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Objectives u Quick Review of Interest-Based Collaborative Problem Solving (IBPS) u Practices to prepare for simulation u Engaging Stakeholders for IBPS.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives u Quick Review of Interest-Based Collaborative Problem Solving (IBPS) u Practices to prepare for simulation u Engaging Stakeholders for IBPS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives u Quick Review of Interest-Based Collaborative Problem Solving (IBPS) u Practices to prepare for simulation u Engaging Stakeholders for IBPS use u Evaluation/outcome measurement

2 An expression of dissatisfaction with an interaction, process, product, or service Consequence of differing expectations, competing goals or needs, confusing communications, or unsatisfactory interpersonal relations Conflict in Systems * 1996, Costantino and Merchant

3 Expectations Broken Promises Incompetence Lack of Quality Resources Time Money Personnel Space Values Priorities Perceptions Styles Personal Standing on Principles Inner Conflict Unmet Needs *Atlanta Justice Center Sources of Conflict*

4 Intense Feelings Positions Harden Dehumanizing Occurs Desire to Punish Emerges Communication Deteriorates Dynamics of Conflict* What happens if conflict goes unresolved? *Atlanta Justice Center

5 Rights Interests © Ury, Brett, and Goldberg, 1988 Power Stressed System

6 Problem Solving Methods: Distributive Interpersonal Communication : u Tactical use of other side’s statements u Strong assertions u Selective responses u Limited disclosure of feelings & underlying interests -- From Strategic Negotiations, Walton, Cutcher-Gershenfeld, and McKersie, 1994.

7 Consequences of Unresolved Conflicts

8 Power Rights Interests Effective System © Ury, Brett, and Goldberg, 1988

9 Interpersonal Communication: u Paraphrasing u Active Listening u Minimizing Defensiveness u Brainstorming u Disclosure of feelings & underlying interests -- From Strategic Negotiations, Walton, Cutcher-Gershenfeld, and McKersie, Problem Solving Methods: Integrative

10 Results of Well Managed Conflict Trust built Performance enhanced Resistance lessened Creative solutions found Drama, development, and growth stimulated

11 Preventive Negotiated FacilitatedFactfinding Advisory Imposed Voluntary Issue/Dispute Involuntary Problem Solving Spectrum * © 1998, Christina S. Merchant. Adapted from Costantino and Merchant, Designing Conflict Management Systems: A Guide to Creating Productive and Healthy Organizations, Jossey-Bass Inc., 1996.

12 Prevent Negotiate Facilitate Factfind Advise Impose Involuntary Issue Voluntary $$$$$ Days Years Educate Talk it Out Mediate Investigate Test case Arbitrate Resolution and Results * © 2004, Christina S. Merchant. Adapted from Costantino and Merchant, Designing Conflict Management Systems: A Guide to Creating Productive and Healthy Organizations, Jossey-Bass Inc., 1996.

13 Finding the Right Process “Fit” Rights-based Interest-based

14 Rights-based Interest-based Full Performance Problem Solving © Christina S. Merchant, 1997

15 Focus on the issue Explore all interests underlying the issue Be open to possibilities and opportunities Satisfy others’ interests as well as your own Use agreed-upon standards to reach the best solution Principles Supporting Interest- Based Problem Solving (IBPS) From Getting to Yes, Fisher and Ury

16  Scope of the issue?  Type of decision needed?  What data required?  OrientationFacilitation  LogisticsTimeframe  How will we measure success?  Where does issue go if we fail? IBPS Preparation

17 1. Test assumptions and inferences 2. Share all relevant information 3. Use specific examples and agree on what important words mean 4. Explain your reasoning and intent 5. Focus on interests, not positions - Roger Schwarz, The Skilled Facilitator, 2002 Ground Rules: Effective Groups

18 6. Combine advocacy and inquiry 7. Jointly design next steps and ways to test disagreements 8. Discuss undiscussable issues 9. Use a decision-making rule that generates the level of commitment needed. - Roger Schwarz, The Skilled Facilitator, 2002

19 Ground Rules (Procedural): Examples: l Create a schedule of sessions l Start & end on time l All Group Members Participate l Debrief at end of each day/meeting l No Zingers (cheap Put-Downs) l Frequent Breaks to Keep Energy Up!

20 Steps in Interest-Based Problem Solving (IBPS)  Pre-Step: “Talk Story” 1: Clarify Issue 2: Identify Interests/Reframe issue 3: Brainstorm Options 4: Evaluate Options with Criteria 5: Review and Discuss 6: Consensus Solution

21 “Talk Story” Those who have a story about the problem to be solved share those stories briefly Rest of the group listens actively to understand the dimensions of the problem and the concerns of those who have experienced the problem Aim for no more than a total of 15 minutes for the stories to be told Pre-Step :

22 Issues The WHAT to be addressed The problems to be solved Clearly defined so each member understands the problem Jointly selected by the group Step 1:

23 ... A problem well stated is a problem half-solved.” Source Unknown

24 Interests Interests are reasons WHY the issue is a problem Identify all interests (e.g., needs, concerns, desires) Recognize the legitimacy of ALL interests (separate and mutual) Step 2:

25 Interests Positions The Challenge of Identifying Interests! “Why?”

26  Options are HOW the interests can be addressed  Brainstorm as many ideas as possible to satisfy interests  Record on flip chart  Be open to possibilities and opportunities Options Step 3:

27 In order to understand how an option would work: Check with constituents? Research the practice? Create a period of experimentation? Perform a live “test”? Observe its use in another site? Data Do you need more information before proceeding?

28 Criteria state the “qualities or facets of a good solution” Use A-B-C criteria at first and define Evaluate Options A – Achievable (Workable) B – Believable (Acceptable) C – Cost Effective (Affordable) © 2007, Christina S. Merchant Step 4:

29 Use matrix, symbols (  & ?’s) and nonverbal thumb signals ( ) to expedite Group member polls others: reads option & members put thumb up (  ) or sideways (?) Matrix points out early agreements and problem areas © 2007, Christina S. Merchant Evaluate Options (cont’d) Step 4:

30 Collect parts of solution agreed to, then go to options with 1 or 2 ?’s Questioners present concern or need for information…others either clarify, give information, or suggest amendments Work through the matrix together, building agreement and solving concerns © 2007, Christina S. Merchant Review and Discuss Results Step 5:

31 In order to understand how an option would work: Check with constituents? Research the practice? Create a period of experimentation? Perform a live “test”? Observe its use in another site? Data Do you need more information before proceeding? © 2007, Christina S. Merchant

32 Look back at problem and ensure solution is comprehensive Draft solution & re-check consensus Develop implementation plan with timeline and responsibilities Communicate with constituents Measure and evaluate effectiveness of solution © 2007, Christina S. Merchant Reach Consensus Solution Step 6:

33 Consensus “The collective opinion formed by a group of people working together where each person feels he/she has had a fair chance to influence the decision, understands the decision, and is prepared to support it.” © 2007, Christina S. Merchant

34 Unilateral Decision-Making Consensus Decision-Making decision implementation © 2007, Christina S. Merchant

35 Consensus Scale ¤ Wholehearted Support ¤ OK, but...- minor heart palpitation ¤ Concerns - more heart-to-heart talk needed ¤ Heartburn - MUST Talk (group not ready to make decision) ¤ Over My Dead Body!!! - Coronary Block © 2007, Christina S. Merchant

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37 Covert Dynamics OVERT “On the Table” UNEXPRESSED Secret Hopes & Wishes Too Good to be True Legitimate, Proper, Acceptable, Reasonable DENIED “Under the Table” Questionable, Illegitimate, Unacceptable Adapted from Marshak & Katz PROBLEM SOLVING COMMUNICATION PEOPLE

38 Unconscious Incompetence conscious Incompetence conscious Competence Unconscious Competence Skill Development Cycle © 1999, Christina S. Merchant, from the work of Peter Adler

39 Prepare to be collaborative rather than competitive Be experimental but trust the process Adjust the process as needed Do a great job on the first three steps Some Keys to IBPS Success

40 Use a facilitator Make “joint-ness” an imperative Leverage voluntary resolution with deadlines and next steps Remember, No Surprises!! Some Keys to IBPS Success


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