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Kepner-Tregoe A systematic problem solving & decision making method Continuous Improvement Facilitators November 17, 2006 The New Rational Manager by Charles.

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Presentation on theme: "Kepner-Tregoe A systematic problem solving & decision making method Continuous Improvement Facilitators November 17, 2006 The New Rational Manager by Charles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kepner-Tregoe A systematic problem solving & decision making method Continuous Improvement Facilitators November 17, 2006 The New Rational Manager by Charles H. Kepner & Benjamin B. Tregoe

2 Think of a Problem One that you are currently experiencing in your job or one that you have experienced in the past. Write it down.

3 The Kepner-Tregoe Tool Situation Analysis Situation Analysis Problem Analysis Problem Analysis Decision Analysis Decision Analysis Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis

4 Situation Appraisal Identify Concerns Identify Concerns (List threats and Opportunities) What deviations are occurring? What deviations are occurring? What decisions need to be made? What decisions need to be made? What plans should be implemented? What plans should be implemented? What changes are anticipated? What changes are anticipated? What opportunities exist? What opportunities exist? What bothers us about....? What bothers us about....?

5 Situation Appraisal Separate and Clarify Concerns Separate and Clarify Concerns What do we mean by... ? What do we mean by... ? What exactly is... ? What exactly is... ? What else concerns us about... ? What else concerns us about... ? What evidence do we have... ? What evidence do we have... ? What different deviations, decisions, or plans are part of this concern? What different deviations, decisions, or plans are part of this concern?

6 Situation Appraisal Set Priority Set Priority Which concern should we work on first? Which concern should we work on first? Consider... Consider... ... the current impact What is the current impact on people, safety, cost, customers/stakeholders, productivity, reputation, etc? What is the current impact on people, safety, cost, customers/stakeholders, productivity, reputation, etc? What evidence do you have? What evidence do you have? Which concern is most serious? Which concern is most serious?

7 Situation Appraisal Set Priority Set Priority Consider... Consider... ... the future impact If left unresolved, how and when will the seriousness change? If left unresolved, how and when will the seriousness change? What evidence do you have? What evidence do you have? Which concern is getting worse quicker? Which concern is getting worse quicker?

8 Situation Appraisal Set Priority Set Priority Consider... Consider... ... the time frame What is the deadline? When do we need to start? What is the deadline? When do we need to start? When would resolution become difficult, expensive, impossible, or meaningless? When would resolution become difficult, expensive, impossible, or meaningless? What evidence do you have? What evidence do you have? Which concern will be the hardest to resolve later? Which concern will be the hardest to resolve later?

9 Planning the Next Steps Decision Analysis Decision Analysis Do we need to simply make a choice? Do we need to simply make a choice?

10 Decision Analysis Clarify the Purpose Clarify the Purpose What is the decision? What is the decision? What are the WANT objectives? What are the WANT objectives? What are the MUST objectives? What are the MUST objectives? What are the relative weights of the objectives? What are the relative weights of the objectives? Evaluate Alternatives Evaluate Alternatives What are alternatives to the decision? What are alternatives to the decision? How do the alternatives fit with the WANTS? How do the alternatives fit with the WANTS? How do the alternatives fit with the MUSTS? How do the alternatives fit with the MUSTS?

11 Decision Analysis Assess Risks Assess Risks What are the adverse consequences? What are the adverse consequences? Make decision Make decision What are the best balanced choices? What are the best balanced choices?

12 Planning the Next Steps Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis Do we have an Action or Plan to protect (enhance)? Do we have an Action or Plan to protect (enhance)?

13 Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis Identify Potential Problems (Opportunities) Identify Potential Problems (Opportunities) What are the potential actions? What are the potential actions? What are the potential problems? What are the potential problems? What are the potential opportunities? What are the potential opportunities? Identify Likely Causes Identify Likely Causes What are the possible causes for the potential problem? What are the possible causes for the potential problem? What are the possible causes for the potential opportunity? What are the possible causes for the potential opportunity?

14 Potential Problem (Opportunity) Analysis Take Preventative (Promoting) Action Take Preventative (Promoting) Action What actions do we need to take to address (encourage) likely causes? What actions do we need to take to address (encourage) likely causes? Plan Contingent (Capitalizing) Action and Set Triggers Plan Contingent (Capitalizing) Action and Set Triggers What actions do we need to prepare to reduce (enhance) likely effects? What actions do we need to prepare to reduce (enhance) likely effects? What triggers do we need to set for contingent (capitalizing) actions? What triggers do we need to set for contingent (capitalizing) actions?

15 Planning the Next Steps What is the Problem? What is the Problem?

16 Problem Analysis Describe the Problem What is the Problem? What is the Problem? What object (or group of objects) has the deviation? What object (or group of objects) has the deviation? What deviation does it have? What deviation does it have? What do we see, hear, feel, taste, or smell that tells us there is a deviation? What do we see, hear, feel, taste, or smell that tells us there is a deviation? Then ask - What, Where, When, and to what Extent? Then ask - What, Where, When, and to what Extent? For Example For Example

17 Problem Analysis - What What specific object(s) has the deviation? What specific object(s) has the deviation? What is the specific deviation? What is the specific deviation? IsIs Not What similar object(s) could have the deviation, but does not? What similar object(s) could have the deviation, but does not? What other deviations could be reasonably observed, but are not? What other deviations could be reasonably observed, but are not?

18 Problem Analysis - Where Where is the object when the deviation is observed? (geographically) Where is the object when the deviation is observed? (geographically) Where is the deviation on the object? Where is the deviation on the object? Where else could the object be when the deviation is observed, but is not? Where else could the object be when the deviation is observed, but is not? Where else could the deviation be located on the object, but is not? Where else could the deviation be located on the object, but is not? IsIs Not

19 Problem Analysis - When IsIs Not When was the deviation observed first (clock and calendar time)? When was the deviation observed first (clock and calendar time)? When since that time has the deviation been observed? When since that time has the deviation been observed? When, in the object’s history or life cycle, was the deviation observed first? When, in the object’s history or life cycle, was the deviation observed first? When else could the deviation have been observed first, but was not? When else could the deviation have been observed first, but was not? When since that time could the deviation have been observed but was not? When since that time could the deviation have been observed but was not? When else, in the object’s history or life cycle, could the deviation have been observed first, but was not? When else, in the object’s history or life cycle, could the deviation have been observed first, but was not?

20 Problem Analysis - Extent How many objects have the deviation? How many objects have the deviation? What is the size of a single deviation? What is the size of a single deviation? How many deviations are on each object? How many deviations are on each object? What is the trend? What is the trend? Occurrences? Occurrences? Size? Size? How many objects could have the deviation, but don’t? How many objects could have the deviation, but don’t? What other size could a deviation be, but isn’t? What other size could a deviation be, but isn’t? How many deviations could there be on each object, but are not? How many deviations could there be on each object, but are not? What could be the trend, but isn’t? What could be the trend, but isn’t? Occurrences? Occurrences? Size? Size? IsIs Not

21 Problem Analysis Identify Possible Causes Use knowledge and experience to develop possible cause statements Use knowledge and experience to develop possible cause statements From experience, what could have caused the deviation? From experience, what could have caused the deviation? Use distinctions and changes to develop possible cause statements Use distinctions and changes to develop possible cause statements What is different, odd, special, or unique about an IS compared to an IS NOT? What is different, odd, special, or unique about an IS compared to an IS NOT? What was changed in, on, around, or about each distinction? What was changed in, on, around, or about each distinction? When did the change occur? When did the change occur? How could each change have caused this deviation? How could each change have caused this deviation?

22 Problem Analysis Evaluate Possible Causes Test possible causes against the IS and IS NOT specification Test possible causes against the IS and IS NOT specification If _______ is the true cause of ________, how does it explain both the IS and IS NOT information? If _______ is the true cause of ________, how does it explain both the IS and IS NOT information? What assumptions have to be made? What assumptions have to be made? Determine the most probable cause Determine the most probable cause Which possible cause best explains the IS and IS NOT information? Which possible cause best explains the IS and IS NOT information? Which possible cause has the fewest, simplest, and most reasonable assumptions? Which possible cause has the fewest, simplest, and most reasonable assumptions?

23 Problem Analysis Confirm True Cause What can be done to verify any assumptions made? What can be done to verify any assumptions made? How can this cause be observed at work? How can this cause be observed at work? How can we demonstrate the cause-and-effect relationship? How can we demonstrate the cause-and-effect relationship? When corrective action is taken, how will results be checked? When corrective action is taken, how will results be checked?

24 Let’s Look At Some Problems!

25 Planning the Next Steps Problem Analysis Problem Analysis Do we have a deviation? Do we have a deviation? Is the cause unknown? Is the cause unknown? Is it important to know the cause to take effective action? Is it important to know the cause to take effective action? If the answer is YES to ALL three, you have a problem. If the answer is YES to ALL three, you have a problem.

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