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The Architectural Role of Emotions in Cognitive Systems

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Presentation on theme: "The Architectural Role of Emotions in Cognitive Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Architectural Role of Emotions in Cognitive Systems
Jonathan Gratch USC Institute for Creative Technologies Joint work with Stacy Marsella USC Information Sciences Institute Yesterdays talks: self-consciously tried to capture human capabilities and limitations or engineering approaches I’ll talk about rather old idea – examining human capabilities and limits to inform the design of IS in general

2 Outline Outline Emotions are adaptive
Can inform cognitive system design Ground in implemented cognitive system Mission Rehearsal Exercise system Cognitive Appraisal Theory Illustrate impact on architecture design General implications for cognitive systems So just as S&N looked a human problem solving to inform planning. Recent research focused on adaptive role of emotions; while obviously useful for modeling human-behavior, argue that these findings have significant implications for the design of cognitive systems. Specifically talk how it has influenced the design and solved key problems in our MRE system, an ambitious integrated architectures.

3 Adaptive Role of Emotions
Outline Adaptive Role of Emotions Revolutionary progress in emotion research Neurophysiology of emotion (Damasio, LeDoux) Appraisal theories (Frijda, Lazarus, Scherer) Emotions appear adaptive (in moderation?) Decision-making ─ Focus of attention Learning ─ Social relationships Belief formation ─ Communication Growing interest in “emotional” systems with focus on modeling human behavior HCI (non-verbal recognition and generation) User and human behavior modeling Believability/Entertainment                   

4 Architectural Perspective
Outline Architectural Perspective Can inform intelligent behavior in general Motivate behavior Balancing competing goals Balancing reaction and deliberation Disambiguating stimuli in light of existing beliefs and commitments Abstract and formalize as information processing Not new idea: Simon(1967), Oatley&Johson-Laird(1987), Sloman Revisit in light of new findings In intelligent systems In theories of emotion Not new idea but it has been out of fashion Think it is time for AI in general to revisit this question

5 Grounding: Virtual Humans
Face-to-face interaction Verbal & non-verbal behavior Swartout, Gratch, Hill, Hovy, Johnson, Marsella, Narayanan, Rickel, Traum, … Marsella, Johnson & Labore

6 Mission Rehearsal Exercise
Human trainee interacts Large integration effort combining many aspects of intelligent behavior Social Training Simulation Explore high-stakes social interactions in safety of VR

7 Mission Rehearsal Exercise
Team decision-making in crisis situations: Non-scripted real-time interactions Planning, replanning, and plan execution Teamwork, distributed authority and responsibility Collaborative, mixed initiative dialogue Multi-party conversations Verbal and non-verbal communication Emotionally-biased behavior One of the goals pat talked about is to develop systems that cover wide range of cognitive capabilities That is what we’ve done

8 Mission Rehearsal Exercise
Assumptions/Limitations: Tightly focused task-related dialogue Near-expert decision makers Stylized vocabulary (military speak) Stylized virtual environment Leader

9 MRE: Leadership Training

10 Soar Animation System Communication Bus Planning Dialogue
Voice Input World Simulator Speech Recognition (HTK) Semantic Parser Projection System Communication Bus Soar Planning Dialogue Action Selection Perception NLG Emotion NLU pragmatics Animation System Vega BDI Haptek Audio (Protools) Motion/ Gesture Scheduler (Beat) Speakers (10.2) Text to Speech (Festival)

11 Cognitive Representation
Past Present Future Child Healthy:False Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Belief: False Accident Intend: False Blame: unresolved Assist Eagle 1-6:False Medevac Available:True Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Intend: True Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Belief: False Probability: 75% Soar’s Working Memory Planning Perception Dialogue Action Soar operators

12 Cognitive Representation
Past Events Present Future Plans Child Healthy:False Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT(+50) Belief: False Accident Intend: False Blame: unresolved Assist Eagle 1-6:False Medevac Available:True Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Intend: True Child-Healthy Desire: SGT(+80) Belief: False Probability: 75% Causal Interpretation Combines decision-theoretic plans with models of belief and intention Uniform representation of past, present, future Agent centric subjective view Describe example

13 Architectural Role of Emotion
Began with view “emotion as veneer” Ended up as central organizing construct Initial problem: how to convey emotion in interactive setting? Built mechanism to infer plausible emotions In response to simulation events In response to user interventions But discovered resolved architectural issues Coherence is more than skin deep Build it and they will come Realized it solved a number of outstanding architectural issues

14 How to convey emotion Cognitive Appraisal Theory
Influential and well-established theory Arnold, Frijda; Lazarus; Ortony, Clore & Collins; Scherer; Smith Emphasizes tight coupling between Emotion Cognition Motivation Many familiar via Ortony Clore and Collings. Useful for AI researchers because emphasizes

15 Cognitive Appraisal Theory
External Events Goals, Beliefs Appraisal Problem-focused Emotion-focused Emotion Coping Many familiar via Ortony Clore and Collings Coping Smith and Lazarus’ cognitive-motivational-emotive system

16 Appraisal Appraisal = Situation assessment External Events
Goals, Beliefs Appraisal Appraisal = Situation assessment Compare beliefs, desires and intentions with external circumstances

17 Appraisal Characterize via appraisal variables
Desirability Likelihood Urgency Unexpectedness Causal attribution (causality, agency, blame/credit) Coping potential (controllability, adaptability) Superset of criteria considered by cog systems Decision theory: desirability, likelihood Scheduling: desirability, urgency Computationally realize this with some domain independent evaluation rules that examine the causal interpretation

18 Coping Strategies Coping = Response strategy
Characterized by ontology of coping strategies Emotion External Events Goals, Beliefs Coping Problem-focused Emotion-focused

19 Coping Strategies Problem-focused (act on the world) Analogous to:
Action execution Planning Seek instrumental social support Analogous to: Deliberative or reactive problem solving Team negotiation

20 Coping Strategies Emotion-focused (act on belief)
Denial Find silver lining Shift blame Distancing Not typically considered by cog systems systems More than a decision (e.g. abandon current plan) Provides self-justification for why Related to motivational / explanatory coherence Leads to persistent change in behavior Yeah I didn’t that grant accepted but I didn’t really want to do that work anyway Spouse example

21 Modeling Appraisal and Coping
Past Future Soar’s Working Memory Planning Perception Dialogue Action Soar Operators

22 Modeling Appraisal and Coping
Appraisal as plan-evaluation Causal interpretation mediates agent-environment relationship Define appraisal variables in terms of features of interpretation Fast, reactive, parallel Coping as generalized plan critics Map to operators that change interpretation Problem-focused  execute step, add plan step Emotion-focused Denial  Change belief Find silver lining  Change utilities Shift blame  Change causal attribution  Dialogue moves Distancing  Drop goal / intention Computationally realize this with some domain independent evaluation rules that examine the causal interpretation

23 Émile: Architectural Manifestation
Emotion as central control construction appraisal is centralized parallell evaluation of working memory acts as search control over sequential processes that manipulate memory The Emotional Octopus

24 Sgt’s Appraisal of Accident from his perspective
Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Appraisal Perspective: Self (Sgt) Desirability: -80 Likelihood: 100% Blame/Credit: unresolved Distress: 80 Sgt’s Appraisal of Accident from his perspective

25 Sgt’s Appraisal of Accident from Lieutenant’s Perspective
Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Appraisal Perspective: Lieutenant Desirability: -80 Certainty: 100% Blame/Credit: unresolved Distress: 80 Distress: 80 Sgt’s Appraisal of Accident from Lieutenant’s Perspective

26 Coping Distress: 80 Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False
Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Coping Distress: 80

27 Coping Sgt’s Own Perspective Distress: 80 Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT
Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Coping Sgt’s Own Perspective Distress: 80

28 Problem-Focused Coping: Form intention to help Boy
Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Probability: 75% Coping Make Amends Distress: 80 Distress: 80 Problem-Focused Coping: Form intention to help Boy

29 Emotion-Focused Coping: Blame Mother
Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: MOM Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Probability: 75% Coping Shift Blame Make Amends Distress: 80 Distress: 80 Emotion-Focused Coping: Blame Mother

30 Coping Personality Get Medevac Shift Make Blame Amends Distress: 80
Eagle 1-6 Assist Desire: LT Satisfied: False Child Healthy:False Assist Eagle 1-6:False Accident Blame: unresolved Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Child-Healthy Desire: SGT Satisfied: False Probability: 75% Coping Shift Blame Make Amends Distress: 80 Distress: 80 Personality

31 MRE: Leadership Training

32 Architectural Implications
Emotion as central control construct Planning (inform course-of-action selection) NLU (inform reference resolution) Dialogue (prompt dialogue initiative) NLG (biases sentence generation strategies) Non-verbal expression

33 General Implications Emotion and Reflection Emotion as decision-making
Appraisal is form of self-reflection / focus of attention Emotion as decision-making Generalization of decision-theory More to the world than probabilities and utilities Emotion and plausible reasoning Emotion-focused coping motivate preference/beliefs Attempt to construct coherent motivational explanation Non-rational but adaptive?

34 General Implications Emotion and Learning
Focus learning on “emotionally salient” events Appraisal variables as features / case indexes

35 Conclusion Emotion is form of information processing Arguable adaptive
Juggling competing goals and commitments Focusing cognitive resources Enforcing coherence Arguable unexplored by cognitive systems

36

37 Dialogue Example: Sgt’s Behavior
Focus=1 Lt: U9 “Secure a landing zone” Committed(lt,7), 7 authorized, Obligation(sgt,U9) Sgt: U10 “First we should secure the assembly area” Disparaged(sgt, 7), endorsed(sgt,2) Lt: U11“Secure the area” Committed(lt,2), 2 authorized, Obligation(sgt,U11) Sgt: U12 “Yes sir” Committed(sgt,2), Push(2) Goal7:Announce(2,{1sldr,2sldr,3sldr,4sldr}) Goal8: Start-conversation(sgt, {1sldr,2sldr,…},2) Goal8  Sgt: U13 “Squad leaders listen up!” Goal7  Sgt: U14 “I want 360 degree security” Push(3) Goal9:authorize 3 Goal9  Sgt: u15“1st squad take 12-4” Committed(sgt,3), 3 authorized Pop(3), Push(4) Goal10: authorize 4 Goal10  Sgt: u16“2nd squad take 4-8” Committed(sgt,4), 4 authorized Pop(4) A10: Squads move A10: grounds U13-U18,… ends conversation about 2, realizes 2 Pop(2), Push(7) 1 Render Aid Decomposition Area Secure Squads in area A=Lt, R=Sgt A=Lt, R=Sgt 2 Secure Area 7 Secure LZ Decomposition 3 Secure 12-4 4 On the left is an excerpt of the underlying task model. One step in rendering aid is securing the area, which has a precondition that squads are in the area, and an effect that the area is secure. This in turn is composed of sub-actions of individual squads. Each act is also labeled with an authorizing agent and a responsible agent, who is either the one to carry it out, or a team-leader in the case of a complex action. On the right, we can see how this task model supports dialogue participation. At first, the higher level task of rendering aid is in focus. When the Lt orders that the area be secured (task 2), this both authorizes and obliges the sergeant to carry out this task. The Sergeant grounds the order by accepting it with utterance 12, also taking on the task, by pushing it on his dialogue focus. This leads to a goal to introduce the task to the team-members who will help carry it out, which in turn requires a goal to start a conversation with them. This goal leads to the production of utterance 21, which in turns allows realization of the prior goal to announce the task. After this, the individual actions can be ordered (which both authorizes them, and obliges the subordinates to carry them out). When the squads move into position, this both gives evidence of understanding the orders, as well as signaling their consent, while fulfilling their obligations, realizing the “secure area” action, and ending the sub-conversation. A=Sgt, R=1sldr Secure 4-8 A=Sgt, R=2sldr 5 6 A=Sgt, R=3sldr A=Sgt, R=4sldr Secure 8-12 Secure Accident

38 More than a theory of emotion
Appraisal as a mediating variable Direct mappings (e.g. Hayes-Roth personality model) Indirect mappings Direct: More links, No insight on how to map Indirect: more constrained. More modular World state Beliefs Behavior Desires Personality World state Requires lot of mappings. Doesn’t say much on how to do the mapping. Not very modular Beliefs Appraisal Variables Behavior Desires Personality

39 Mediating Variable Appraisal Mediates Personality
Personality Variable  Appraisal Variables  Behavior e.g Extroversion  Control  Hope Penley & Tomaka (2002) Appraisal Mediates Culture Culture Variable  Appraisal Variables  Behavior e.g. Uncertainty avoidance  Threat  Fear Kupperbusch et al Rather than mapping directly from big 5 to behavior, personality influences behavior indirectly by changing how we appraise the world Similarly for cultural differences

40 Mediating variables Coping mediated by appraisal
Undesirable & Controllable  Distress  Problem directed coping Undesirable & Uncontrollable  Emotion directed coping


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