Presentation on theme: "Objectives u Quick Review of Interest-Based Collaborative Problem Solving (IBPS) u Practices to prepare for simulation u Engaging Stakeholders for IBPS."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives u Quick Review of Interest-Based Collaborative Problem Solving (IBPS) u Practices to prepare for simulation u Engaging Stakeholders for IBPS use u Evaluation/outcome measurement
An expression of dissatisfaction with an interaction, process, product, or service Consequence of differing expectations, competing goals or needs, confusing communications, or unsatisfactory interpersonal relations Conflict in Systems * 1996, Costantino and Merchant
Expectations Broken Promises Incompetence Lack of Quality Resources Time Money Personnel Space Values Priorities Perceptions Styles Personal Standing on Principles Inner Conflict Unmet Needs *Atlanta Justice Center Sources of Conflict*
Intense Feelings Positions Harden Dehumanizing Occurs Desire to Punish Emerges Communication Deteriorates Dynamics of Conflict* What happens if conflict goes unresolved? *Atlanta Justice Center
Problem Solving Methods: Distributive Interpersonal Communication : u Tactical use of other side’s statements u Strong assertions u Selective responses u Limited disclosure of feelings & underlying interests -- From Strategic Negotiations, Walton, Cutcher-Gershenfeld, and McKersie, 1994.
Interpersonal Communication: u Paraphrasing u Active Listening u Minimizing Defensiveness u Brainstorming u Disclosure of feelings & underlying interests -- From Strategic Negotiations, Walton, Cutcher-Gershenfeld, and McKersie, 1994. Problem Solving Methods: Integrative
Results of Well Managed Conflict Trust built Performance enhanced Resistance lessened Creative solutions found Drama, development, and growth stimulated
Focus on the issue Explore all interests underlying the issue Be open to possibilities and opportunities Satisfy others’ interests as well as your own Use agreed-upon standards to reach the best solution Principles Supporting Interest- Based Problem Solving (IBPS) From Getting to Yes, Fisher and Ury
Scope of the issue? Type of decision needed? What data required? OrientationFacilitation LogisticsTimeframe How will we measure success? Where does issue go if we fail? IBPS Preparation
1. Test assumptions and inferences 2. Share all relevant information 3. Use specific examples and agree on what important words mean 4. Explain your reasoning and intent 5. Focus on interests, not positions - Roger Schwarz, The Skilled Facilitator, 2002 Ground Rules: Effective Groups
6. Combine advocacy and inquiry 7. Jointly design next steps and ways to test disagreements 8. Discuss undiscussable issues 9. Use a decision-making rule that generates the level of commitment needed. - Roger Schwarz, The Skilled Facilitator, 2002
Ground Rules (Procedural): Examples: l Create a schedule of sessions l Start & end on time l All Group Members Participate l Debrief at end of each day/meeting l No Zingers (cheap Put-Downs) l Frequent Breaks to Keep Energy Up!
Steps in Interest-Based Problem Solving (IBPS) Pre-Step: “Talk Story” 1: Clarify Issue 2: Identify Interests/Reframe issue 3: Brainstorm Options 4: Evaluate Options with Criteria 5: Review and Discuss 6: Consensus Solution
“Talk Story” Those who have a story about the problem to be solved share those stories briefly Rest of the group listens actively to understand the dimensions of the problem and the concerns of those who have experienced the problem Aim for no more than a total of 15 minutes for the stories to be told Pre-Step :
Issues The WHAT to be addressed The problems to be solved Clearly defined so each member understands the problem Jointly selected by the group Step 1:
... A problem well stated is a problem half-solved.” Source Unknown
Interests Interests are reasons WHY the issue is a problem Identify all interests (e.g., needs, concerns, desires) Recognize the legitimacy of ALL interests (separate and mutual) Step 2:
Interests Positions The Challenge of Identifying Interests! “Why?”
Options are HOW the interests can be addressed Brainstorm as many ideas as possible to satisfy interests Record on flip chart Be open to possibilities and opportunities Options Step 3:
In order to understand how an option would work: Check with constituents? Research the practice? Create a period of experimentation? Perform a live “test”? Observe its use in another site? Data Do you need more information before proceeding?
Covert Dynamics OVERT “On the Table” UNEXPRESSED Secret Hopes & Wishes Too Good to be True Legitimate, Proper, Acceptable, Reasonable DENIED “Under the Table” Questionable, Illegitimate, Unacceptable Adapted from Marshak & Katz PROBLEM SOLVING COMMUNICATION PEOPLE