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The Controversy of Intergenerational Trauma & Therapy Loretta Gurule Northern New Mexico College Department of Integrated Humanities and Social Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "The Controversy of Intergenerational Trauma & Therapy Loretta Gurule Northern New Mexico College Department of Integrated Humanities and Social Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Controversy of Intergenerational Trauma & Therapy Loretta Gurule Northern New Mexico College Department of Integrated Humanities and Social Sciences Concentration in Psychology Abstract Hypothesis Theory Introduction Data Collection Qualitative Results/Conclusions References Acknowledgements Population Native American Indigenous Groups Other Ethnicities Random Sampling Best Sampling: Yields Most Unbiased Results Not Utilized in this Study: Limited Time/Small Sample Size Survey – Questionnaire Los Alamos National Laboratory (Various Ethnicities) Northern New Mexico Pueblo Indian Snowball Sampling One Shot Oral Historical Narrative Current Issues All Aspects of Life Through the Generations Individual Experience Rationale for Abuse/Violence in Current Family Unit Transmission Parent’s Suffering Elders’ Description of Trauma Parenting Styles Trauma and Unresolved Grief Vague and Null - Lack of Actual Observation Current Emotional Stimuli - Conduit of Historical Trauma Strongly Implemented National Institute of Health (NIH) Mandates Ensured Confidentiality Measures Use for Course Psychology 421 and Seminar Limited Sample Size, Population,Timeframe Consequences of Intergenerational Trauma Affect All Ethnicities Aspects Affecting Indigenous Communities Intergenerational Trauma Individual Experiences Environment Current Culture and Traditions Integrating Traditional/Conventional Therapy Respect Family Connectedness Forgiveness Self-Identification Religion/Spirituality Harmony/Balance Generalizability All Ethnicities Suffer Trauma Varying Degrees/Domination Collectively versus Individually Emerging Behaviors and Attitudes Substance Use/Abuse Alcoholism Diseases/Death Violence Lack of Self-Esteem Lack of Self-Identification Unemployment Discrimination (All Communities) Traditions - Subsequent Generations Acclimation into Euro-American Society Adjusted to Living Between Two Worlds Further Research Additional Insight into Trauma Consequences to Indigenous Communities Exploratory Study Intergenerational Trauma Suffered by Diverse Indigenous Groups in Northern New Mexico Intergenerational Trauma Historical Events Emerging Behaviors in Subsequent Generations Due to the Loss of Culture, People, Land, and Families Psychological Healing (Effective Therapy) Retention of Culture and Tradition Process Toward Healing Adaptation to Diverse Cultures and Traditions Older Generation (Most Affected) Loss of Children, Traditions, Culture, Land, and Families Higher Negative Emotion Younger Generation (Less Affected) Acclimated into Western Society Adjusted Between Two Worlds Exhibit Lower Negative Emotion Succumb to Trauma Through Generational Narratives Null Hypothesis Intergenerational Trauma Does Not Influence Current Attitudes and Behaviors in our Communities Current Therapies Encompass Convention and Tradition Goal of Study Update/Add to Current Theories Address Source of Intergenerational Trauma Address Current Therapies Therapeutical Integration Effectiveness through Acknowledgment Unresolved Grief Anger Source of Violence Self-Esteem Self- Identification Interconnectedness Recapture Culture/Traditions Healing Through Acknowledging the Past Babbi, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. California: Wadsworth, Print. Brown-Rice, K. (1983). Examining the theory of historical trauma among native americans. The Professional Counselor, 3(3), (Confidential, personal communication, October 21, 2013). Gonzales, J. and Bennett, R. (2011) Conceptualizing Native Identity with a Multidimensional Model. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 17(2) Navarro-Rivera, P. (2006). Acculturation under duress: The Puerto Rican experience at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School Centro Journal, 18(1), Robbins, R. R. (2012). A Native American voice in multicultural psychology finding healing in an interpersonal tapestry. (special issue on Native American/American Indian Culture) (Essay). Journal Of Multicultural Counseling And Development, (2), 93. Rybak, C., & Decker-Fitts, A. (2009) Understanding Native American healing practices. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. 22(3), doi: / dex.php.dex.php Sandos, J.S.. Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of Pueblo Indian History. New Mexico: Clearlight Publishers, 1992, Print. Satterlee, A. (2002). The Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Special thanks to all who made this poster possible – Individual providing oral history; Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and their efforts in “snowball” sampling, the Student Success Center, NNMC instructors who have contributed to my education, and the exceptional perseverance and instruction provided by Stephanie Amedeo-Marquez. Exploratory Research Critical to the Traditions and Culture of Indigenous or Native Communities-- mainly literature review methods Investigation of Historical Trauma Integration of Therapies Conventional Traditional Proposed Research Methods Survey Questionnaire Oral History Literature Review Total Sample Size N = % Indian Descent 73.33% Other Ethnicities Quantitative “Strongly Agree” Responses “…strong attachment to my culture and traditions.” Taos Pueblo with 6 of 8 individuals or 75% LANL’s Various Ethnicities with 12 of 33 individuals or 36% Further Research to Confirm Hypothesis Elderly Responses More Diverse Population Literature Review Statistics/Sampling Ethics For more Information contact: Characteristic % of Preference # of People Respect86.36%38 Family Connectedness75.00%33 Forgiveness63.64%28 Self-Identity59.09%26 Religion/Spirituality56.82%25 Harmony/Balance52.27%23 Sharing/Teaching Life Skills43.18%19 Accomplishment34.09%15 Identify/Participate in Traditions25.00%11 Social Support/Encouragement20.45%9 Sense of Belonging20.45%9 Protect/Respect Natural Environment20.45%9 Understanding Different Cultures15.91%7 Traditional Healing13.64%6 Adapting to Environment11.36%5 Scientific/Medical Healing4.55%2 Preferred Characteristics (%) Limitations of Data Psychology 321 Survey Pretest Small Sample Size Insufficient Timeframe Observation/Replication (Not Possible) Historical – Previous Generations Unavailable Biased – Large Specific Population; Not Population of Interest Collective Information Does Not Represent Individual Participants%Strongly AgreeTotal Santa Clara4.55%11 San Juan (Ohkay-Owingeh)13.64%33 Taos27.27%68 LANL - Various Ethnicities54.55%1233 Total 2245 Table 2. Univariate Results (Attachment to Culture/Traditions) (Strongly Agree) Table 1. Sample Comparison (Age/Ethnicity) Age <65Total Anglo Bicultural Indian Spanish Mexican Hispanic Other Total Popular Choices of Study *Respect *Forgiveness *Family Connectedness *Self Identity *Harmony/Balance *Religion/Spirituality Ascending Order Characteristics Preferred Therpeutical Integration Traditional Versus Conventional Scientific/Medical Healing Less Popular at 4.55% Confirmation of Hypothesis – Traditional Preferable Storyteller(s)Responses (Quotes) Media (1) “Past was hard, but the future brings change” (1) “Put that aside and help one another”; “surrounded by different cultures” (1) Elder's (5)“Saddening” (2) Grandparents/Parents“brutality was disgusting” (3) Family/Friends (6) “Suffering and humiliation by the older generation to help better our lives today” (1) Schools (5) “Understand the importance of the past, but it is the past and we need to learn from it and move on. If we proceed down this path of dwelling on the past it will only hinder us from healing.” (1) Books/Schools (11) Confused culture in NM; animosity toward conquerors and ancestors. (1) Table 3. Storytellers and Comments on New Mexico’s Conquest by the Spanish. Literature Review, Cont… Native Identity Scale (NIS) Studies Walking On, Community-Based Research White Bison Wellbriety Movement Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) Positive Indian Parenting (PIP) Red Road to Wellbriety Journeys of the Circle Recurring Theme (Spanish Conquest) “Brutality and Disgusting” Emotions “Past is Past” “Heal by Helping Each Other to Overcome ****************************** Additional Qualitative Comments Prejudism Bicultural Issues Ceremonial Traditions Oppression of Non-Natives Imposition of Beliefs on Other Cultures Traditions/Culture Shape Our Identities Religion/God Guidance Tolerance/Respect For All Involved Sample Comparison of Age and Ethnicity Disparity Between Participants Participants (42) Hispanics (18) versus Indians (9) Mode (Most Popular) Ages 30 – 59 Brief Historical Trauma Timeline Spanish Conquest Pueblo Indian Revolt Disease – Population Devastation Mexican Occupation New Mexico Annexation -United States Railroad/Albuquerque Indian School Purpose Eliminate Traditions and Cultural Identity Assimilate into Euro-American Society Boarding School Era Lack of Affection for the Children Disrespect of Language and Religion Emotional Abuse, Shame, Humiliation in Being Indian Unresolved Grief/Trauma Transmission - Subsequent Generations Acknowledging Trauma Integration of Traditional and Conventional Therapy Educate – All People of Color U.S. Policy and Economic Interests Protection from Inferior Beings Necessitated Civilization - Gain Potential Benefit Scattering of Individuals “to break up their Spanish language”. Ensuring Control Over Indigenous Opposition Cultural Identity Lost Strangers in Own as Well as Eastern Culture Bicultural – Hispanic/Indian Discrimination by Native Against Non-Native Loss of Traditions/Ceremonial Activities Family Unit – Segregated from Native Culture/Traditions Alcohol Abuse and Illicit Drugs 14.1% Native American 10.4% Latinos 9.5% African American High Rates of Alcohol-Related Mortality Chronic Liver Disease Deaths from Cirrhosis Double Unemployment Rate ****************************** Carlisle Experiment of 1879 ****************************** Impact on Native American Population ****************************** Current Traditional Therapies Historical Loss Scale Historical Loss Associated Symptoms Scale (Generations Detached from Historical Trauma) (Daily Reflections) 36% - Loss of Traditional Language 34% - Loss of Culture 24% - Anger Toward Historical Losses 49% - Disturbed by Losses 46% - Alcohol Dependency 22% - Uncomfortable Among Whites 35% - Distrusted White Population ****************************** Theories - Trauma ****************************** 1898 Conquest of Puerto Rico ****************************** Oral History


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