Presentation on theme: "“A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”"— Presentation transcript:
1“A Peace Built Upon Quicksand” Treaty of Versailles“A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”
2Treaty of Versailles Conference January -June 1919 Settlement drafted by delegates of victorious nations in WWI: Britain, United States, France, and Italy“We were preparing not Peace only, but Eternal Peace. There was about us the halo of some divine mission….For we were bent on doing great , permanent and noble things.”Participant of conference at Versailles,World History: Continuity & Change, p. 612
3A representative of the new German government met with Marshal Foch. In a railway car in a forest near Paris, the two signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting).On November 11, 1918, World War I came to an end.Leaders of the victorious nations gathered outside Paris to work out the terms of peace, but the peace settlement left many feeling bitter & betrayed.
4Why Germany Fell Failure of German surge Kaiser Wilhelm IIFailure of German surgeGerman troops mutinied and desertedBritish naval blockadeFood & supplies in short supplyRiots on streets of GermanyKaiser fled abroadNew government prepared to discuss peace terms---Weimar RepublicGet rid of the monarchy
5GERMAN EAGLE (to German Dove): "Here, carry on for a bit, will you I'm feeling rather run down."
6Peace at Last· At 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918, Germany agreed to the armistice, ending World War I.
7The armistice was signed in a railway carriage in the forest of Compiegne. How and why are these two images of the same event so different?
9News of the Armistice brought great relief. On both sides of no-man’s land, trenches erupted, they threw their helmets in the air, discarded their guns, waved their hands, then the two groups of men all up and down the fronts began edging toward each other, hesitantly at first, but when they met up, they began hugging each other, dancing, jumping, passing out cigarettes and chocolate.The French & the Germans were not only hugging each other but kissing each other on both cheeks as well.The final toll of the war was staggering.It lasted 4 years, involved more than 30 nations & was the bloodiest war in history to that time.Deaths numbered over 30 million, half of them civilians who died as a result of disease, starvation or exposure.In addition, 20 million more people were wounded & an additional 10 million became refugees.Historians estimate the direct economic cost of the war to have been about $350 billion.Total casualties: Russia = 9,300,000 Germany = 7,209,413France = 6,220,800 Austria-Hungary = 4,650,200 Britain = 3,428,535U.S. = 325,236
10Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Social:almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million are woundedmillions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine, and diseasethe world was left with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism.
11Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Economic:the total cost of the war: over $350 billion. How was this paid for???heavy taxes: causes lower standard of living for the European people.international trade suffers: nations raise the tariffs on imports and exports.Russia: communist seize power and introduce a new economic system.economic collapses bring on the Great Depression of the late 1920’s and 1930’s.
12Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Political:U. S. emerges as a world power because of the assumption of international responsibilities.3 major European dynasties are taken out of power: Romanovs--Russia, Hohenzollerns--Germany, Hapsburgs--Austria-Hungary.New states are created in central Europe, some containing several different nationalities, especially in Poland and Czechoslovakia.The League of Nations is created to solve international problems and maintain world peace. Will be a failure.Many nations turn to military dictatorships—primarily Russia, Italy, and Germany, to control their political problems.
13John D. Clare, First World War (1994) Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war? Why or why not? Respond on Left Side.Around 8 million people had been killedThe cost of the war was roughly nine thousand million poundsThe destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was hugeMillions more people died after the war due to famine and disease“In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War.”John D. Clare, First World War (1994)
14Impact in EuropeThe effects of World War I in Europe were devastating.European nations lost almost an entire generation of young men.France, where most of the fighting took place, was in ruins.Great Britain was deeply in debt to the U.S. and lost its place as the world’s financial center.The reparations forced on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were crippling to its economy.World War I would not be the “war to end all wars,” as some called it.Too many issues were left unresolved.Too much anger and hostility remained among nations.Within a generation, conflict would again break out in Europe, bringing the United States and the world back into war.
15The Mood in 1919Most countries felt Germany should pay for the damage and destruction caused by the War.The countries of Europe were exhausted.Their economies and industries were in a poor state.Millions had died. Almost every family had lost a member in the fighting.Ordinary citizens faced shortages of food and medicine.
16The Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference in Paris in January 1919.His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S. President to visit Europe while in office.Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying to restore its economy.Wilson’s dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among European nations.The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the world’s population.The leaders of the victorious Allies—President Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando—became known as the Big Four.Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.
17“Der Tail Alvays Sticks Oudt" The San Antonio ExpressNovember 3, 1918
18General PurposeTo maintain a balance of power in Europe like the Congress of ViennaTo prevent another warUnfortunately, nations had differing aims
19David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Woodrow Wilson [USA]Orlando [Italy]Georges Clemenceau [France]
22End of the War Continued Eventually five treaties emerged from the Conference that dealt with the defeated powers.The five treaties were named after the Paris suburbs:Versailles (Germany),St Germain (Austria),Trianon (Hungary),Neuilly (Bulgaria)and Serves (Turkey).These treaties imposed territorial losses, financial liabilities and military restrictions on all members of the Central Powers.
23Woodrow Wilson President of the USA. Wilson was an idealist and reformer, who wanted to build a better and more peaceful world.He didn’t want the Treaty to be too harsh as he believed this would lead to revenge.He wanted to set up a peace keeping body – The League of NationsWilson did not understand the deep feelings of hatred in Europe.
24America (Wilson)Fourteen Points including self-determination, reduction in militaries, and the League of NationsAmerican public preferred not to entangle itself with Europe (ex. Henry Cabot Lodge)
25America’s View: A Peace of Justice Woodrow Wilson of America had been genuinely stunned by the savagery of the Great War.He could not understand how an advanced civilization could have reduced itself so that it had created so much devastation.In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices.In failing health, Wilson wanted America to concentrate on itself and, despite developing the idea of a League of Nations, he wanted an American input into Europe to be kept to a minimum.He believed that Germany should be punished but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation as opposed to revenge.
26America’s View Continued He had already written about what he believed the world should be like in his "Fourteen Points" The main points in this document were:no more secret treatiescountries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forcesnational self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern anotherall countries should belong to the League of Nations.
27The Fourteen PointsIn a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a vision of a “just and lasting peace.”His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas wereOpen diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military armsA fair system to resolve disputes over coloniesSelf-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status and form their own nationsEstablishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future warsThe Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism to U.S. foreign policy.The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on morality, not just on what’s best for the nation.
28What does this source tell you about the British public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918? Respond to this on your Left Side.“The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak.”(Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918)Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.
29Siegfried Sassoon, the poet, wrote in his diary on November 6, 1918: “Saw Winston Churchill for a few minutes at the Ministry. Full of victory talk…One feels that England is going to increase in power enormously. They mean to skin Germany alive. ‘A peace to end peace!’”
30Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988. “The British General Election in December 1918 was punctuated by bellowings that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press…”Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace? Do with your partner and write on Left Side.
31David Lloyd George The prime minister of Great Britain. He was a realist.An experienced politician who realised there must be compromise.The people of Britain wanted revenge.He knew this would lead to war but he represented the people.
32Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshly Lloyd George (UK)Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshlyGermany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britain's own navy and empireGermany and Britain to become trading partnersBUT Overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future
33Britain Protect overseas territory and naval superiority Germany can remain a major powerPublic opinion wanted Germany to payRepresented by David Lloyd George
34Great Britain’s Peace of Vengeance David Lloyd George of Great Britain had two views on how Germany should be treated.His public image was simple.He was a politician and politicians needed the support of the public to succeed in elections.If he had come across as being soft on Germany, he would have been speedily voted out of office.The British public was after revenge and Lloyd George's public image reflected this mood."Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views.
35“The Children” by Rudyard Kipling 1917 These were our children who died for our lands: they were dear in our sight.We have only the memory left of their home-treasured sayings and laughter.The price of our loss shall be paid to our hands, not another’s hereafter.Neither the Alien nor Priest shall decide it. That is our right.But who shall return us the children?At the hour the Barbarian chose to disclose his pretences,And raged against Man, they engaged, on the breasts that they bared for us,The first felon-strike of the sword he had long-time prepared for us,Their bodies were all our defence while we wrought our defences.They bought us anew with their blood, forbearing to blame us,Those hours which we had not made good when the Judgement o’ercame us.They believed us and perished for it. Our statecraft, our learningDelivered them bound to the Pit and alive to the burningWhither they mirthfully hastened as jostling for honour---Not since her birth has our Earth seen such worth loosed upon her.Nor was their agony brief, or once, only imposed on them.The wounded, the war-spent, the sick received no exemption:Being cured they returned and endured and achieved our redemption,Hopeless themselves of relief, till Death marvelling, closed on them.
36“The Children” continued That flesh we had nursed from the first in all cleanness was givenTo corruption unveiled and assailed by the malice of Heaven---By the heart-shaking jests of Decay where it lolled on the wires---To be blanched or gay-painted by fumes---to be cindered by fires---To be senselessly tossed and retossed in stale mutilationFrom crater to crater. For this we shall take expiation.But who shall return us our children?What stance does this poem take towards the peace process?How can you tell?
37Lloyd George’s Private Views He was very concerned about the rise of communism in Russia .He feared that it might spread to western Europe.After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed that the spread of communism posed a far greater threat to the world than a defeated Germany.Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the expected spread of communism.He did not want the people of Germany to become so disillusioned with their government that they turned to communism.
38Private Views of Lloyd George Continued Lloyd George did not want Germany treated with lenience but he knew that Germany would be the only country in central Europe that could stop the spread of communism if it burst over the frontiers of Russia.Germany had to be punished but not to the extent that it left her destitute.However, it would have been political suicide to have gone public with these views.
39What did Lloyd George like and dislike about the Treaty? Lloyd George (UK)There was pressure at home to make Germany pay – if he had been too soft he would have been voted out as PM.Lloyd George hated the Treaty.However "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views.He liked the fact that Britain got German colonies, and the small German navy helped British sea-power.But, although many British people wanted to ‘make Germany pay’, Lloyd George thought that the Treaty was too harsh, and that it would start another war in 25 years time.What did Lloyd George like and dislike about the Treaty?
40“For the Apostles of ‘No Humiliation’ by Owen Seaman in Punch on Oct 23, 1918 Rumours arrive thick as swarming bees;Our evening rags announce with raucous clamourThe latest wire, the semi-final wheezeTransmitted by the fertile Rotterdammer,Giving a local versionOf William Two’s spontaneous dispersion.They leave me cold. I care not how he paysThe heavy debt his deeds of wanton fury owe---Whether he puts his orb to bed, or staysOn exhibition like an antique curio;The reckoning we chargeHas to be settled by the Hun at large.Here and elsewhere his advocates imputeInnocence to the Bosch---a gentle creature,Too prone perhaps to lick the tyrant’s boot.But otherwise without a vicious feature;They’d have our wrath abated;Poor child, ‘he must not be humiliated.’Why not? Against his army’s bestial crimesHe never lifted one protesting fingerThe wrongs of Belgium drew his jocund rhymes;Over the Hymn of Hate he loved to linger.Pressing the forte pedalAnd wore---for luck---the Lusitania medal.
41“For the Apostles” continued He took a holiday for children slain,And butchered women set his flags a-flutter;Our drowning anguish served for his light refrainTo beery patriots homing down the gutter;On prisoners he spat,The helpless ones, and thanked his Gott for that.Had he but fought a decent nations fight,Clean-handed, then we must have spared his honour;But now, if Germany goes down in night,‘Tis he, not we, that puts the shame upon her,Shame not of mere defeat,But such that never our hands again can meet.Why should his pride of race be spared a fall?Let him go humble all his days for sentence.Why pity him as just a Kaiser’s thrall,This beast at heart---though fear may fake repentance?For me, when all is said,I save my pity for the murdered dead.What arguments are made to deal with Germany harshly in this poem?
42He was seeing red…wanted revenge George ClemenceauHe was seeing red…wanted revengePresident of France.Clemenceau had seen France invaded by Germany in 1870 and 1914, he wanted to make sure this would never happen again.France had suffered greatly during the War they wanted compensation and revenge.Uncompromising.
43France Bitter over French and Prussian War Permanently weaken Germany to protect France (after two invasions)Some wanted Germany dividedRepresented by Premier Georges Clemenceau
44France’s Views: A Peace of Vengeance Georges Clemenceau of France had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again.This reflected the views of the French public but it was also what Clemenceau himself believed in.He had seen the north-east corner of France destroyed and he determined that Germany should never be allowed to do this again."The Tiger" did not have to adapt his policies to suit the French public - the French leader and the French public both thought alike.
45What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty? Clemenceau (France) Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover.He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again (France had been invaded by Germany before in 1871).He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future.Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace-Lorraine as this had been taken off France by Germany in 1871.In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher.What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?
46Vittorio Orlando Italian Prime Minister. Wanted land and territory for Italy.Self determination stopped Italy getting the lands especially Fiume.Walked out of the meeting when he didn’t get his way in April 1919.Returned to sign the Treaty in May.
47Italy’s Views: Obtain Land Linked to the "Big Three" was Italy led by Vittorio Orlando.He was frequently left on the sidelines when the important negotiations took place despite Italy fighting on the side of the Allies.Why was Italy treated in this manner?1)At the start of the war in 1914, Italy should have fought with Germany and Austria as she had signed the Triple Alliance which dictated that if one of the three was attacked, the other two would go to that country's aid.2)Italy did not join in on Germany's side but waited until 1915 and joined the side of Britain and France.3)This association with Germany was enough to taint Italy in the eyes of the "Big Three".
48Treatment of Italy Continued Why was Italy treated in this manner?4)Also Italy had not played an overwhelming part in the war.Her army had been beaten at the battles of Caporetto.5)Her strategic importance to central Europe was minimal whilst Britain dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta and Gibraltar.Italy's potential military clout in 1919, should the need arise to put pressure on Germany and Austria, was limited.
49Political Cartoon on Futile Attempts of America Respond on your Left Side:What do you think is the point of this political cartoon?What do you think the caption for this political cartoon should be?
50After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One? Respond to this prompt on your Left Side.“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock.”(Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.)Peace
51Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.
52Versailles cont. .3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
53Versailles4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
54Germany had to hand over some 70,000 square kilometres of land. This accounted for about 13% of all of her land and six million of her people who lived there.
55An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of fifteen years. No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone.
56Treaty of Versailles Items The Treaty of Versailles includes 440 articles. The principal items are:Germany has to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France.Germany has to cede the coal mines in the Saar-area to France.Germany has to cede an area with Moresnet, Eupen, Malmédy and St. Vith to Belgium.Germany has to cede the main part of West-Prussia and almost the whole province of Posen to the new state of Poland.Germany has to cede all colonies: Togo en Cameroun, the territories in East- and South-West Africa, islands in the Pacific and possessions in China.
57Treaty of Versailles Items Continued All German properties in foreign countries are confiscated.Germany has to cede all war material to the Allies.German compulsory military service is abolished, as well as the General Staff.Germany is not allowed to have tanks, airplanes, submarines, large warships and poison gas.During 15 years Germany is not allowed to station troops on the left border of the river Rhine and in a 50 km strip on the right border of the Rhine.The total size of the Germany army is not to exceed 100,000 men.
58Treaty of Versailles Items Continued The German navy has a maximum of 15,000 men.Germany is allowed a total of 4,000 officers.Germany is not to take part in the League of Nations.Austria has to cede South-Tyrol to Italy.Turkey has to cede all foreign possessions. England gets Iraq, Palestine and Trans-Jordan, France gets Syria and Lebanon.
59Treaty of Versailles Items Continued Germany has to cede to the allies all seagoing ships with a carrying capacity exceeding 1600 Brt, plus half of all ships between 1000 and 1600 Brt.Furthermore one fourth of the fishing fleet and two fifths of the inland navigation fleet has to be ceded.Germany has to cede large amounts of machinery and building materials, trains and trucks.Germany has to deliver certain amounts of coal, chemicals, dye and fuel for many years.All German sub-ocean telegraph cables are confiscated.Germany has to pay 20 billion goldmarks.
60War Guilt Clause Article 231 of the Treaty "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”Germans felt the clause was unjust
61Mandate SystemGermany lost all overseas territories and a mandate system set up where Allied Countries pledged to prepare the subjects for self-governmentSouth-West Africa under South Africa and Ruanda-Urundi went to Belgium;Tanganyika, Nigeria & Gold Coast went to Great Britain;Togo and Cameroons went to FranceOttoman Empire lost control of Arab lands in the Middle EastPalestine, Iraq & Transjordan mandate of Great Britain;Lebanon & Syria mandate of France
64TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919 REVENGE ON GERMANY THE TERMS The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economicallyREVENGE ON GERMANYWAR GUILT CLAUSEGermany had to accept blame for starting WW1GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCEDNO UNION WITH AUSTRIA- Army restricted to 100,000 men.- No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force.- Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats.THE TERMSOF THE TREATY OFVERSAILLES1919REPARATIONSGermany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds).GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIESRHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISEDGermany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa].GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORYGermany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.
66Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 1: The reparations were progressively reduced by the Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. In 1932 they were forgiven completely. By that time the damage had been done: 1. Destruction of the German currency and economy - what was left after the war anyway -, and 2. Destruction of the nation's political stability that allowed major riots and street battles between Communists, Nazis and others, leading to the successful grab for power by Adolf Hitler.
67Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 2: The terms imposed on Germany at Versailles were much more mild than those Germany had imposed on Russia (the Brest-Litovsk treaty, summer 1918), or those that Germany planned to impose on the Western Allies if she had won the war - including, among other things, the subjugation of Belgium, innocent victim of German aggression in 1914.
68Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 3: Had the Versailles Treaty been applied as envisioned, Germany would not have been rearming in 1932.1. The fact that Germany did rearm was not a problem brought about by the Treaty.2. In the end, Versailles became a dog's dinner. It neither crushed Germany enough to stop her rise again, yet it was still able to humiliate her.
74A German nationalist responds to the terms of the treaty: “People and government have, during the most recent days, unambiguously made clear that we cannot sign the document which our enemies call a peace. One thing is certain, that any government, which, by its signature, would confer upon this work of the devil…the halo of right, would, sooner or later be driven out…Nothing is left but to remain cold-blooded, offer passive resistance wherever possible, and show contempt and pride”---Alfred von WegererMay 28, 1919Do this on your Left Side:What is his view of the Treaty of Versailles?What is he threatening?Why does this not bode well for a lasting peace?
75Shows Germany as beaten but still big and solid enough to be dangerous British and French policeShows what cartoonist thinks the Treaty terms should do to GermanyDevastation caused by warLarge and solid (prisoner won’t escape)Other pictures could be imported and used around the same template.Deliberately shown as civilians (not army)GIVING HIM ROPE?German criminal (to Allied Police): Here, I say, stop! You’re hurting me![Aside] If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet!Suggests cartoonist thinks Germany will try to worm out of responsibility for war
76‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period. :Describe the scene shown, what is the storyline?Then, assess the individual features in the cartoon.Then, identify the political message intended by the cartoonist.‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period.Why the candle ‘snuffer’? What political message does it represent?What does the ‘Angel’ represent?What does the candle represent?What is the general political message of the cartoon?
77German PostcardGerman postcard produced about the time of the Treaty of Versailles. Its title is 'Hands off German Homeland'. On the stone (bottom left) is written 'd.ö.' standing for Deutsch-österreich (German Austria).
78“Peace” by Eleanor Farjeon I am as awful as my brother War,I am the sudden silence after clamour.I am the face that shows the seamy scarWhen blood has lost its frenzy and its glamour.Men in my pause shall know the cost at lastThat is not to be paid in triumph or tears.Men will begin to judge the thing that’s pastAs men will judge it in a hundred years.Nations! Whose ravenous engines must be fedEndlessly with the father and the son,My naked light upon your darkness, dread!---By which ye shall behold what ye have done:Whereon, more like vulture than a dove,Ye set my seal in hatred, not in love.Let no man call me good. I am not blest.My single virtue is in the end of crimes.I only am the period of unrest,The ceasing of the horrors of the times;My good is but the negative of ill,Such ill as bends the spirit with despair,Such ill as makes the nation’s soul stand stillAnd freeze to stone beneath its Gorgon glare.Be blunt, and say that peace is but a stateWherein the active soul is free to move,And nations only show as mean or greatAccording to the spirit then they prove.---O which of ye whose battle-cry is HateWill first in peace dare shout the name of Love?
79Source CA German postcard, produced about the time of the Treaty of Versailles, showing the land where Germans lived. The areas in red are the lands given to other countries by the Treaty of Versailles,( including the land lost by Austria). Its title is 'Lost but not forgotten land'.The poem under the map reads: You must carve in your heart These words, as in stone - What we have lost Will be regained!
80Vengeance! German Nation Source 5: Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it! The German people will with unceasing labour press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which it is entitled. Then will come the vengeance for the shame of 1919.From the ‘Deutsche Zeitung’ [‘The German Express’] newspaper.Source 5:Source 7:Only fools, liars and criminals could hope for mercy from the enemy. In these nights hatred grew in me, hatred for those responsible for the dead.By Adolf Hitler, who had served in the army and became a future leader of Germany
81Gave rise to Hitler who used the Treaty of Versailles as a rallying cry for nationalism and revenge. Dictated Peace of Versailles
84What was the League of Nations? An idea of American President Woodrow Wilson following the first world warAn international police force made up of representatives of many countriesAn organisation that would allow disputes to be settled without resorting to war, based in Geneva (neutral).
85Differing views on how the League should operate: AmericaBritainFranceA world parliament where representatives would meet regularly to decide on matter which affected all of themA simple organisation that would meet during emergenciesA strong League capable of enforcing decisions with its own army
86Each of these types of League has advantages and disadvantages: Which idea do you think is best and why? Write on your Left Side.France: Although France’s idea of a strong League would mean it could be an effective force, the League was meant to be centred on peace. Potentially, its own army could provoke another warBritain: Britain’s simpler idea would mean that the League would merely dealing with emergencies rather than working on preventing them from of occurring in the first placeAmerica: America’s version of the League would be expensive and a complicated to organise, although it might have been the most effective version in terms of keeping peace
87However, the idea of joining the League was not popular with all Americans… Many Americans did not think the Treaty of Versailles was fair. As the League was linked with the treaty, they did not want to be a part of itAmericans wanted to stay out of disputes that might enter their troops into the kind of carnage of the first world warOthers wanted to avoid the economic cost of joining the LeagueMany Americans were anti-French or Anti-British. They thought the League would be run by these countries and did not want to get involved with their affairs
88Wilson’s party lost the election in 1919 Wilson’s party lost the election in His opponents promised to follow a policy of isolationism (staying out of international affairs). And so America did not join the League of Nations…
89The League of Nations Stop aggression AIMS Improve Disarmament Encourageco-operationStop aggressionAIMSImprovesocial conditionsDisarmament
90Aims of the League Discourage aggression from any country Encourage co-operation in business and tradeEncourage disarmamentImprove working and living conditions for people across the world
91Membership: What problems do you see from this? Write on Left Side. 42 members - by 1930’s 59Defeated countries could not join e.g. GermanyRussia excluded because communistUSA did not join - isolation from world affairsA club for the victorious?
93When it opened, some countries were not members of the League: America:- had become isolationistGermany:- As a defeated country who was blamed for staring the Great war, Germany was not invited to joinRussia:- Were not invited to join the League, mainly due to their Communist government
95Structure The Assembly Each country one vote The Secretariat The CouncilMet several times a yearand in emergencies5 permanent membersEach had right to veto any ideaPermanent court ofInternational JusticeBased at The HagueSettle disputes peacefullyNo power of enforcementThe SecretariatKept records - civil service
96Powers of the LeagueIf a country ignored the ruling of the League it could:Put pressure onRefuse to trade - sanctionsSend in troops - member countries join together
97Powers of the LeagueThe Covenant of the League set out three ways the League could settle disputes:A hearing by a neutral countryA ruling by the International Court of Justice (what’s the weakness with this?)An Inquiry by the council
98If this didn’t work the League could take action MORAL SANCTIONS – Put pressure on the guilty country to stop.ECONOMIC SANCTIONS – Members would refuse to trade with the guilty country.MILITARY SANCTIONS – Members of the league would join armed forces together to take action NOTE: never used!Can you see any weaknesses in the League’s powers? Respond on Left Side.
99Strengths of the League Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peaceHad some early successes:Settled some land disputes in 1920’sHelped refugees,Dealt with spread of disease,Fought for better conditions for people
100Successes in the 1920sWith the League’s help over prisoners of war were returned homeThe slavery Commission brought about the freeing of over slaves in British-owned Sierra-Leone and organised raids against slave owners and traders in BurmaThe Health Committee worked hard to defeat leprosy and malaria. It later became the World Health OrganisationSweden accepted the League’s decision to give the Aaland islands to Finland. The two countries thereby avoided going to war for themThe League divided Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland after a plebiscite showed a clear divide. Both countries accepted this decision.
102Weaknesses of League USA didn’t join No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasionNo permanent armyDisarmament not realisticStructure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken
1031929 Wall Street Crash! This is MAJOR turning point for the league: *Many members of the League were now focussed on solving domestic problems.*The crash created a depression in Europe causing unemployment and poverty.Dictators rose to power as they promised a solution to problems.These were new problems for the League to face*Had a major effect on Japan who relied heavily on international trade.This would eventually contribute towards the invasion of Manchuria
104Failure of Collective Security “During the 1930’s three powers--Japan, Italy and Germany--grew increasingly aggressive.”“Each sought to enhance its influence and to expand its territory through the use of military force.”“Anxious to avoid war, the Western democracies yielded time and again to the aggressors.”World History: Continuity & Change, p.684
105The 1930s… Were BAD for the League: *The 1930s are always seen as bad for the league by comparison with the 1920s. Remember this for exam questions that ask about both*There were three huge failures for the League in the 1930s:The Japanese invasion of ManchuriaThe failure of the disarmament conferenceThe invasion of Abyssinia by Italy
106Failure #1: ManchuriaThere was an explosion on the Manchurian railway that ran though China. The Japanese depended on this railway to transport goods into their country, whose natural resources and agriculture were limited by their mountainous terrain.The Japanese invaded China on the grounds that it needed to safeguard its railway. However, they later also bombed ShanghaiChina appealed to the League for help and the League ruled that the Japanese should return Manchuria to Chinese rule.But Japan continued to invade new areas of ChinaThe League discussed sanctions but its member were not prepared to send troops to enforce its decision…
107Why did it fail? *Japan was too far away *The League were worried about offending Japan who was an important member of the League*Britain and France were more concerned about the problems resulting from the depression in their own countries*Russia, the only country with troops and resources enough to combat the problem quickly in the region, was not a member of the League
108Failure 2: The Disarmament conference 1932-3 In February 1932 the League of Nations began the long-awaited disarmament conference.It produced resolutions to limit the size of artillery and tanks, ban the bombing of civilians and chemical warfare. HOWEVER, nothing was agreed upon as to how they would enforce these limits.They were also unsure as to what to do about Germany- should all countries disarm to her level or should Germany be allowed to re-arm to the new universal lower level as the TOV had been too harsh?
109Key events at the Disarmament Conference July Germany walked out after the other countries failed to agree to all countries disarming to its levelDecember 1932 An agreement was finally reached to treat the Germans equallyJanuary Germany announced that it was coming backFebruary Hitler started to re-arm Germany anyway in secretOctober Hitler walked out of the Conference permanently and soon after withdrew Germany from the League of Nations
110Failure 3: Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia 1935 The pale grey areas were Italian territory in eastern Africa.You can see why Italy, who wanted to expand her empire, would choose this area of land.Italy also wanted revenge after an embarassing failed attempt to take Abyssinia in 1896
111The background Like Japan, Italy was an important member of the League Like Japan, Italy wanted to expand its empireUnlike Japan, Italy was right on the League’s doorstepUnlike Japan, Abyssinia had borders with British coloniesUNLIKE Japan, the League could not claim the problem was too far away to deal with.This would be a very real test for the League
112The events1934 There was a dispute between Italian and Ethiopian soldiers at an oasis 8oKM inside Abyssinia.Mussolini began preparing an army for an invasionMussolini claimed this was Italian territoryThe Abyssinian emperor appealed to the League for help
113So what did the League do? Very little…*The League was anxious to keep Italy on side. Italy was their best ally against Hitler.*Britain and France signed an agreement with Mussolini about standing united against Germany and the problem in Abyssinia was not even discussed*There was much talking and negotiating but nothing was actually done to discourage Mussolini*Eventually a committee reported to the League that neither side was responsible for the conflict at the oasis. The League put forward a plan that would give Italy some of Abyssinia. But Mussolini rejected it.
114The situation worsens… October 1935 A full-scale Italian invasion of Abyssinia commencedIt was a clear sign of aggression and the League’s covenant (set of guidelines) made it clear that sanctions should be imposed.It banned sales of arms, rubber, metals and loans to Italy.However, these sanctions caused economic problems e.g. British coal-workers lost jobs because of ban of exports to ItalyAnd Britain and France were making secret plans behind the League’s back, offering Mussolini more of Abyssinia in return for stopping his invasionEventually, Hitler’s invasion of the Rhineland made many countries unwilling to upset Italy any further, as their support against Hitler seemed crucial.The League watched helplessly. Mussolini annexed the whole country. The League had failed.
115You need to know how each of these cotrbuted towards the League’s failures What were the reasons for the League of Nations’ failures during the 1930s?Self-interestAbsence of important countriesLack of TroopsTOV it was meant to protect was unfairDecisions were slowSanctions were ineffectiveWe have our own problems!
116Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919) Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were just as multi-national as the Austro-Hungarian Empire they replacedCzechoslovakiaCzechsSlovaksYugoslaviaSerbsMontenegrinsCroatsSlovenesBozniaksThis caused future unrestin the area
117Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919) Broke up Austria-HungaryHad to pay war reparations – went bankrupt before they could be setCouldn’t enter into unions without consent of the League of NationsAustrian army limited to 30,000 volunteersReduced their territoryAlso dealt with railroad rights and navigation rights over the Danube RiverResult - The vast reduction of territory, population, and resources of the new Austria severely affected its economy and made them resentful
118Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920) Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 3.3 million peopleWhen the Romanian Army infringed upon the cease-fire line, the Allied powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gainsUnable to reject the terms, but unable to accept the treaty, the democratic government resigned. It was replaced by a Communist governmentThe Romanian army attacked and wonThe Allied powers restored the Hungarian stateArmy reduced to 35,000; no conscriptionWas to recognize the rights of minorities in her bordersAmount of reparations was never set
119Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920) Results - Caused economic problems and ethnic unrest. They sided with Germany in WWII
120Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Ottoman Empire renamed TurkeyTerritory shrunk:Created the Kingdom of Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia)Created ArmeniaGreece and Italy got territorial gainsMandates were given to:Britain –IraqPalestineFrance –LebanonSyria
121Political Effects After WWI – British Mandate of Palestine The United Kingdom was granted control of Palestine by the Versailles Peace ConferenceDuring World War I the British had made two promises regarding territory in the Middle East:Britain had promised the local Arabs, through Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East, in exchange for their supporting the BritishBritain had promised to create and foster a Jewish national home as laid out in the Balfour Declaration, 1917
123Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Allies controlled the Empire’s financesEveryone was to be granted free transit through the EmpireGoods in transit were to be free of customs dutiesProperty of citizens from Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria was to be liquidatedArmy reduced to 50,000, reduced navy, reduced air forceWere supposed to give up the people responsible for committing massacres during the war to an Allied Tribunal, but this was never executedThe Dardanelle Straits were to be open in both peace and war
124Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Results –Created areas under Western control that were nationalistic and sought their autonomyFostered resentment of the occupying Western forcesSome Middle Eastern countries, like Iran, would create a good relationship with GermanyDidn’t resolve the issue over a Jewish homeland
125Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Neuilly (Nov. 1919) Bulgaria established borders over contested territoriesReduce army to 20,000Pay reparations of over $400 millionResults – Resentment over the loss of lands led them to occupy them with the Nazis during WWII
127Political Effects After WWI - New Governments Monarchies were replaced in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman EmpireSocialistic ideas experienced a boomRevolution was in the air as people began to express their desires for a better way of lifeBritain, France, and Germany all experienced a rise in socialism to deal with:Better working conditions8-hour work dayCollective bargainingWagesHousing
128Political Effects After WWI – The U.S. Returns To Isolationism America's return to isolationist politics after the war caused them to reject Wilson's plan to join his new international peace-keeping communityAmerica's abstention destroyed any real hopes for international cooperation to keep the peace, since France and England were not strong enough to do it alone because they were in so much debt
129Political Effects After WWI – Fear of German Resentment Locarno TreatySigned in October 1925The Germans renounced any desire to change their western frontier with France and accepted the loss of Alsace-LorraineBritain and Italy guaranteed the western frontiers of France and the continued demilitarization of the Rhineland against a “flagrant breach” – but what did that mean?
130Political Effects After WWI – Fear of German Resentment Locarno SpringHad eased tensions between France and Germany, but France was still suspicious of GermanyFrom , relations were better between the two countriesFrance had an alliance with Poland and Czechoslovakia, but these two countries couldn’t be counted on for French securityBritain wouldn’t aid France if they attacked Germany
131Political Effects After WWI – Kellogg-Briand Pact Created by the U.S. Secretary of State and French Foreign MinisterAgreement signed in 1928 that renounced war as a way to resolve disputesA total of 62 nations signed the treaty, including the U.S., Italy, Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan
132Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back & Hitler’s Rise The First World War created the Dictator that the world would bitterly come to knowHe himself admitted this in 1941, saying: "When I returned from the War, I brought back home with me my experiences at the front; out of them I built my National Socialist community"There is Hitler in the crowd. Beginning of his rise and plans for Germany.
133Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back & Hitler’s Rise The German and Austrian populaces, with their censored presses, had been kept in the dark about the recent military defeats of their armies, so that the surrender came as a complete, nasty surpriseAs Germany itself had not been militarily conquered, its citizens expected a mild, negotiated settlement, and were stunned by the harsh peace treaty that their new leaders eventually agreed toIn the years after the war, conspiracy theories grew up in which Germany had been defeated not on the battlefield, but by treacherous politicians at home. Adolf Hitler would later use these theories to great effect in rallying opposition to German democrats, socialists and communists
134Political Effects After WWI – Stab in the Back & Hitler’s Rise Adolf Hitler, a veteran of the War's worst firestorms, desperately sought a reason for defeatImbued with a burning hatred of Jews, Bolsheviks and even Democrats, the solution was simple - the country had been stabbed in the back by the November Criminals, or in Hitler's words: "a gang of despicable and depraved criminals!"