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© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 1 Adlerian Theory & Family Systems Theory Meeting 4 © Cheung, M., & Leung, P. (2008). Multicultural practice and evaluation: A case approach to evidence-based practice. Denver, CO: Love. Instructors who adopt this book may use this PowerPoint to teach your course without prior permission. Please address questions and comments to
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 2 Adlerian Approach as a Student (1885, age 15) as a Young Man (Before 1900) as a Soldier (1891, Age 21) Alfred Adler in his 60's
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 3 Adlerian Theory Assumes: – Positive view of human nature – Social influence is significant (much more so than biological) – People can create a distinctive lifestyle at an early life – Consciousness is the center of personality
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 4 Goals of Adlerian Therapy Challenge clients’ mistaken notions and faulty assumptions so that they can develop the useful side of life Provide encouragement to help develop socially useful goals
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 5 Techniques Family Constellation Analysis – Birth order – Family atmosphere – Parental relationship – Family values – Extended family and culture Life Script Questionnaire – Early recollections
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 6 Practice: Adlerian Techniques In pairs, practice with the script – Issue #1: Personal Connections to Family Issues (p. 120)
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 7 Practice: Family Constellation Practice the questions on the top of p.134. If your partner is a single child, practice from this list: What was your father’s/mother’s relationship with you? Which part of you was most like your father/mother? Name a characteristic. What were you like as a child? How did your parents get along when you were about 10? How did your parents settle disagreements when you were about 10?
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 8 Practice: Adlerian Techniques In pairs, practice with the script – Issue #2: Sibling Relationships (p.121)
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 9 Practice: Lifestyle Assessment In pairs, take turns asking questions from the assessment tool (starting with Three Wishes on p.134). Don’t attempt to provide answers for this practice Identify one question to which you would provide an answer and share with your partner
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 10 Family Systems Theory Intergenerational or Transgenerational Models of Practice Murray Bowen’s Family Therapy
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 11 Bowen’s 8 Interlocking Concepts 1. Differentiation of self 2. Triangles 3. Nuclear family emotional system 4. Family projection process 5. Emotional cutoff 6. Multigenerational transmission process 7. Sibling position 8. Societal regression
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Differentiation of Self Ability to – Separate feelings from thinking – Distinguish between the intellectual process and the feeling process – Experience the difference between intimacy and autonomy – Balance objectivity and subjectivity – Pull self from fused relationships when needing to see things clearly away from their influence – Separate self from FOO in a healthy way
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Triangles Pull relationship with help from a third person Reach out and pull in the other person so that emotions can flow into that person Create emotional tensions because of the three-way relationship Act as a building block in a family’s relational system Balance unhealthy relationship between 2 individuals Maintain involvement and yet separate emotions when using it well
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Nuclear Family Emotional System People seek partners that likely have the same level of differentiation as theirs They repeat the patterns of relationship as established in the FOO They will continuously seek ways to reduce tension through relationships Intense fusion between partners will cause instability in the nuclear family emotional system – Physical or emotional dysfunction in a spouse – Overt, chronic, or unresolved marital conflict – Psychological impairment in a child
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Family Projection Process Levels of undifferentiation can be passed from one generation to the next Parents transmit their values to the most susceptible child Intensity of projection is related to – Degree of immaturity or undifferentiation of the parents – Level of stress the family experiences
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Emotional Cutoff A flight of extreme emotional distancing from FOO A way to break emotional ties An effort to deal with unresolved fusion with one or both parents (or siblings) A denial defense to a problem or unresolved conflict A way to free self from unfinished business that may effect current relationships
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Multigenerational Transmission Values, conflicts, and unresolved anxiety may be passed from one generation to the next Severe dysfunction may be the result of chronic anxiety transmitted over several generations
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Sibling Position Birth order and personality has a connection Birth order predicts certain roles and functions an individual plays Functional position is more important than the actual birth order Sibling position may affect the nuclear family emotional system
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung Societal Regression Society’s emotional functioning is similar to the family emotional system in that there are always two opposing forces toward undifferentiation and individuation Consider the importance of society’s value toward individuation and check its cultural value toward an individual
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 20 Practice: Family Systems Issue #1: Family History (pp. 138–140) In groups of three, role-play from the script Discussion: Identify techniques that you may want to try
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 21 Daily Affirmation Genuine beginnings begin within us, even when they are brought to our attention by external opportunities. – William Bridges
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 22 FOS—Family of Origin Scale Think of a specific age that has significant meanings to the client Fill out the FOS Calculate the scores Discuss and address questions about childhood learning
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 23 Family of Origin Scale: Your Practice Reference: Fischer, J., & Corcoran, K. (2007). Measures for clinical practice and research. Oxford Press. (pp. 306–308) Step 1: Fill out the FOS in reference to you when you were 12. Step 2: Reverse score the following items so that 5=1, 4=2, 3 unchanged, 2=4, and 1=5 (e.g., if you score 1 in item #2, cross out 1 and write 5 next to it) 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 37, 39 The reverse score is only a psychometric method to calculate your FOS score. It is not to change your answer. Bring your FOS to class next week for further assessment procedures.
© Love Publishing: Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung 24 References Cheung, M., & Leung, P. (2008). Multicultural practice and evaluation: A case approach to evidence-based practice. Denver, CO: Love. Fischer, J., & Corcoran, K. (2007). Measures for clinical practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
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