Presentation on theme: "Ratification of the Constitution Designing and Approving the New Republic This presentation is the property of Dr. Kevin Parsneau for use by him and his."— Presentation transcript:
Ratification of the Constitution Designing and Approving the New Republic This presentation is the property of Dr. Kevin Parsneau for use by him and his current students. No other person may use or reprint without his permission.
Ratification What happened during the debates about the decision to agree to live under the new Constitution? What were the main problems in early America prior to ratification of the Constitution? How did the people who wrote the Constitution try to address those problems? What were some major criticisms and concerns and were they legitimate?
The Atmosphere Revolutionary War ( ) Articles of Confederation (1777) – Weak national government/ subordinate to states – Division – federal government couldn't print $ – states went separate ways after Revolutionary War – Any single state could veto Shays’s Rebellion (1786) Constitutional Convention (1787)
Shays’s Rebellion 1786 uprising by farmers and veterans in western Massachusetts raised questions about the durability of the Articles of Confederation. Many felt that the states were not strong enough to put down revolts, so many they should re-write the Articles.
Constitutional Convention Delegates were sent by the states to change the Articles of Confederation, but they decided instead to create a whole new document. They agreed to do so in secret without public record. "That nothing spoken in the house be printed, or otherwise published or communicated without leave."
Tensions 1. Social issues 2. States’ Power 3. Large states vs. small states 4. Executive Power 5. Nature of Judiciary 6. Slavery
Features of the Constitution A.State sovereignty B. Great Compromise C. Executive Authority D. Nature of Judiciary E. Unresolved Issues F. Amendable
Features of the Constitution A. State sovereignty – 1. Federalism – 2. Supremacy Clause (Article VI) – 3. Enumerated Powers and Implied Powers – 4. “Full Faith and Credit”
Features (cont.) B. Great Compromise Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan C. Executive Authority D. Nature of Judiciary E. Unresolved Issues F. Amendable
Features (cont.) B. Great Compromise C. Executive Authority Unitary Executive Electoral College D. Nature of Judiciary E. Unresolved Issues F. Amendable
Features (cont.) B. Great Compromise C. Executive Authority D. Nature of Judiciary Judicial Review? E. Unresolved Issues F. Amendable
Constitution as Imperfect Compromise Mr. President, I confess that there are several parts of this constitution which I do not at present approve, but I am not sure I shall never approve them….For having lived long, I have experienced many instances of being obliged by better Information, or fuller Consideration, to change Opinions even on important Subjects, which I once thought right, but found to be otherwise. —Benjamin Franklin (September 17, 1787)
Ratification Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-federalists A.Federalists B.The Federalists’ Fears Federalists’ Solutions B. The Anti-Federalist
Ratification Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-federalists A.Federalists B.The Federalists’ Fears – Factions – Tyrants – Demagogues Federalists’ Solutions B. The Anti-Federalist
Ratification Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-federalists A.Federalists B.The Federalists’ Fears Federalists Solutions – Federalist 10 – Federalist 51 B. The Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalists In reality there will be no part of the people represented but the rich, even in that branch of government of the legislature which is called the democratic. The well born and highest orders of life, as they term themselves, will be ignorant of the sentiments of the middling class of citizens, strangers to their ability, wants, and difficulties, and void of sympathy and fellow feeling. -Brutus III
Ratification Debate: Federalists vs. Anti-federalists B. The Anti-Federalist – National government too powerful – Aristocracy – Danger of corruption – Can we change if we go wrong? – Bill of Rights
If pure democracy is allowing the voters to directly elect official, then how democratic is the U.S. Constitution?
Some Thoughts Constitution formed in response to instability – Many states into one nation – Weak federal government – Fear of revolt Result of Compromise – Fear of Executive – Big and Small States – Slavery Was it a democracy? The critics may have been right