Presentation on theme: "A Jewish State is Created British Balfour Declaration – Arthur Balfour, British Foreign Secretary declares that he favors the establishment of a Jewish."— Presentation transcript:
A Jewish State is Created British Balfour Declaration – Arthur Balfour, British Foreign Secretary declares that he favors the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine Following the Holocaust, many Europeans felt the Jews should return to their homeland in remembrance of the 6 million victims Arabs, consider the Jews invaders and violent conflict emerges The United Nations Resolution – 1947 –the United Nations partitioned the Palestine area into two (one Arab and one Jewish)
May 14, 1948 – independence of a Jewish state, Israel is declared with the support of U.S. President Harry Truman first prime minister was David Ben-Gurion Arab nations; Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq immediately invade Israel but are defeated in 1949, as Israel expands its borders Cold War implications – United States and Israel become firm allies, while the Soviet Union supports the Arabs
Left map: Israel (1947) Right map: Israel (1949)
The Six Day War (1967) Israel was invaded by Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Israel defeated the Arab nations and took claim to the West Bank (Jordan), the Golan Heights (Syria), and the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) A UN resolution forced Israel to withdraw and return all lands back to the Arab nations. Religious and cultural differences still the root of conflict in the area. Many experts believe if a World War III would occur it would happen here. The U.S. still backs Israel while Arab countries like Iran feel Jews are intruding on Muslim Holy Land
Map 29–4 ISRAEL AND ITS NEIGHBORS IN 1949 The territories gained by Israel in 1949 did not secure peace in the region. In fact, the disposition of those lands and the Arab refugees who live there has constituted the core of the region’s unresolved problems to the present day.
Possible Easing of Cold War Tensions armistice in Koreas, the death of Stalin, and a summit in Geneva over nuclear weapons and Germany seem to indicate an easing of the Cold War Geneva meeting provides little agreement and the Cold War soon resumes
Nikita Khrushchev (1953-1964) Replaced Stalin after his mysterious death in 1953 In “The Secret Speech,” Khrushchev condemned the vicious rule of Stalin Started “de-Stalinization”—reducing the power of the secret speech Allowed more intellectual freedom BUT, Hungarian uprising of 1956 was crushed by the Red Army Retreated from Stalin, but not from Communism or authoritarian gov’t
Timeline: Tensions increase 1956 the US and SU began to talk about “peaceful coexistence” 1957 SU launches Sputnik, first satellite to orbit the earth SIGNIFICANCE? 1958 Negotiations began to limit nuclear testing 1959 U.S. leaders (VP Nixon) visited Moscow and Khrushchev toured the U.S.
Paris Summit Conference A meeting was scheduled for the leaders of several countries to meet in Paris Just before the SU shot down an American U-2 spy plane Khrushchev demanded an apology from Pres. Eisenhower He refused Khrushchev was in Paris but did not attend the conference Back where we started NO TRUST!
The Berlin Wall In 1961 a large number of Germans were leaving East Germany to escape communism and entering West Berlin Aug. 1961 a concrete wall was built to separate West and East Berlin U.S. does not respond to the wall while West Berliners plea for help
Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis A U.S. spy plane discovered the SU was building missile silos in Cuba JFK and Khrushchev came as close to WWIII as any point after WWII until Khrushchev backed down The Soviet Union removes missiles from Cuba The United States removes missiles from Turkey The United States and Soviet Union avoid nuclear war Kennedy and Khrushchev establish a “hot line” telephone system to keep communications open Moscow to Washington D.C.
In 1963, the U.S., Great Britain, and the Soviet Union signed the Nuclear Test Ban which ended aboveground nuclear tests Khrushchev lost prestige in the SU and will be removed from power in 1964
The Brezhnev Era On Oct. 16, 1964 Khrushchev was forced to resign CMC fiasco, rebellions by Hungary and Poland during the 1950s Poor agricultural production Leonid Brezhnev emerged as the dominant figure in SU Communist Party Was considered a hardline communist
1968: Invasion of Czechoslovakia “Prague Spring” Alexander Dubcek began to experiment with liberal communism freedom of discussion SU and Warsaw allies sent troops and replaced Dubcek
In the summer of 1968, Soviet tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia, ending that country’s experiment in liberalized communism. This picture shows defiant flag-waving Czechs on a truck rolling past a Soviet tank in the immediate aftermath of the invasion. Hulton Archive Photos/Getty Images, Inc.
Brezhnev Doctrine declared the right of the SU to interfere in communist countries to sustain communist gov’ts of Eastern Europe
Détente with the United States Nixon’s “détente” or cooling off relations with the Soviets during the late 60s and early 70s Nixon, Henry Kissinger and Brezhnev conclude agreements on trade and reduction of nuclear arms 1972—Nixon visits Moscow and China—1 st in U.S. History President Gerald Ford, SU and other European nations sign Helsinki Accord the Soviet sphere is Eastern Europe as long as human rights are protected
1979:Invasion of Afghanistan Brezhnev gov’t invaded to ensure SU influence in central Asia U.S. embargoed grain shipments to SU, boycotted 1980 Olympics in Moscow, sent aid to Afghan rebels CIA directed rebel forces of whom were radical Muslims Conflict will last for 10 years resulting in about 20,000 SU deaths
Reagan Ends Détente Ronald Reagan elected in 1980 and 1984 and begins presidency by calling the Soviets the “Evil Empire” Reagan begins a massive military buildup and pushes for “Star Wars” The Soviets unable to keep pace will begin to feel the financial crippling of their country REVOLUTION IS COMING!!!
Mikhail Gorbachev Becomes Soviet leader in 1985 Introduces “glasnost” (openness) and “perestroika” (restructuring) with the SU Will be the leader when the Revolutions of 1989 engulf Eastern Europe and the Berlin Wall is torn down
Reagan Ends Détente P. 1133 Read last section on Reagan and answer the following question. How did Ronald Reagan change the path of the Cold War ending détente and pushing the SU towards its financial downfall?