Middle Ages Source- –Paintings are primary source Parenting Practices –Cared for by others or –Fostered out Info based on 1 social class- Which one?
1600s The Reformation Revised image of childhood Childhood as distinct Children as naturally evil Emphasis on harsh punishment
1800s Diaries tell us… Children known to labor with adults 1833 study- children in English factories –12 hour work day for 5 yr old, not harmful –10hr workday (+ 2 for religion ed): more effective 1890s Hall formed Child Study Association 1912 US Children’s Bureau- Protect welfare of children
Who’s Who Not developmental psychologists Dietrich Tiedemann –First baby diary (1787) Darwin- Studied? –Avid record taker 1877 “Origin of Species” –“sub-human” development
Who’s who G. Stanley Hall- Late 19 th century –Questionnaires to study child thinking Normative data –“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” –Development follows a stage-like progression Freud- early 20 th century –Observations with adults –Child experiences emotionally significant –Inborn sexual and aggressive drives –Stages of child development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) –Issues later in life caused by unresolved conflicts in early life
“The little, and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies, have very important and lasting Consequences; And there ‘tis, as in the Fountains of some Rivers, where a gentle Application of the Hand turns the flexible waters into Channels, that make them take quite Contrary courses, and by this little Direction given them at first in the Source, they receive different Tendencies, and arrive, at last, at very remote, distant places”. -Thoughts Concerning Education (1699)
Behaviorism Locke, Watson & Skinner –Tabula Rasa –Little Albert –Law of Effect Reinforcement and Punishment
Who’s Who Piaget- 50s & 60s –3 infants, structured baby diaries –Published combined results –Description of the range of skill acquisition –Simple experiments Imitation, object permanence –Cognitive development through adolescence
Who’s Who Vygotsky-1930s –Socialist Russia –Contrasted with Piaget –Used socialism for socio-cultural theory of cognitive development.
Who’s Who BoBo Doll? Albert Bandura Social learning theory (social cognitive) –Child development occurs through observation, imitation, and modeling
Who’s Who Bronfenbrenner- Ecological Systems Theory Theories too narrow
Ethological Theory Lorenz –Imprinting- Rapid early learning (critical period) (Youtube- 1:05)Youtube- 1:05 Bowlby –Attachment
Groups- 3 people each Thinking of your childhood Each person in the group take 2 different theories (make sure all are covered) Ecological Systems, Social Learning, Vygotskian, Piagetian, Behaviorist, Psychodynamic Provide 2 examples (stories) from your development as a child that could be explained by that theory