Presentation on theme: "Why all this referencing in UK higher education ?."— Presentation transcript:
Why all this referencing in UK higher education ?
Western schools of management pursue the advancement of knowledge through academic research into the business world. Lecturers accord respect to the hard work of those other researchers, and expect their students to value their emergent theories, models, frameworks and concepts in the same way (Neville 2011). It is therefore expected that the arguments you develop in your assignments will be based primarily on ideas derived from sources such as journal articles and textbooks, as well as topical data from business databases and media.
Tutors see a primary purpose to the MBA of broadening and deepening students’ existing understanding of best business practice by directing their study into the theoretical views of management researchers. They therefore assign a majority of their marks in most module assignments to students’ critical analysis of that research. This can often conflict with Executive MBA students’ initial expectations that they should draw mainly on their own, perhaps extensive, business experience to develop essay arguments !
In practical terms, this means that in many MBA subjects they will expect to see most of your writing composed of paraphrased interpretations of others’ ideas and research. This means plenty of citations to external sources throughout the paragraphs in your essay. Assignment arguments based mainly on your own direct experience (opinion) will not be viewed as academically credible, as they do not show how your understanding has developed through the course teaching and wider reading.
Citing and referencing The practical details of how to acknowledge other people’s work in your written assignment. A citation is a pointer in the text of your work, saying that you are using someone else’s ideas. The reference gives the full details of where the information came from. It lives in the reference list at the end of your work.
Citation: Sedgley (2014) Reference: Sedgley, M. (2014). Referencing Workshop, MSc Programme, University of Bradford, School of Management, 21 October 2014. For example … how would you reference this workshop ?
EXAMPLE OF CITATIONS IN AN ESSAY: Over two authors Direct quote ‘Inside’ the sentence At end of sentence Furnham et al (1993) criticised Belbin, claiming a lack of empirical support for the tests Belbin uses to calculate an individual’s role. However, after further tests, Fisher et al (1996, p.66) stated “since Belbin's team role model has both intuitive appeal and empirical support it would be a great pity if this confusion pitched his constructs into disrepute”, a view supported by Dulewicz (1995) and Senior (1997). Further studies using much larger sample groups than Furnham also reinforced the validity of Belbin’s personality identification (van Dierendonck and Groen 2008).
REFERENCES Dulewicz, V. (1995). “A validation of Belbin's team roles from 16PF and OPQ using bosses' ratings of competence” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp.81-99. Fisher, S.G., Macrosson, W.D.K., and Sharp, G. (1996). “Further evidence concerning the Belbin Team Role Self-perception Inventory” Personnel Review, vol. 25, no. 2, pp.61-67. Furnham, A., Steele. H., and Pendleton, D. (1993). “A psychometric assessment of the Belbin Team-Role Self Perception Inventory” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp.245-257. van Dierendonck, D., and Groen, R. (2008). “Belbin Revisited: T A multitrait-multimethod investigation of a team role instrument” European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.345-366.
EXAMPLES OF CITING & REFERENCING AN INTERNET SOURCE: Citation: (Key Note 2011) Reference: Key Note (2011). Confectionery Market Report Plus, edn. 29, April 2011. Available at: https://www.keynote.co.uk/market- intelligence/view/product/10421/confectionery?highlig ht=confectionery&utm_source=kn.reports.search [Accessed 17/10/2012]. https://www.keynote.co.uk/market- intelligence/view/product/10421/confectionery?highlig ht=confectionery&utm_source=kn.reports.search
Secondary referencing (when the source you are reading cites another author’s idea), e.g. from this workshop … Western schools of management pursue the advancement of knowledge through academic research into the business world. Lecturers accord respect to the hard work of those other researchers, and expect their students to value their emergent theories, models, frameworks and concepts in the same way (Neville 2011). Citation: Neville (2011) suggests that … (in Sedgley 2014, p.2). Reference : Sedgley, M. (2014). Referencing Workshop, MSc Programme, University of Bradford, School of Management, 21 October 2014.
Your essential guide to the correct Harvard format for different sources The School of Management uses the Harvard style of referencing. We have an ELS booklet with lots of examples to show you how do this on our website: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/management/external /els/pdf/refandbib.pdf (Or from the School of Management Homepage / Intranet / Effective Learning Service / EL Booklets)
Plagiarism 1.Copying exactly from a source without showing this is a direct quote – even if you give a citation. 2.Summarising or paraphrasing words from a source into your assignment - without acknowledging that author.
Is it Plagiarism? Which of these scenarios do you think would be regarded as plagiarism by most UK institutions of higher education ? Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
Is it Plagiarism? Q1 You see a useful article on an Internet site that will be helpful in your assignment. You copy 40 per cent of the words from this source, and substitute 60 per cent of your own words. You don’t include a source, as no author’s name is shown on the site. Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
Is it Plagiarism? Q2 You are part of a study group of six students. An individual essay assignment has been set by a tutor. Each member of the group researches and writes a section of the essay. The work is collated and written by one student and all the group members individually submit this collective and collated work. Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
Is it Plagiarism? Q3 You include information from your company that you are aware of through your day-to-day business activity, but which is not produced in any particular organisational document. Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
Is it Plagiarism? Q4 You discuss an essay assignment with a classmate. She has some interesting ideas and perspectives on the topic, which you use in your essay. But no reference to your classmate and her ideas are included in your essay. Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
Is it Plagiarism? Q5 Your command of written English is not as good as you would like it to be. You explain to another student what you want to say in an essay. The student writes it on your behalf, and you then submit it. Either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
How does referencing really work in assignments ? Let’s look at some good examples from past students’ work in two different management subjects …
Diversity aims to create workforces that mirror the populations and customers that organisations serve (Mondy et al 2002). Kandola and Fullerton (1998) believe that managing diversity offers an important value to organisations by helping them harness and fully utilise the potential of their employees. Wolff (2007) conducted a case study on Arriva; a European transport services provider which decided to adopted a diversity strategy in its organisation. This found that the company ensured all managers and employees went on a diversity training, resulting in changing their recruitment policy. This has enabled them to attract more skilled applicants as well as retain more employees. MSc Human Resource Management (essay extract)
However, Wiley (1996) argues that organisations are still dealing with issues of managing a diverse workforce. Problems such as indifferent attitudes to the feelings of other employees and ignorance of the concerns of their diverse employees will have a negative effect on managing diversity. These present obstacles that employers have to address so that their workforce can reach a maximum level of efficiency. Another potential flaw of having a diverse workforce is that biases against diverse individuals may still exist informally within the organisation and/or outside of the workplace (Friday and Friday 2003). MSc HRM (essay extract continued …)
References Friday, E. and Friday, S.S., (2003). Managing Diversity Using a Strategic Planned Change Approach. The Journal of Management Development, 22(9), pp. 863-880. Kandola, R. and Fullerton, J. (1998). Diversity in Action: Managing The Mosaic. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Mondy, R.W., Noe, R.M., and Premeaux, S.R. (2002). Human Resource Management, 8 th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Wolff, C. (2007). Equal Opportunities Review. Available at: http://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/72471/arriva--dramatic-results-on- diversity.aspx?searchwords=arrivahttp://www.xperthr.co.uk/article/72471/arriva--dramatic-results-on- diversity.aspx?searchwords=arriva [Accessed 8/12/2011]. Wiley, C., (1996). Training programmes that equip managers to deal with a diverse Workforce. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 15(1), pp. 22-31.
South Africa operates a free market economy (southafrica.info 2013). All sectors are opened to foreign investors and there are no limits on the types or amount of foreign investment, 100 per cent foreign ownership and liberal capital repatriation are allowed (Business Monitor International 2013). In the mining sector, in order to encourage meaningful economic participation, the government encourages mining companies to relinquish 15 per cent ownership of mining assets to historically disadvantaged south Africans (Business Monitor International 2012). The mining sector continues to act as a magnet for foreign investments into the country (southafrica.info 2011). Mining in South Africa accounts for about 18 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP), and 20 per cent of foreign direct investment (Kearney 2012). MSc International Business Environment (essay extract)
MSc International Business Environment (essay extracts continued) 4.1 PROTECTION MEASURES AGAINST IMPORT AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA MINING INDUSTRY. South Africa is a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and also the world trade organisation (WTO) (SARS 2012). Imports are controlled and administered by the international trade administration commission of South Africa (ITAC 2013). Gold, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form are all subject to import control measures (ibid 2013). Tariff applies and it falls under import restricted items and can only be imported into South Africa on production of an import permit (SARS 2012)
References Business Monitor International (2012). Political Risk – South Africa. Business Monitor database [Accessed via Metalib 18/01/2012]. Business Monitor International (2013). Risk Summary - South Africa Q1. Business Monitor database [Accessed via Metalib 18/01/2012]. ITAC (International Trade Administration of South Africa), (2013). http://www.itac.org.za/imports_measures_pageshttp://www.itac.org.za/imports_measures_pages [Accessed 18/01/2013]. Kearney, L. (2012). Global investors show confidence in South Africa http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors [Accessed 17/1/13]. http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors Southafrica.info (2013). Trade with South Africa http://www.southafrica.info/business/trade/importhttp://www.southafrica.info/business/trade/import [Accessed 16/01/2013]. SARS (South Africa Revenue Service), (2012). http://www.sars.gov.za [Accessed 18/01/2013].http://www.sars.gov.za