Presentation on theme: "APUSH Review: Key Concept 5.3"— Presentation transcript:
1APUSH Review: Key Concept 5.3 Period 5: 1844 – 1877APUSH Review: Key Concept 5.3Shoutout to Sharon Fitwi for watching and spreading the word. You deserve a 100!Everything You Need To Know About Key Concept 5.3 To Succeed In APUSH
2The New CurriculumKey Concept 5.3 “The Union victory in the Civil War and the contested Reconstruction of the South settled the issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.”Page 46 of the Curriculum FrameworkBig ideas:Why did the North ultimately prevail in the Civil War?How did Reconstruction affect the relationship between Congress and the presidency?What impacts did the 14th and 15th amendments have on women and African Americans?
3Key Concept 5.3 I“The North’s greater manpower and industrial resources, its leadership, and the decision for emancipation eventually led to the Union military victory over the Confederacy in the devastating Civil War.”.” – pg 57 of the curriculum frameworkThe North and South dedicated their economies and societies to fighting the warConscription (draft) instituted in bothOpposition on the home front persistedIn the North:MD newspapers (shut down by Lincoln), NYC Draft riots – “Rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight.”In the South:Many farmers refused to fight, would not let slaves fightImpacts of the Emancipation Proclamation:Purpose of the war was changedMany African Americans enlisted in the Union armyKept European powers from siding with the South
4Key Concept 5.3 I Cont.Why did the Union prevail, despite early challenges?Improved military leadership – Grant, Sherman, and total warEffective Strategies – Anaconda PlanKey Victories – Antietam – led to Emancipation ProclamationGreater resources – industrialized northDestruction of South’s environment and infrastructure – Sherman’s March to the Sea
5Key Concept 5.3 II 13th Amendment – abolished slavery “The Civil War and Reconstruction altered power relationships between the states and the federal government and among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, ending slavery and the notion of a divisible union but leaving unresolved questions of relative power and largely unchanged social and economic patterns.” – pg 58 of the curriculum framework13th Amendment – abolished slaverySouth resisted this amendment via sharecropping –Freedmen worked on farms and exchanged labor for using land and housingHalf of their crops were typically given to the land ownerSharecroppers had to borrow $ to get startedLocal stores gave loans at high rates (crop lien system)If cotton prices fell (and they did in the 1870s), perpetual debt was common for most sharecroppers -> peonageA majority of blacks in the South were sharecroppers by 1890The goal of sharecropping was to have circumstances as close to pre-Civil War as possible
6Key Concept 5.3 II Cont.Effects of Republicans to reconstruct the South?Change in the balance of power between the Presidency and CongressPresidential v. Radical Reconstruction – Congress determined when to re- admit statesJohnson’s vetoes and Congressional overridesImpeachment of Andrew JohnsonReunited the UnionPolitical and leadership opportunities for former slaves:Robert Smalls – steamer pilot that brought a ship to the Union navy during the Civil War; later became a CongressmanRearranged relationships between whites and blacks in the South (albeit temporarily)Hiram Revels – Senator from MS (Jefferson Davis’ former seat), first African American to serve in the SenateVS.
7Key Concept 5.3 II Cont.Why did Radical Republicans not succeed in changing racial attitudes, culture, and establishing a base for their party?Determined Southern Resistance:“Redeemer” governments:Local and state governments that ousted Republican governmentsOften done through violence and intimidationKKK terrorized blacks and RepublicansNorth’s waning resolve:Death of Charles Sumner in 1874Panic of 1873 tainted Republican Party and many began to call for a smaller government
8Key Concept 5.3 III 14th and 15th amendments provided for: “The constitutional changes of the Reconstruction period embodied a Northern idea of American identity and national purpose and led to conflicts over new definitions of citizenship, particularly regarding the rights of African Americans, women, and other minorities.” – pg 58 of the curriculum framework14th and 15th amendments provided for:Citizenship, equal protection of the laws, and suffrage for African American malesHowever, these rights were restricted through:Segregation – Jim Crow lawsViolence – KKK – intimidated African Americans and tried to prevent them from votingSupreme Court decisionsCivil Rights Cases – individuals and private businesses could discriminatePlessy v. Ferguson – Segregated facilities were OK, as long as they were “equal”Local political tactics – poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests
9Key Concept 5.3 III Cont.Impact of the 14th and 15th amendments on the Women’s Rights Movement?Divided the women’s rights movement:Frederick Douglass and others favored black suffrage PRIOR to women’s suffrageElizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony feared women’s suffrage would not be granted any time soonAlthough the 13 – 15 amendments were restricted in the short term, they later would be used to uphold civil rights:1950s – 1960s Civil Rights Movement – Brown v. Board
10Test Tips Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Questions: Essay Questions: Reasons for the Union’s victory in the Civil WarWays the South resisted Reconstruction AmendmentsHow Reconstruction changed relationship between Congress and the presidencyEssay Questions:Connecting Reconstruction Amendments to Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s-60sPolitical and Social impacts of Reconstruction on American society
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