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Presented by Liz Boettcher, Kate Hintz, and Renee Reetz

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1 Presented by Liz Boettcher, Kate Hintz, and Renee Reetz
Gradual Increase in Length and Complexity of Utterance (GILCU) -Bruce Ryan Presented by Liz Boettcher, Kate Hintz, and Renee Reetz

2 What is GILCU? Includes establishment (54 steps), transfer (17-32 steps), maintenance (5 steps for 22 months) and follow-up Begins with single word fluency Ends in conversing fluently for 5 minutes Used with young and less severe children Most commonly non-intensive (2-3 times a week for a brief period) (Bennett,2006)

3 Classification? Fluency Shaping -Establishes fluent speech
-Uses behavioral principles -Has quantitative measurements -Structured therapy routine -Emphasizes data collection -Has a systematic, planned transfer (Bennett, 2006)

4 GILCU Establishment Steps
Stimulus Response 1 Instruct to read 1 word fluently 1 word 2 Instruction to read 2 words fluently 2 words 3-6 Instructions to read 3-6 words fluently 3-6 words 7-10 Instructions to read 1-4 sentences fluently 1-4 sentences 11-18 Instructions to read 30 seconds to 5 minutes fluently 30 seconds to 5 minutes of reading 19-54 Recycle in monologue and conversation Monologue or conversation (Ryan, 1974)

5 Underlying Rationales
Based on operant conditioning Stuttering is not discussed -Risk of establishing a “verbal repertoire that would be hard to extinguish” (Gregory, 1979)

6 Style of Treatment Positive reinforcement-verbal, social, and tangible tokens for stutter-free speech (Shenker, 2005) For non-fluent speech- -Instruction to speak “more slowly or easily”, “relax” Clinician models fluent speech in “branching steps” -When client no longer needs models, they re-enter the program (Ryan, 1974)

7 What is Success? 0 stuttered words per minute
In criterion-based testing- 2 or fewer stutters per mode (i.e. reading, monologue, conversation) (Bennett, 2006)

8 Generalization and Maintenance
Home practice program (Gregory, 1979) Approach is applied in different contexts (i.e. audience, physical settings, telephone use, home school, and other environments) (Bennett, 2006) Maintenance reduces the number of sessions gradually over 2 years (Shenker, 2005) Includes a follow-up program

9 Evidence of Program’s Success
Treatment outcomes indicate a mean of .6 stuttered words per minute after 15 months post maintenance (Shenker, 2005) Replications have shown that GILCU can be a successful treatment for stuttering (Thomas & Howell, 2001)

10 Strengths and Weaknesses
Evidence to support success Provides for better generalization when compared with delayed auditory feedback Weaknesses Numerous steps Ryan proposes only to use with those who are likely to persist in stuttering Little attention is given to the client’s feelings and attitudes

11 Recommendations We do not recommend this approach because:
No room for normal disfluencies Doesn’t address the client’s attitudes and feelings Unresolved conclusion about a client who doesn’t achieve stutter-free speech Hard to maintain the structure with a young child

12 Works Cited Bennett, E.M. (2006). Working with people who stutter: a lifespan approach. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Gregory, H. (1979). Controversies about stuttering therapy. Baltimore: University Park Press. Ryan, B.P. (1974). Program therapy for stuttering in children and adults. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. Ryan, B.P. (2006). Gradual Increase in Length and Complexity of Utterance (GILCU). Obtained on November 30, 2006 from: Shenker, R.C. (2005). Evidence based treatment of school aged stutterers. Obtained on December 2, 2006 from: Thomas, C. & Howell, P. (2001). Assessing efficacy of stuttering treatments. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 26: Obtained on December 13, 2006 from

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