Presentation on theme: "The Clash of Civilisations by Samuel Huntington The world is destined for a cultural confrontation. The West will be challenged by other cultures that."— Presentation transcript:
The Clash of Civilisations by Samuel Huntington The world is destined for a cultural confrontation. The West will be challenged by other cultures that do not recognise its superiority. Islam is the principal enemy and September 11th seems to confirm his theory.
Main points of The Clash The West is a superior civilisation. Belief that there are ‘angry’ challengers out there and Islam, with its bloody borders, is the main contender. Necessity to build up defences and deal with the possibility of conflict.
Implications for IR in the New World Order States are not as important as they used to be, civilisations are the main actors. Military power is still important, but culture is the new defining trait for conflict. …however, the logic of realism remains: conflict and competition in an anarchic world.
Criticism Civilisations: can they be considered autonomous and impenetrable entities and/or categories of analysis? Manipulation of historical evidence. If conflict is about culture, where do we find solutions to conflicts? The ‘clash’ is a theoretical device to relieve political actors of their responsibilities.
The End of History - Francis Fukuyama - We have reached the end point of human progress. The best possible forms of political and economic organisations are in place. History as human progress is definitely over.
Implications of Fukuyama’s argument The West is superior and it has won…permanently. Superiority is translated into policy-making: promotion of democracy. If you have a different point of view…too bad for you. We win you lose! Implications: the inevitability of the liberal order..
Criticism of Fukuyama’s argument The End of History argument had been put forward before and History did not end. The West has numerous unresolved issues that may undermine its perceived superiority: 1. political issues (state of our democracies) and 2. economic issues (massive inequalities).
Neo-Realism…as always The new world order is unipolar and therefore unbalanced: ganging up against the US. States remain the main rivals, not civilisations. Interests ‘travel’ across cultures. Guns still rule: get some before it is too late!!