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Treaty of Versailles “A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”

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2 Treaty of Versailles “A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”

3 Treaty of Versailles Conference January -June 1919 Settlement drafted by delegates of victorious nations in WWI: Britain, United States, France, and Italy “We were preparing not Peace only, but Eternal Peace. There was about us the halo of some divine mission….For we were bent on doing great, permanent and noble things.” Participant of conference at Versailles, World History: Continuity & Change, p. 612

4 A representative of the new German government met with Marshal Foch. In a railway car in a forest near Paris, the two signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting). On November 11, 1918, World War I came to an end. Leaders of the victorious nations gathered outside Paris to work out the terms of peace, but the peace settlement left many feeling bitter & betrayed.

5 Why Germany Fell Failure of German surge German troops mutinied and deserted British naval blockade Food & supplies in short supply Riots on streets of Germany Kaiser fled abroad New government prepared to discuss peace terms---Weimar Republic Get rid of the monarchy Kaiser Wilhelm II

6 GERMAN EAGLE (to German Dove): "Here, carry on for a bit, will you I'm feeling rather run down."

7 · At 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918, Germany agreed to the armistice, ending World War I. Peace at Last

8 The armistice was signed in a railway carriage in the forest of Compiegne. How and why are these two images of the same event so different?

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10 News of the Armistice brought great relief. On both sides of no-man’s land, trenches erupted, they threw their helmets in the air, discarded their guns, waved their hands, then the two groups of men all up and down the fronts began edging toward each other, hesitantly at first, but when they met up, they began hugging each other, dancing, jumping, passing out cigarettes and chocolate. The French & the Germans were not only hugging each other but kissing each other on both cheeks as well. The final toll of the war was staggering. It lasted 4 years, involved more than 30 nations & was the bloodiest war in history to that time. Deaths numbered over 30 million, half of them civilians who died as a result of disease, starvation or exposure. In addition, 20 million more people were wounded & an additional 10 million became refugees. Historians estimate the direct economic cost of the war to have been about $350 billion. Total casualties: Russia = 9,300,000 Germany = 7,209,413 France = 6,220,800 Austria-Hungary = 4,650,200 Britain = 3,428,535 U.S. = 325,236

11 Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Social : almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million are wounded millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine, and disease the world was left with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism.

12 Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Economic : the total cost of the war: over $350 billion. How was this paid for??? –heavy taxes: causes lower standard of living for the European people. international trade suffers: nations raise the tariffs on imports and exports. Russia: communist seize power and introduce a new economic system. economic collapses bring on the Great Depression of the late 1920’s and 1930’s.

13 Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Political : U. S. emerges as a world power because of the assumption of international responsibilities. 3 major European dynasties are taken out of power: Romanovs--Russia, Hohenzollerns--Germany, Hapsburgs-- Austria-Hungary. New states are created in central Europe, some containing several different nationalities, especially in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The League of Nations is created to solve international problems and maintain world peace. Will be a failure. Many nations turn to military dictatorships—primarily Russia, Italy, and Germany, to control their political problems.

14 Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war? Why or why not? Respond on Left Side. Around 8 million people had been killed The cost of the war was roughly nine thousand million pounds The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease “In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War.” John D. Clare, First World War (1994)

15 Impact in Europe The effects of World War I in Europe were devastating. – European nations lost almost an entire generation of young men. – France, where most of the fighting took place, was in ruins. – Great Britain was deeply in debt to the U.S. and lost its place as the world’s financial center. – The reparations forced on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were crippling to its economy. World War I would not be the “war to end all wars,” as some called it. – Too many issues were left unresolved. – Too much anger and hostility remained among nations. Within a generation, conflict would again break out in Europe, bringing the United States and the world back into war.

16 The Mood in 1919  Most countries felt Germany should pay for the damage and destruction caused by the War.  The countries of Europe were exhausted.  Their economies and industries were in a poor state.  Millions had died. Almost every family had lost a member in the fighting.  Ordinary citizens faced shortages of food and medicine.

17 The Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference in Paris in January – His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S. President to visit Europe while in office. – Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying to restore its economy. Wilson’s dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among European nations. The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the world’s population. The leaders of the victorious Allies—President Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando—became known as the Big Four. Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.

18 “Der Tail Alvays Sticks Oudt" The San Antonio Express November 3, 1918

19 General Purpose To maintain a balance of power in Europe like the Congress of Vienna To prevent another war Unfortunately, nations had differing aims

20 David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France] Woodrow Wilson [USA]

21 The Four Major Leaders

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23 End of the War Continued Eventually five treaties emerged from the Conference that dealt with the defeated powers. The five treaties were named after the Paris suburbs: o Versailles (Germany), Versailles o St Germain (Austria), St Germain o Trianon (Hungary), Trianon o Neuilly (Bulgaria) Neuilly o and Serves (Turkey).Serves These treaties imposed territorial losses, financial liabilities and military restrictions on all members of the Central Powers.Central Powers

24 Woodrow Wilson President of the USA. Wilson was an idealist and reformer, who wanted to build a better and more peaceful world. He didn’t want the Treaty to be too harsh as he believed this would lead to revenge. He wanted to set up a peace keeping body – The League of Nations Wilson did not understand the deep feelings of hatred in Europe.

25 America (Wilson) Fourteen Points including self-determination, reduction in militaries, and the League of Nations American public preferred not to entangle itself with Europe (ex. Henry Cabot Lodge)

26 America’s View: A Peace of Justice Woodrow Wilson of America had been genuinely stunned by the savagery of the Great War.Woodrow WilsonAmerica He could not understand how an advanced civilization could have reduced itself so that it had created so much devastation. In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices.America In failing health, Wilson wanted America to concentrate on itself and, despite developing the idea of a League of Nations, he wanted an American input into Europe to be kept to a minimum. He believed that Germany should be punished but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation as opposed to revenge.

27 America’s View Continued He had already written about what he believed the world should be like in his "Fourteen Points" The main points in this document were:FourteenPoints 1)no more secret treaties 2) countries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forces 3) national self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another 4)all countries should belong to the League of Nations.

28 The Fourteen Points In a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a vision of a “just and lasting peace.” His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas were — Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms — A fair system to resolve disputes over colonies — Self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status and form their own nations — Establishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars The Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism to U.S. foreign policy. The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on morality, not just on what’s best for the nation.

29 What does this source tell you about the British public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918? Respond to this on your Left Side. “The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak.” (Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918) Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.

30 Siegfried Sassoon, the poet, wrote in his diary on November 6, 1918: “Saw Winston Churchill for a few minutes at the Ministry. Full of victory talk…One feels that England is going to increase in power enormously. They mean to skin Germany alive. ‘A peace to end peace!’”

31 Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace? Do with your partner and write on Left Side. “The British General Election in December 1918 was punctuated by bellowings that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press…” Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.

32 David Lloyd George The prime minister of Great Britain. He was a realist. An experienced politician who realised there must be compromise. The people of Britain wanted revenge. He knew this would lead to war but he represented the people.

33 Lloyd George (UK) Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshly Germany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britain's own navy and empire Germany and Britain to become trading partners BUT Overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future

34 Britain Protect overseas territory and naval superiority Germany can remain a major power Public opinion wanted Germany to pay Represented by David Lloyd George

35 Great Britain’s Peace of Vengeance David Lloyd George of Great Britain had two views on how Germany should be treated.David Lloyd George His public image was simple. He was a politician and politicians needed the support of the public to succeed in elections. If he had come across as being soft on Germany, he would have been speedily voted out of office. The British public was after revenge and Lloyd George's public image reflected this mood. "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views.

36 “ The Children” by Rudyard Kipling 1917 These were our children who died for our lands: they were dear in our sight. We have only the memory left of their home-treasured sayings and laughter. The price of our loss shall be paid to our hands, not another’s hereafter. Neither the Alien nor Priest shall decide it. That is our right. But who shall return us the children? At the hour the Barbarian chose to disclose his pretences, And raged against Man, they engaged, on the breasts that they bared for us, The first felon-strike of the sword he had long-time prepared for us, Their bodies were all our defence while we wrought our defences. They bought us anew with their blood, forbearing to blame us, Those hours which we had not made good when the Judgement o’ercame us. They believed us and perished for it. Our statecraft, our learning Delivered them bound to the Pit and alive to the burning Whither they mirthfully hastened as jostling for honour--- Not since her birth has our Earth seen such worth loosed upon her. Nor was their agony brief, or once, only imposed on them. The wounded, the war-spent, the sick received no exemption: Being cured they returned and endured and achieved our redemption, Hopeless themselves of relief, till Death marvelling, closed on them.

37 “The Children” continued That flesh we had nursed from the first in all cleanness was given To corruption unveiled and assailed by the malice of Heaven--- By the heart-shaking jests of Decay where it lolled on the wires--- To be blanched or gay-painted by fumes---to be cindered by fires--- To be senselessly tossed and retossed in stale mutilation From crater to crater. For this we shall take expiation. But who shall return us our children? What stance does this poem take towards the peace process? How can you tell?

38 Lloyd George’s Private Views He was very concerned about the rise of communism in Russia. He feared that it might spread to western Europe. After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed that the spread of communism posed a far greater threat to the world than a defeated Germany. Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the expected spread of communism. He did not want the people of Germany to become so disillusioned with their government that they turned to communism.

39 Private Views of Lloyd George Continued Lloyd George did not want Germany treated with lenience but he knew that Germany would be the only country in central Europe that could stop the spread of communism if it burst over the frontiers of Russia. Germany had to be punished but not to the extent that it left her destitute. However, it would have been political suicide to have gone public with these views.

40 Lloyd George (UK) There was pressure at home to make Germany pay – if he had been too soft he would have been voted out as PM. Lloyd George hated the Treaty. However "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views. He liked the fact that Britain got German colonies, and the small German navy helped British sea-power. But, although many British people wanted to ‘make Germany pay’, Lloyd George thought that the Treaty was too harsh, and that it would start another war in 25 years time. What did Lloyd George like and dislike about the Treaty?

41 “For the Apostles of ‘No Humiliation’ by Owen Seaman in Punch on Oct 23, 1918 Rumours arrive thick as swarming bees; Our evening rags announce with raucous clamour The latest wire, the semi-final wheeze Transmitted by the fertile Rotterdammer, Giving a local version Of William Two’s spontaneous dispersion. They leave me cold. I care not how he pays The heavy debt his deeds of wanton fury owe--- Whether he puts his orb to bed, or stays On exhibition like an antique curio; The reckoning we charge Has to be settled by the Hun at large. Here and elsewhere his advocates impute Innocence to the Bosch---a gentle creature, Too prone perhaps to lick the tyrant’s boot. But otherwise without a vicious feature; They’d have our wrath abated; Poor child, ‘he must not be humiliated.’ Why not? Against his army’s bestial crimes He never lifted one protesting finger The wrongs of Belgium drew his jocund rhymes; Over the Hymn of Hate he loved to linger. Pressing the forte pedal And wore---for luck---the Lusitania medal.

42 “ For the Apostles” continued He took a holiday for children slain, And butchered women set his flags a- flutter; Our drowning anguish served for his light refrain To beery patriots homing down the gutter; On prisoners he spat, The helpless ones, and thanked his Gott for that. Had he but fought a decent nations fight, Clean-handed, then we must have spared his honour; But now, if Germany goes down in night, ‘Tis he, not we, that puts the shame upon her, Shame not of mere defeat, But such that never our hands again can meet. Why should his pride of race be spared a fall? Let him go humble all his days for sentence. Why pity him as just a Kaiser’s thrall, This beast at heart---though fear may fake repentance? For me, when all is said, I save my pity for the murdered dead. What arguments are made to deal with Germany harshly in this poem?

43 George Clemenceau President of France. Clemenceau had seen France invaded by Germany in 1870 and 1914, he wanted to make sure this would never happen again. France had suffered greatly during the War they wanted compensation and revenge. Uncompromising. He was seeing red…wanted revenge

44 France Bitter over French and Prussian War Permanently weaken Germany to protect France (after two invasions) Some wanted Germany divided Represented by Premier Georges Clemenceau

45 France’s Views: A Peace of Vengeance Georges Clemenceau of France had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again.Georges Clemenceau This reflected the views of the French public but it was also what Clemenceau himself believed in. He had seen the north-east corner of France destroyed and he determined that Germany should never be allowed to do this again. "The Tiger" did not have to adapt his policies to suit the French public - the French leader and the French public both thought alike.

46 Clemenceau (France) Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again (France had been invaded by Germany before in 1871). He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future. Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace- Lorraine as this had been taken off France by Germany in In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher. What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?

47 Vittorio Orlando Italian Prime Minister. Wanted land and territory for Italy. Self determination stopped Italy getting the lands especially Fiume. Walked out of the meeting when he didn’t get his way in April Returned to sign the Treaty in May.

48 Italy’s Views: Obtain Land Linked to the "Big Three" was Italy led by Vittorio Orlando.ItalyVittorio Orlando He was frequently left on the sidelines when the important negotiations took place despite Italy fighting on the side of the Allies. Why was Italy treated in this manner? 1)At the start of the war in 1914, Italy should have fought with Germany and Austria as she had signed the Triple Alliance which dictated that if one of the three was attacked, the other two would go to that country's aid.Italy 2)Italy did not join in on Germany's side but waited until 1915 and joined the side of Britain and France. 3)This association with Germany was enough to taint Italy in the eyes of the "Big Three".

49 Treatment of Italy Continued Why was Italy treated in this manner? 4)Also Italy had not played an overwhelming part in the war. –Her army had been beaten at the battles of Caporetto. 5)Her strategic importance to central Europe was minimal whilst Britain dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta and Gibraltar. –Italy's potential military clout in 1919, should the need arise to put pressure on Germany and Austria, was limited.

50 Political Cartoon on Futile Attempts of America Respond on your Left Side: What do you think is the point of this political cartoon? What do you think the caption for this political cartoon should be?

51 “Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock.” (Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.) After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One? Respond to this prompt on your Left Side. Peace

52 Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war 2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.

53 Versailles cont.. 3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.

54 Versailles 4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.

55 Germany had to hand over some 70,000 square kilometres of land. This accounted for about 13% of all of her land and six million of her people who lived there.

56 An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of fifteen years. No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone.

57 Treaty of Versailles Items The Treaty of Versailles includes 440 articles. The principal items are: Germany has to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France. Germany has to cede the coal mines in the Saar-area to France. Germany has to cede an area with Moresnet, Eupen, Malmédy and St. Vith to Belgium. Germany has to cede the main part of West-Prussia and almost the whole province of Posen to the new state of Poland. Germany has to cede all colonies: Togo en Cameroun, the territories in East- and South-West Africa, islands in the Pacific and possessions in China.

58 Treaty of Versailles Items Continued All German properties in foreign countries are confiscated. Germany has to cede all war material to the Allies. German compulsory military service is abolished, as well as the General Staff. Germany is not allowed to have tanks, airplanes, submarines, large warships and poison gas. During 15 years Germany is not allowed to station troops on the left border of the river Rhine and in a 50 km strip on the right border of the Rhine. The total size of the Germany army is not to exceed 100,000 men.

59 Treaty of Versailles Items Continued The German navy has a maximum of 15,000 men. Germany is allowed a total of 4,000 officers. Germany is not to take part in the League of Nations. Austria has to cede South-Tyrol to Italy. Turkey has to cede all foreign possessions. England gets Iraq, Palestine and Trans- Jordan, France gets Syria and Lebanon.

60 Treaty of Versailles Items Continued Germany has to cede to the allies all seagoing ships with a carrying capacity exceeding 1600 Brt, plus half of all ships between 1000 and 1600 Brt. Furthermore one fourth of the fishing fleet and two fifths of the inland navigation fleet has to be ceded. Germany has to cede large amounts of machinery and building materials, trains and trucks. Germany has to deliver certain amounts of coal, chemicals, dye and fuel for many years. All German sub-ocean telegraph cables are confiscated. Germany has to pay 20 billion goldmarks.

61 War Guilt Clause Article 231 of the Treaty "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.” Germans felt the clause was unjust

62 Mandate System Germany lost all overseas territories and a mandate system set up where Allied Countries pledged to prepare the subjects for self-government –South-West Africa under South Africa and Ruanda- Urundi went to Belgium; –Tanganyika, Nigeria & Gold Coast went to Great Britain; –Togo and Cameroons went to France Ottoman Empire lost control of Arab lands in the Middle East –Palestine, Iraq & Transjordan mandate of Great Britain; – Lebanon & Syria mandate of France

63 Africa Mandates

64 Middle East Mandates

65 THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCED GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIONS Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 - Army restricted to 100,000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. - Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland. Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISED Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds). The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically

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67 Things to Consider about the Treaty o Note 1: The reparations were progressively reduced by the Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. In 1932 they were forgiven completely. By that time the damage had been done: 1. Destruction of the German currency and economy - what was left after the war anyway -, and 2. Destruction of the nation's political stability that allowed major riots and street battles between Communists, Nazis and others, leading to the successful grab for power by Adolf Hitler.

68 Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 2: The terms imposed on Germany at Versailles were much more mild than those Germany had imposed on Russia (the Brest-Litovsk treaty, summer 1918), or those that Germany planned to impose on the Western Allies if she had won the war - including, among other things, the subjugation of Belgium, innocent victim of German aggression in 1914.

69 Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 3: Had the Versailles Treaty been applied as envisioned, Germany would not have been rearming in –1. The fact that Germany did rearm was not a problem brought about by the Treaty. –2. In the end, Versailles became a dog's dinner. It neither crushed Germany enough to stop her rise again, yet it was still able to humiliate her.

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71 Newly Formed Countries Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Poland East Prussia Lithuania Latvia Estonia Turkey Finland Separate Austria and Hungary

72 Redrawn Boundaries After Treaty Here are the newly formed countries out of the old Austria- Hungary, German, and Ottoman Empires.

73 Old Countries with New Borders Italy Greece Bulgaria Romania Belgium Denmark France

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75 A German nationalist responds to the terms of the treaty: “People and government have, during the most recent days, unambiguously made clear that we cannot sign the document which our enemies call a peace. One thing is certain, that any government, which, by its signature, would confer upon this work of the devil…the halo of right, would, sooner or later be driven out…Nothing is left but to remain cold-blooded, offer passive resistance wherever possible, and show contempt and pride” ---Alfred von Wegerer May 28, 1919 Do this on your Left Side: What is his view of the Treaty of Versailles? What is he threatening? Why does this not bode well for a lasting peace?

76 Shows Germany as beaten but still big and solid enough to be dangerous Shows what cartoonist thinks the Treaty terms should do to Germany Devastation caused by war Suggests cartoonist thinks Germany will try to worm out of responsibility for war British and French police Large and solid (prisoner won’t escape) Deliberately shown as civilians (not army) GIVING HIM ROPE? German criminal (to Allied Police): Here, I say, stop! You’re hurting me! [Aside] If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet!

77 ‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period. What does the ‘Angel’ represent? 1.Describe the scene shown, what is the storyline? 2.Then, assess the individual features in the cartoon. 3.Then, identify the political message intended by the cartoonist. Why the candle ‘snuffer’? What political message does it represent? What does the candle represent? What is the general political message of the cartoon?

78 German Postcard German postcard produced about the time of the Treaty of Versailles. Its title is 'Hands off German Homeland'. On the stone (bottom left) is written 'd.ö.' standing for Deutsch- österreich (German Austria).

79 “Peace” by Eleanor Farjeon I am as awful as my brother War, I am the sudden silence after clamour. I am the face that shows the seamy scar When blood has lost its frenzy and its glamour. Men in my pause shall know the cost at last That is not to be paid in triumph or tears. Men will begin to judge the thing that’s past As men will judge it in a hundred years. Nations! Whose ravenous engines must be fed Endlessly with the father and the son, My naked light upon your darkness, dread!- -- By which ye shall behold what ye have done: Whereon, more like vulture than a dove, Ye set my seal in hatred, not in love. Let no man call me good. I am not blest. My single virtue is in the end of crimes. I only am the period of unrest, The ceasing of the horrors of the times; My good is but the negative of ill, Such ill as bends the spirit with despair, Such ill as makes the nation’s soul stand still And freeze to stone beneath its Gorgon glare. Be blunt, and say that peace is but a state Wherein the active soul is free to move, And nations only show as mean or great According to the spirit then they prove.--- O which of ye whose battle-cry is Hate Will first in peace dare shout the name of Love?

80 Source C A German postcard, produced about the time of the Treaty of Versailles, showing the land where Germans lived. The areas in red are the lands given to other countries by the Treaty of Versailles,( including the land lost by Austria). Its title is 'Lost but not forgotten land'. The poem under the map reads: You must carve in your heart These words, as in stone - What we have lost Will be regained!

81 Vengeance! German Nation Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it! The German people will with unceasing labour press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which it is entitled. Then will come the vengeance for the shame of From the ‘Deutsche Zeitung’ [‘The German Express’] newspaper. Only fools, liars and criminals could hope for mercy from the enemy. In these nights hatred grew in me, hatred for those responsible for the dead. By Adolf Hitler, who had served in the army and became a future leader of Germany

82 Gave rise to Hitler who used the Treaty of Versailles as a rallying cry for nationalism and revenge. Dictated Peace of Versailles

83 Film Clip

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85 What was the League of Nations? An idea of American President Woodrow Wilson following the first world war An international police force made up of representatives of many countries An organisation that would allow disputes to be settled without resorting to war, based in Geneva (neutral).

86 Differing views on how the League should operate: AmericaBritainFrance A world parliament where representatives would meet regularly to decide on matter which affected all of them A simple organisation that would meet during emergencies A strong League capable of enforcing decisions with its own army

87 Each of these types of League has advantages and disadvantages: Which idea do you think is best and why? Write on your Left Side. France: Although France’s idea of a strong League would mean it could be an effective force, the League was meant to be centred on peace. Potentially, its own army could provoke another war Britain: Britain’s simpler idea would mean that the League would merely dealing with emergencies rather than working on preventing them from of occurring in the first place America: America’s version of the League would be expensive and a complicated to organise, although it might have been the most effective version in terms of keeping peace

88 However, the idea of joining the League was not popular with all Americans … Many Americans did not think the Treaty of Versailles was fair. As the League was linked with the treaty, they did not want to be a part of it Americans wanted to stay out of disputes that might enter their troops into the kind of carnage of the first world war Others wanted to avoid the economic cost of joining the League Many Americans were anti-French or Anti-British. They thought the League would be run by these countries and did not want to get involved with their affairs

89 Wilson’s party lost the election in His opponents promised to follow a policy of isolationism (staying out of international affairs). And so America did not join the League of Nations…

90 The League of Nations Encourage co-operation Stop aggression Disarmament Improve social conditions AIMS

91 Aims of the League 1.Discourage aggression from any country 2.Encourage co-operation in business and trade 3.Encourage disarmament 4.Improve working and living conditions for people across the world

92 Membership: What problems do you see from this? Write on Left Side. 42 members - by 1930’s 59 Defeated countries could not join e.g. Germany Russia excluded because communist USA did not join - isolation from world affairs A club for the victorious?

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94 When it opened, some countries were not members of the League: America:- had become isolationist Germany:- As a defeated country who was blamed for staring the Great war, Germany was not invited to join Russia:- Were not invited to join the League, mainly due to their Communist government

95 The Structure of the League of Nations

96 Structure The Assembly Each country one vote The Council Met several times a year and in emergencies 5 permanent members Each had right to veto any idea The Secretariat Kept records - civil service Permanent court of International Justice Based at The Hague Settle disputes peacefully No power of enforcement

97 Powers of the League If a country ignored the ruling of the League it could: –Put pressure on –Refuse to trade - sanctions –Send in troops - member countries join together

98 Powers of the League The Covenant of the League set out three ways the League could settle disputes: 1.A hearing by a neutral country 2.A ruling by the International Court of Justice (what’s the weakness with this?) 3.An Inquiry by the council

99 If this didn’t work the League could take action MORAL SANCTIONS – Put pressure on the guilty country to stop. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS – Members would refuse to trade with the guilty country. MILITARY SANCTIONS – Members of the league would join armed forces together to take action NOTE: never used! Can you see any weaknesses in the League’s powers? Respond on Left Side.

100 Strengths of the League Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peace Had some early successes: a)Settled some land disputes in 1920’s b)Helped refugees, c)Dealt with spread of disease, d)Fought for better conditions for people

101 Successes in the 1920s With the League’s help over prisoners of war were returned home The slavery Commission brought about the freeing of over slaves in British-owned Sierra- Leone and organised raids against slave owners and traders in Burma The Health Committee worked hard to defeat leprosy and malaria. It later became the World Health Organisation Sweden accepted the League’s decision to give the Aaland islands to Finland. The two countries thereby avoided going to war for them The League divided Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland after a plebiscite showed a clear divide. Both countries accepted this decision.

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103 Weaknesses of League USA didn’t join No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasion No permanent army Disarmament not realistic Structure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken

104 1929 Wall Street Crash! This is MAJOR turning point for the league: *Many members of the League were now focussed on solving domestic problems. *The crash created a depression in Europe causing unemployment and poverty. Dictators rose to power as they promised a solution to problems. These were new problems for the League to face *Had a major effect on Japan who relied heavily on international trade. This would eventually contribute towards the invasion of Manchuria

105 Failure of Collective Security “During the 1930’s three powers--Japan, Italy and Germany--grew increasingly aggressive.” “Each sought to enhance its influence and to expand its territory through the use of military force.” “Anxious to avoid war, the Western democracies yielded time and again to the aggressors.” World History: Continuity & Change, p.684

106 The 1930s… Were BAD for the League: *The 1930s are always seen as bad for the league by comparison with the 1920s. Remember this for exam questions that ask about both *There were three huge failures for the League in the 1930s: 1.The Japanese invasion of Manchuria 2.The failure of the disarmament conference 3.The invasion of Abyssinia by Italy

107 Failure #1: Manchuria There was an explosion on the Manchurian railway that ran though China. The Japanese depended on this railway to transport goods into their country, whose natural resources and agriculture were limited by their mountainous terrain. The Japanese invaded China on the grounds that it needed to safeguard its railway. However, they later also bombed Shanghai China appealed to the League for help and the League ruled that the Japanese should return Manchuria to Chinese rule. But Japan continued to invade new areas of China The League discussed sanctions but its member were not prepared to send troops to enforce its decision…

108 Why did it fail? *Japan was too far away *The League were worried about offending Japan who was an important member of the League *Britain and France were more concerned about the problems resulting from the depression in their own countries *Russia, the only country with troops and resources enough to combat the problem quickly in the region, was not a member of the League

109 Failure 2: The Disarmament conference In February 1932 the League of Nations began the long- awaited disarmament conference. It produced resolutions to limit the size of artillery and tanks, ban the bombing of civilians and chemical warfare. HOWEVER, nothing was agreed upon as to how they would enforce these limits. They were also unsure as to what to do about Germany- should all countries disarm to her level or should Germany be allowed to re-arm to the new universal lower level as the TOV had been too harsh?

110 Key events at the Disarmament Conference July 1932Germany walked out after the other countries failed to agree to all countries disarming to its level December 1932An agreement was finally reached to treat the Germans equally January 1933Germany announced that it was coming back February 1933Hitler started to re-arm Germany anyway in secret October 1933Hitler walked out of the Conference permanently and soon after withdrew Germany from the League of Nations

111 Failure 3 : Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia 1935 The pale grey areas were Italian territory in eastern Africa. You can see why Italy, who wanted to expand her empire, would choose this area of land. Italy also wanted revenge after an embarassing failed attempt to take Abyssinia in 1896

112 The background Like Japan, Italy was an important member of the League Like Japan, Italy wanted to expand its empire Unlike Japan, Italy was right on the League’s doorstep Unlike Japan, Abyssinia had borders with British colonies UNLIKE Japan, the League could not claim the problem was too far away to deal with. This would be a very real test for the League

113 The events 1934 There was a dispute between Italian and Ethiopian soldiers at an oasis 8oKM inside Abyssinia. Mussolini began preparing an army for an invasion Mussolini claimed this was Italian territory The Abyssinian emperor appealed to the League for help

114 So what did the League do? Very little… *The League was anxious to keep Italy on side. Italy was their best ally against Hitler. *Britain and France signed an agreement with Mussolini about standing united against Germany and the problem in Abyssinia was not even discussed *There was much talking and negotiating but nothing was actually done to discourage Mussolini *Eventually a committee reported to the League that neither side was responsible for the conflict at the oasis. The League put forward a plan that would give Italy some of Abyssinia. But Mussolini rejected it.

115 The situation worsens… October 1935 A full-scale Italian invasion of Abyssinia commenced It was a clear sign of aggression and the League’s covenant (set of guidelines) made it clear that sanctions should be imposed. It banned sales of arms, rubber, metals and loans to Italy. However, these sanctions caused economic problems e.g. British coal-workers lost jobs because of ban of exports to Italy And Britain and France were making secret plans behind the League’s back, offering Mussolini more of Abyssinia in return for stopping his invasion Eventually, Hitler’s invasion of the Rhineland made many countries unwilling to upset Italy any further, as their support against Hitler seemed crucial. The League watched helplessly. Mussolini annexed the whole country. The League had failed.

116 What were the reasons for the League of Nations’ failures during the 1930s? Self-interestAbsence of important countries Lack of Troops TOV it was meant to protect was unfair Decisions were slow Sanctions were ineffective We have our own problems! You need to know how each of thes e cotr bute d towa rds the Leag ue’s failu res

117 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919) Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were just as multi-national as the Austro-Hungarian Empire they replaced –Czechoslovakia Czechs Slovaks –Yugoslavia Serbs Montenegrins Croats Slovenes Bozniaks This caused future unrest in the area

118 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Saint-Germain (Sept. 1919) Broke up Austria-Hungary Had to pay war reparations – went bankrupt before they could be set Couldn’t enter into unions without consent of the League of Nations Austrian army limited to 30,000 volunteers Reduced their territory Also dealt with railroad rights and navigation rights over the Danube River Result - The vast reduction of territory, population, and resources of the new Austria severely affected its economy and made them resentful

119 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920) Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 3.3 million people When the Romanian Army infringed upon the cease- fire line, the Allied powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains Unable to reject the terms, but unable to accept the treaty, the democratic government resigned. It was replaced by a Communist government The Romanian army attacked and won The Allied powers restored the Hungarian state Army reduced to 35,000; no conscription Was to recognize the rights of minorities in her borders Amount of reparations was never set

120 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Trianon (Nov. 1920) Results - Caused economic problems and ethnic unrest. They sided with Germany in WWII

121 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Ottoman Empire renamed Turkey Territory shrunk: –Created the Kingdom of Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia) –Created Armenia –Greece and Italy got territorial gains –Mandates were given to: Britain – –Iraq –Palestine France – –Lebanon –Syria

122 Political Effects After WWI – British Mandate of Palestine The United Kingdom was granted control of Palestine by the Versailles Peace Conference During World War I the British had made two promises regarding territory in the Middle East: –Britain had promised the local Arabs, through Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East, in exchange for their supporting the British –Britain had promised to create and foster a Jewish national home as laid out in the Balfour Declaration, 1917

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124 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Allies controlled the Empire’s finances Everyone was to be granted free transit through the Empire Goods in transit were to be free of customs duties Property of citizens from Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria was to be liquidated Army reduced to 50,000, reduced navy, reduced air force Were supposed to give up the people responsible for committing massacres during the war to an Allied Tribunal, but this was never executed The Dardanelle Straits were to be open in both peace and war

125 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920) Results – –Created areas under Western control that were nationalistic and sought their autonomy –Fostered resentment of the occupying Western forces –Some Middle Eastern countries, like Iran, would create a good relationship with Germany –Didn’t resolve the issue over a Jewish homeland

126 Political Effects After WWI – Treaty of Neuilly (Nov. 1919) Bulgaria established borders over contested territories Reduce army to 20,000 Pay reparations of over $400 million Results – Resentment over the loss of lands led them to occupy them with the Nazis during WWII

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128 Political Effects After WWI - New Governments Monarchies were replaced in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Socialistic ideas experienced a boom Revolution was in the air as people began to express their desires for a better way of life Britain, France, and Germany all experienced a rise in socialism to deal with: –Better working conditions –8-hour work day –Collective bargaining –Wages –Housing

129 Political Effects After WWI – The U.S. Returns To Isolationism America's return to isolationist politics after the war caused them to reject Wilson's plan to join his new international peace-keeping community America's abstention destroyed any real hopes for international cooperation to keep the peace, since France and England were not strong enough to do it alone because they were in so much debt

130 Political Effects After WWI – Fear of German Resentment Locarno Treaty –Signed in October 1925 –The Germans renounced any desire to change their western frontier with France and accepted the loss of Alsace-Lorraine –Britain and Italy guaranteed the western frontiers of France and the continued demilitarization of the Rhineland against a “flagrant breach” – but what did that mean?

131 Political Effects After WWI – Fear of German Resentment Locarno Spring –Had eased tensions between France and Germany, but France was still suspicious of Germany –From , relations were better between the two countries –France had an alliance with Poland and Czechoslovakia, but these two countries couldn’t be counted on for French security –Britain wouldn’t aid France if they attacked Germany

132 Political Effects After WWI – Kellogg-Briand Pact Created by the U.S. Secretary of State and French Foreign Minister Agreement signed in 1928 that renounced war as a way to resolve disputes A total of 62 nations signed the treaty, including the U.S., Italy, Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan

133 Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back & Hitler’s Rise The First World War created the Dictator that the world would bitterly come to know He himself admitted this in 1941, saying: "When I returned from the War, I brought back home with me my experiences at the front; out of them I built my National Socialist community" There is Hitler in the crowd. Beginning of his rise and plans for Germany.

134 Political Effects After WWI - Stab In the Back & Hitler’s Rise The German and Austrian populaces, with their censored presses, had been kept in the dark about the recent military defeats of their armies, so that the surrender came as a complete, nasty surprise As Germany itself had not been militarily conquered, its citizens expected a mild, negotiated settlement, and were stunned by the harsh peace treaty that their new leaders eventually agreed to In the years after the war, conspiracy theories grew up in which Germany had been defeated not on the battlefield, but by treacherous politicians at home. Adolf Hitler would later use these theories to great effect in rallying opposition to German democrats, socialists and communists

135 Political Effects After WWI – Stab in the Back & Hitler’s Rise Adolf Hitler, a veteran of the War's worst firestorms, desperately sought a reason for defeat Imbued with a burning hatred of Jews, Bolsheviks and even Democrats, the solution was simple - the country had been stabbed in the back by the November Criminals, or in Hitler's words: "a gang of despicable and depraved criminals!"


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