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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis.

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1 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis

2 The mind is like an iceberg. Most of it is beneath the surface.


4 Should I eat a bacon-double cheese burger? Id – “Yes. It is yummy and I am hungry.” Superego – “No. It is bad for my health. It is not an ecologically sustainable way to eat.” Ego – Uses defense mechanism (rationalization) to satisfy id and superego. “Well, just this one time won’t hurt. I’m in a big hurry and wouldn’t it be worse if I had a sensible meal and then had to speed to get to my meeting on time?” Skit

5 Freud’s Psychsexual Stages of development He believed personality forms during life’s first few years. Unresolved conflicts from early childhood causes problems as adults

6 Oral Stage (0-18 mo.)

7 Anal Stage (18-36 mo.)

8 Phallic Stage (Age 3-6) Penis envy

9 Latency Stage (Age 6-12)

10 Genital Stage (Puberty on)

11 Defense Mechanisms (ways to deal with ID) Reaction Formation – act contrary to genuine feelings in order to keep true feelings hidden Repression - push anxiety causing feelings to unconscious Projection - people see their own faults in others Rationalization - self deception JUSTIFY Displacement - transfer of impulse from an unsuitable object to less threatening object (kick the dog) Regression – return to behavior characteristic of earlier stage of development Sublimation – socially acceptable way to del with basic impulses

12 Name that defense mechanism 1.A physically abusive parent claiming that a beating is good for the child. 2.An 8-year-old child whose parents are getting divorced starts wetting the bed. 3.A young woman forcing the memories of sexual abuse into her unconscious mind. 4.After suffering major losses in the stock market, Jim trades in his luxury car for a small, cheaper car claiming that he is doing his part in the battle against air pollution.

13 Name that defense mechanism. 5. After getting fired, Mr. James has been grumpy and short with his wife. 6. An aggressive young man takes up rugby to re-channel his aggressive impulses. 7. A student forgot that his dreaded final exam in geometry was Friday, despite having it marked on his calendar for weeks. 8. A young woman from a strict moral background becoming actively involved in an anti-pornography campaign.

14 Assessing the Unconscious Hypnosis Freudian slips Dream Interpretation Free Association (having them just randomly talk to themselves…and then interpreting the conversation). Projective Tests –Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests.

15 Thematic Aperception Test (TAT)

16 RorschacH Inkblot Test


18 Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler Karen Horney Carl Jung

19 Modern Psychoanalysis (Psychodynamic ) Reject: –Psychosexual stages –Id, ego, superego Maintain: − Role of the unconscious − Ego has more control that Freud believed − Inner conflicts and Defense mechanisms

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