5Origin of the term “third culture” Third Culture (International Lifestyle)First Culture (Home/Passport)Second Culture (Host)(“Neither/Nor World”)
6Dave Pollock’s TCK Definition “A person who has spent a significant part of his or her developmental years outside the parents' culture(s)...Pretty basic…we’ll understand more of her insights in a couple of minutes.
7Characteristics of third culture? Cross-cultural lifestyleHigh mobilityExpected repatriationOften a “system identity”Make the point that it is this expected repatriation which affects all as you can never quite settle down”? Are there different ways TCAs and tCKs process the pros;pect of one day returning ‘home”?
11Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK) A Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK) is a person who is living in—or meaningfully interacting with—two or more cultural environments for a significant period of time during developmental years of childhood (first 18 years of life).A Cross-Cultural Adult (CCA) is one who made first significant cross-cultural interaction as an adultAdult Cross-Cultural Kid (ACCK) is someone who grew up as a CCK.Ruth E. Van Reken, co-author, Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds, 2002
12Examples of Cross-Cultural Kids TCKsCross-CulturalKidsDomesticTCKsBi (Double?)culturalKidsChildren ofMinoritiesBiracialKidsInternationalAdopteesChildren ofImmigrantsChildren ofBorder-landersEducationalCCKsChildren ofRefugees
14Barack Obama’s Circles Bus. KidsOtherGrowing ComplexityBarack Obama’s CirclesMil. KidsForeignSer.KidsTCKsCross-CulturalKidsDomesticTCKsMiss. KidsBiculturalKidsPrivilegedChildren ofMinoritiesBiracialKidsDiscriminatedInternationalAdopteesBut our discussion is not for academic pupspose alone…The reality is that many TCKs are not only TCKs but members of the others subgroups as well. Many who live and work in the international and global workforcs have grown up with increasintly complicated stories. We can no longer put people in this convenienet box or that…even a TCK box….how are we going to think through the complications of cultural identity presnet among us? How do we deal with the issues of the oftne hdiden diversities now among us rather than the convenient categories of the past? ; So that’s why we have congregated this panel today…to look at the complexity of cultural worlds and upbringings in our day..to see what are common themes, what may be added layers and to start the discussion on where we now are and where we are going. I wantt to welcome Doug Ota, Smitha Day, Foojahn Zeine, and Doni Ambrosine.Children ofImmigrantsChildren ofBorder-landersEducationalCCKsChildren ofRefugees
15A quiz…What’s your story? Cross- Cultural Adults (CCAs) - ) Those who made first significant cross-cultural interaction as an adultThird Culture Adults (TCAs) - Those who make their first long-term international cross-cultural move as adults.Cross-Cultural Kids (CCKs) - those who interact menaingfully with various cultural worlds as children.Third Culture Kids (TCKs) -“Children who accompany their parents into another culture.”Ruth Useem’s definitionAdult Cross-Cultural Kids - those who grew up as CCKs of any sortThird Culture Kids (ATCKs) - Those who grew up as TCKsOther?
16What do you consider gifts and challenges of this lifestyle for the children? (Remember “paradox”!) Large world view vs. ignorance of passport cultureSwitching between school and home culture vs. opportunity to interact with others of different backgroundsLinguistic skills vs. linguistic confusionCultural chameleon: adaptability vs. lack of true cultural balanceArrogance: real vs. perceivedBelonging “everywhere and nowhere”Great opportunity to travel/see the world vs. rootless and restlessIndependence vs. isolationGuardedness in forming close relationshipsall rights reserved Ruth E. Van Reken
17Practical skills often acquired Can be effective cultural bridgeLanguage skillsObservational skillsThinking “outside the box”AdaptabilityConfidenceTo start something newTo move and start again
18Common long term challenges TCKs may face Question of identity“Which of my many selves am I?”“I never feel like I belong anywhere….”Unresolved griefDepressionWithdrawal, etcall rights reserved Ruth E. Van Reken
19To understand the identity issues… What is the difference between a traditional monocultural upbringing and a cross- cultural upbringing?
20What is culture?“Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.” --Webster’s Tenth Collegiate Dictionary\“. . . System of shared assumptions, beliefs and values. It is the framework from which we interpret and make sense of life and the world around us.” --Paul Hiebert, Cultural Anthropology, 2d ed.
21Role of the visible and invisible elements of culture Dr. Gary Weaver’s Cultural IcebergFoodTraditionsCustomsLanguageValuesBeliefsWorldviewThe visible and invisible…visible has traditionally identified the invisible….now not so much
22Culture How is culture learned? How is a sense of “cultural balance” learned?How does that relate to identity development?This is true for anyone..not just TCKs..makes a point later on….that it is world in which they learn culture that is different, not the process…culture is caught, not taught, so goes one saying…
23What is the difference in how traditional monocultural kids and TCK/CCKs “learn culture” and thus, identity?Not the process but the worlds in which their development takes/took placeHome in Afghanistanof Chinese Canadian mom,White Canadian dad, childrenattend multinational school
24Possible Multiple Spheres of Cultural Influence in a TCK/CCK’s World ParentalSponsoring Organization?CaregiversSchoolCross-Cultural KidsWhere TheyLive NowEthnicSubculture?PreviousPlace(s) TheyLivedAdapted from chart by Norma McCaig, Founder of Global Nomads International
25The “Changing Mirror” of TCKs/CCKs’ Cultural Identity in Relationship to Surrounding Dominant CultureForeignerHidden ImmigrantLook Different Think DifferentLook Alike Think DifferentAdoptedMirrorLook Different Think AlikeLook Alike Think AlikePolVan Cultural Identity
26This leads to…Hidden Diversity— a diversity of experience that shapes a person’s life and world view but is not readily apparent on the outside, unlike the usual diversity markers such as race, ethnicity, nationality, etcRuth E.Van Reken and Paulette Bethel, CIES,
27Common reactions as TCKs/CCKs try to sort out identity issues… “Chameleon”—tries to find “same as” identity“Screamer”—tries to find “different from” identity“Wallflower”—tries to find “non-identity” (be invisible)
28In the end, even parents and children in the same family may not necessarily share… A common sense of national identityA similar sense of “Where is home?”
29Other fallout … In interpersonal relationships Spouses/significant othersPeers at university or workplaceTeachers
31What creates “high mobility” in our world? Cycles of mobilityFrequency of mobilityCommunity of mobilityObviously, high mobility is an adult issue too….
32What happens with each cycle of mobility? Each move involves going through a transition cycleMultiple mini-transitions may be in each big one
33Stages of Transition Cycle (David C. Pollock’s model) InvolvementLeaving (Change)TransitionEntryRe-involvement
34What happens with each cycle of mobility? Everyone in the family will be going through transition but not all at the same pace!
35What happens with each cycle of mobility? What happens with each move? Each transition cycle involves loss as well as potential gain
36What happens with each cycle of mobility? What happens with each move? The loss of something you love leads to griefGrief will always be expressed, either consciously or unconsciously
37Expressions of unresolved grief stages based on Dr Expressions of unresolved grief stages based on Dr. Elisabeth Kühbler Ross’s workDenialAngerBargainingSadness/DepressionWithdrawalRebellionVicarious griefDelayed griefThis is where the hiding begins to come…not wanting others or HR to know of all this yuk going on behind closed doors…and yet, this is what will spill over into the workplace as well…none of us can totally segregate ourselves from another part of ourself…at least not healthfully or for long.Anger can come out again at HR, fellow employees, anyone.Depression can lead to missed work days, to lower productivity, just as any depression can.Vicarious grief…putting on someone, something else…overreactions to things. TEENANGELGRIEF will ALWAYS manifest…need to learn how to mourn. Perhaps develop rituals of mourning for our mobile community!
38The Grief Wheel stages based on Dr. Elisabeth Kühbler Ross’s work Wheel model by Pam Davis, counselor
39Biggest long term challenge of high mobility… Unresolved grief
40To understand why grief from these losses is often unresolved… Lack of awarenessLosses are often “hidden” because they are intangible or invisible: What might some be?Loss of a worldLoss of the dreamLoss of statusLoss of a sense of “system identity”Loss of a sense of cultural balanceLoss of cultural cohesion in the familyLoss of lifestyleLoss of possessionsLoss of relationshipsLoss of system identityLoss of the past that wasn’tLoss of the past that was
41To understand why unresolved grief occurs… Lack of permission to grieveGrief is discountedGrief is compared to the higher goodGrief is deniedLack of time to processLack of comfortDifference between comfort and encouragement
42Helping TCKs/CCKs Grow and Build with Cultural Piece
43How to help – Understand! “Normalize” the process – remember they are KIDS!!!!Understand the dynamicsRecognize and validate relationship with “international culture” or “cross-cultural culture” as well as national/family culture
44How parents can help with identity issues Develop a strong sense of family identityUse portable traditionsVacation as you travelMaintain close contact with relatives here and “there”Keep threads of connection strong“Sacred objects”
45For identity issuesFor globally mobile families, try to keep a permanent “home base” of some sort in passport culture if you plan to returnConsider how each move works in the grand scheme of entire family’s needs
46Validate and build with “intentionality” on practical skills often acquired Intentionally learn about places you live and visitHistoryGeographyCultureMaintain languages learnedTeach kids good packing skills!!
47Help educators know your child’s story… Application formsParent-teacher conferencesWriting, art, discussion in class
48How to help When TCKs/CCKs react Remind them that they don’t have to reject either the past or the present to preserve the other – they can be both/and(But don’t be mad at them!)
49Helping with other challenges Recognize possible symptoms related to “identity box” Try to understand the “statement” they are making with their behaviorIs it the only way they know to try and find their unique identity?Is it grief?Is it fear of losing their past?
50How to help (cont.)Help TCKs realize they can be both/and, not either/or“My life is like Window Each part is open and accessible, but I have to operate in the one that’s on the screen.”Journey of clarification
51Helping TCKs/CCKs Grow and Build with Mobility Piece
52For mobility: In Second Stage - Leaving (Change) What we can doBuild a RAFTReconciliationAffirmationFarewellsTo peopleTo placesTo petsTo possessionsThink DestinationHow do we build a RAFT for different ages?
53For mobility: in transition (and later) stage… Name our losses, (obvious & hidden) sometimes by affirming the past!JournalScrapbookTalking to someone who will listen without “fixing”PaintingMusic
54Critical point when entering: flip side of the RAFT – the Bye/Hi “Unpack your bags and plant your trees”Say hello wellAccept invitations to meet othersHelp kids explore new environmentFind good mentorInvite others over
55Strategies for growing through transition Find ways to keep in contact with the past while moving to the futureJourney of clarificationInternetSkype
56Strategies for growing through transition For “reentry,” help children think through the answer to “Where are you from?” before they repatriateFor families sending children to university in a culture outside passport culture, maintain “sense of home” here and seek to make connections for support there
57Strategies for growing through transition, including reentry Remember your kids may need some extra helpDon’t assume they know all you doTutorPractical lessons from you!
58Strategies for growing through transition, including reentry Remind your kids that they can never lose what they have gained as TCKs/CCKsMoving towards the future (including their passport culture) is simply building on that foundation