking part in an inner dialogue which moves faster than speaking. Bearne, E. (2002) Making progress in writing. London: RoutledgeFalmer

22 The importance of early writing Past research has established that: children with varied, regular writing experiences progress better than those with fewer and narrower writing opportunities; the writing experiences of many pupils in British primary classrooms have been ‘fragmentary and discontinuous’; there has been little awareness by teachers of appropriate developmental expectations and hence little progression in teaching writing; motivated writers enjoy both the activity and the completion of a task; those anxious about writing generally say they don’t enjoy it, procrastinate, or avoid writing, and have difficulty generating content; teacher assessments of a child’s attitude to writing relate strongly to that child’s actual writing ability. Dunsmuir, S. & Blatchford, P. (2004)

23 Study findings Key findings: oChildren writing at home was still just as important at the end of KS1 as it was on entry to school; oTeacher’s assessment of writing attitude was a more helpful indicator than writing ‘scores’; oDevelopment of handwriting fluency appears to be significantly related to the development of compositional skills and fluency in the early stages of learning to write. oImplications for your practice ? Dunsmuir, S. & Blatchford, P. (2004)

24 How to support children’s writing? Know the child’s stage of development Know what writers do Assess and monitor children’s progress in narrative and non-narrative writing Provide opportunities for purposeful writing activities Make the time for children to produce quality work Make links with other curriculum areas Inform and involve parents

25 Image copyright ng_.jpg ng_.jpg content/uploads/2008/09/succeedsign1.jpg content/uploads/2008/09/succeedsign1.jpg presentation-task/lcta-research-writing-and-oral-presentation-task/writing-photo presentation-task/lcta-research-writing-and-oral-presentation-task/writing-photo 20Record.pdf.00.jpg 20Record.pdf.00.jpg

26 Bibliography Barrs, M. & Cork, V. The Reader in the Writer. London:CLPE Bearne, E. (2002) Making progress in writing. London: RoutledgeFalmer Corbett, P. (2006) The Bumper Book of Storytelling into Writing KS1. Wiltshire: Clown Publishing Corbett, P. (2003) How to teach story writing at KS1. London: David Fulton Flynn, N. & Stainthorp, R. (2006) The Learning and Teaching of Reading and Writing. Bognor Regis: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Hayes, J., & Flower, L. (1980)/ Identifying the organisation of writing processes. In L. Gregg & E. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Howe, C., & Johnson, J. (1992) Common Bonds: Storytelling in the classroom. London: HOdder & Stoughton Latham, D. (2002) How Children Learn to Write: Supporting and developing children's writing in schools. London: Paul Chapman Mercer N (1995) The Guided Construction of Knowledge. Multilingual Matters: Clevedon Ofsted (2009) English at the Crossroads. London: Ofsted by/Documents-by-type/Thematic-reports/English-at-the-crossroads-an- evaluation-of-English-in-primary-and-secondary-schools-2005-08 by/Documents-by-type/Thematic-reports/English-at-the-crossroads-an- evaluation-of-English-in-primary-and-secondary-schools-2005-08 Rosen, M. (1998) Did I hear you write? Nottingham: Five Leaves

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