Presentation on theme: "Origins of the Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as the two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Origins of the Cold WarThe United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as the two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems.
2 Why was it called the “COLD” War? When WWII ended in 1945, the US and Soviet Union were the #1 and #2 leading industrial powers in the world.Because of nuclear weapons, the superpowers never actually confronted each other in open warfare.Their global competition to be most powerful led to frequent other conflicts.
3 Competing Ideologies: Communism Political SystemOne political party; the Communist PartyOrganizationsAll labor groups and other associations are run by the Communist PartyEconomic SystemIndustries and farms are owned by the state; central planners determine the nations economic needs; limited private property; education and health are provided by the stateReligionReligion is discouragedIndividual RightsSecret police arrest opponents; censorship; no free exercise of beliefs
4 Competing Ideologies: Democracy Political SystemA multi-party democracyOrganizationsUnions and other organizations openly negotiate with employersEconomic SystemFree enterprise system; private ownership of property; supply and demand determine prices; people meet their own needs with some limited government involvementReligionFree exercise of religionIndividual RightsFreedom of the press and expression
5 Communist or Capitalist? With a partner, you will read a description of an individualWhen you think you know if the person is a communist or capitalist, please hold up the appropriate flag.
6 Communist or Capitalist? John works at JC PennyHe earns $7.00 an hourHe pays taxes on what he earnsHe is part of the “retail workers union”He is quite outspoken of his dislike for the current leader of his nation.
8 Communist or Capitalist? Sarah is attends 5th grade at an elementary schoolEvery morning she pledges allegiance to her nationHer parents work on a farm that is owned by the governmentHer father was arrested for saying negative things about the government.
10 Communist or Capitalist? Frank works at McDonaldsHe earns $7.00 an hourHis job is protected because of his labor unionBoth the McDonalds and the Labor Union are owned by the government
11 Communist or Capitalist? Frank works at McDonaldsHe earns $7.00 an hourHis job is protected because of his labor unionBoth the McDonalds and the Labor Union are owned by the governmentHe cannot change jobs, even if he doesn’t like his job.
13 Communist or Capitalist? Erma was a sick little girlHer family was very poor, but the government provides doctors in her countryThe doctors did not do a very good job addressing her sicknessShe walked the rest of her life with a limpEthel was a sick little girlHer family was very poor and could not afford doctorsAs a result, she continued to walk with a limp for the rest of her life
14 Cold War and Containment Title Page 61: Cold War and Containment Notes
15 The Future of Europe: US Vision Conflicting Visions on the Future of EuropeThe Future of Europe: US VisionThe Future of Europe:Soviet VisionThe Truman administration wanted strong, stable democracies in Europe to prevent totalitarianism and to provide a market to sell U.S. productsSoviet leader Joseph Stalin wanted control of Eastern Europe to protect against other invasions from the west and to rebuild the Soviet Union’s own war-damaged economy.
16 How it started…Stalin set up Communist governments in Eastern Europe called satellite nations (they were controlled by the Soviet Union)The US refused to share the secrets behind the atomic bomb (guess what- the Soviets figure it out anyway!)The Soviets keep troops in Eastern Europe.Trade and contact between Eastern and Western Europe STOPS.
17 What did Churchill mean by the phrase The Iron Curtain“from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”- Winston ChurchillWhat did Churchill mean by the phrase“iron curtain”?Answer on your paper.
18 America’s Response? Policy of containment: Prevent the spread of communismAmerica was not going to attempt to overturn Communism where it already existed, just prevent it from spreading further.
19 Truman Doctrine:Was an attempt to provide MILITARY help to countries fighting communism.Truman Doctrine- the US could send military and economic aid to any country trying to prevent a Communist takeover.Truman didn’t want to make the same mistake that had been made with Hitler
20 Marshall Plan: Problems in Europe after WWII Famine Cities were destroyedPeople were desperateSolution? The Marshall Plan!Europe needs to rebuild; America wants them to be capitalistMarshall Plan- America would give money to nations that cooperated with U.S. economic goalsResults:Europe recovered from war fasterWestern Europe adopted capitalist policiesAmerica’s economy improved too
21 A Divided GermanyAfter WWII, Germany was split in two parts– West Germany and East GermanyEast Germany was controlled by the Soviet UnionWest Germany was controlled by Britain, France, and America
22 Whoa…What about Berlin??? The city of Berlin, although located in the Soviet half, was also divided –East Berlin occupied by Soviets.West Berlin occupied by Allied interests and
23 In June 1948, the Soviet Union attempted to control all of Berlin by cutting surface traffic to and from the city of West Berlin. Starving out the population and cutting off their business was their method of gaining control.
24 Berlin AirliftFor 327 days the US airlifted needed food and supplies into the city of West Berlin.May 12, 1949, the Soviet government yielded and lifted the blockade.
25 The WallIn 1961, the Soviet Union put up a complete blockade (wall) around West Berlin.The Berlin Wall would come to represent the oppression of all people living under communist rule. It separated families, communities, and nations until it was finally torn down in 1989.
26 “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted conquest by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” President Harry TrumanDo you believe that the United States should have offered aid to all nations facing such threats?Applying this idea to today…Do you think America should extend this promise to offer aid to countries facing terrorist threats? Why or why not?
27 Interactive Notebook Activity: Venn Diagram United StatesSoviet UnionInclude 5 differences in each circle and 3 similarities in center.
28 February 25, 2013Get out your notebook: Title page 62 “The Cold War Heats Up”
29 EOC Review1) The above items would most likely be referred to in an essay written about-a) U.S. foreign policyb) environmental conservationc) Progressive Era reformd) civil rights legislationMeat Inspection ActSecret Ballot17th AmendmentNational Park ServiceInitiative, Recall, and Referendum
30 The Cold War Heats Up Chapter 18 Section 2 After World War II, China became a Communist nation and Korea was split into a Communist North and a democratic South
31 Which option would you choose? Explain your reasoning. Warm UpSuppose you enter the school cafeteria and see two students fighting. One of them is a classmate who is recovering from a sports injury. The other student, a friend you no longer trust, is much larger. In fact, you think your friend has become a bully. How might you react in this situation?Option 1: Don’t get involved. Walk away.Option 2: Get a couple of friends to work with you to help the students resolve their conflict.Option 3: Jump in and defend your classmate against your friend.Option 4: Attack your friend to show that you don’t tolerate that kind of behavior.Which option would you choose? Explain your reasoning.
32 Attempts to Keep the Peace Tensions between the US and Soviet Union continued to increased.The United Nations had been formed after WWII. The goal of the UN was to provide world peace, security, and to promote economic development.Unfortunately, the UN was the able to negotiate peace between the two nations.
33 NATOThe US, Canada, and ten Western European countries decided to protect each other by creating NATO.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):U.S. defensive military alliance with its European alliesThe members of NATO pledged that an attack on one country was an attack on all.
34 Warsaw PactThe Soviet Union responded to the creation of NATO by creating their own defense alliance, The Warsaw Pact.Warsaw Pact- a military defense alliance between the Soviet Union and it’s satellite nations in Eastern Europe.Ultimately, NATO and the Warsaw Pact just gave the nations more reasons to hate each other.
35 China Enters a Civil War After defeating the Japanese in World War II, the U.S. supported Chinese Nationalist Army led by Chiang Kai-shek.Chiang fought the Communists led by Mao Zedong.Mao won the civil war in 1948.Chiang and his followers fled to Taiwan, an island off China’s southeast coast.China becomes a Communist stateUS supports Chiang Kai- Shek.Mao Zedong
36 The Korean WarAt the end of World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two separate counties:The Communist North Korea and the Non-Communist South Korea.When the North Korean army invaded South Korea in 1950 to unify the country, the United States called on the members of the United Nations to help.
37 U.S. Fights in KoreaUnder the command of General Douglas MacArthur, troops from 21 UN countries-about 90 percent of them American-fought with the South Korean army.Although the fighting remained fierce neither side gained much ground
38 Truman Fires MacArthur MacArthur wanted to use nuclear weapons to invade China, but Truman opposed the expansion of the war.When MacArthur continued to argue for his plan in the press, Truman fired him as commander.
39 The StalemateFinally after three years, the war ended in a stalemate with North and South Korea agreeing on the 38th parallel as the border dividing them.
40 The Cold War at Home Chapter 18 Section 3 During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of Communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens.
41 Warm UpThe men and women who served in the CIA during the Cold War developed a special language. Match each term used by CIA agents with its description.A brief meeting in which something is passed between two agents.When an agent’s identity is no longer a secret.Someone who has penetrated an enemy intelligence organization.The complete cover story for an agent.An operative who is sent to test border controls before an agent infiltrates them.The ultimate spying methods; developed for use in hostile environments.A secret location where materials can be left for someone else to retrieve them.Methods used to make the openings of envelopes undetectable.When an operation goes bad and an agent is arrested.An artist who is trained to forge documents, passports, money and the like.
43 Cold War Conflicts:THE SPACE RACE After WWII ended, the two superpowers began their own missile programs (inspired by the Nazi German progress on rockets).The US and Soviet Union entered a new age of space exploration called the “Space Race”Each nation feared the other would develop more dangerous technology.Emphasis was placed on Science and Math in education.
44 Sputnik IThe Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I, the world's first artificial satellite.America, shocked at being beaten, raced to catch up to the Soviets.Americans launched their first satellite a year later
45 Everyday Inventions brought to you by the Space Race Solar panelsInvisiline bracesScratch-resistant glassesMemory foam mattressesGel shoe insolesCordless vacuumsSatellitesEar thermometersFreeze-dried foodArtificial limbsNOT Velcro, cordless powertools, or Tang (those are all myths)
46 COLD WAR CONFLICTS: The Arms Race The Arms Race was an aspect of the Cold War, in which the United States and the Soviet Union competed to have greater military force than the other.America believed that if Russia were to have more nuclear warheads than the US that they would be less afraid to use them, and so the US should strive to maintain, at minimum, nuclear equality with Russia. Also, nuclear rivalry led to the invention of a long line of increasingly deadlier weapons.
47 H-BombTruman felt the United States had no alternative but to proceed with research and development of all forms of atomic weapons, including the hydrogen bomb.Hydrogen bombs can be 1000 times more powerful than atomic bombs
48 Duck and Cover!Americans were told, a nuclear attack could come at any time without warning.Americans were told that immediately after they saw a flash, they had to stop what they were doing and get on the ground under some cover – such as a table, or at least next to a wall – and assume fetal position, lying face down and covering their heads with their hands.
49 Fallout SheltersFearing imminent nuclear war, many Americans also prepared bomb shelters, or fall out shelters in their homes.Using basements, cellars, or premade shelters dug into the ground, Americans placed several weeks worth of supplies in their shelters and practiced air raid drills to be prepared in case of nuclear attack.
51 Cold War Videos Berlin and the Cold War - Berlin Airlift on ABC– People escaping to West BerlinNuclear bombs- Tsar Bomb – the most explosive bomb ever detonated– 50 MEGAtons (that's the force 50,000,000 tons of TNT. The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was only KILOtons). It was originally supposed to be 100 Megatons, but Kruschev was worried about the nuclear fallout that would take place, so they scaled it back.***The Wikipedia article on it has some pretty cool information.- Castle Bravo – The most powerful bomb ever detonated by the United States – 15 MegatonsJust kind of fun Videos- Overview of Cold War– Chuck Norris
52 Interactive Notebook Activity: Political Cartoon Create a political cartoon that captures the anxiety of the 1950s.Include picture and text
53 Cold War Conflicts at Home The Second Red ScareAnd McCarthyism
54 EOC Warm-UpDuring the Progressive Era, reformers succeeded in making the political process more democratic by enacting legislation that -Made education mandatory in every stateProvided for the direct election of senatorsAllowed 18 year olds to voteProvided funds for settlement housesIn a democracy, freedom of speech and freedom of the press allow citizens to –Express opinions on important issuesDisobey controversial laws without consequencesChange government policies through the use of violenceKnowingly publish falsehoods for the purpose of ruining someone’s reputation
55 The Dot Game The Rules: Tips: TO WIN: You can ask others whether they are dots or non-dots, but no one can reveal their cards.You don’t have to join a group, but you can’t win unless you are in a group of at least 2.You can be part of a group only if that group agrees that you are a member.If you suspect someone is a dot, report them to the teacher.Tips:You will have to ask classmates if they are dots. Because everyone will deny being a dot, look for people who act suspiciously.If you ARE a dot, try to draw suspicion away from yourself onto others.TO WIN:Non-dots win by forming the largest group who are ALL NON-DOTS.Dots win by being the ONLY dot in a group.
56 The Fear of Communism: The 2nd Red Scare Many Americans felt threatened by the rise of Communist governments in Europe and Asia.Some even felt that Communists could threaten the U.S. Government from within.
57 Loyalty Review BoardPressured by his Republican critics to do something,President Truman set up a Loyalty Review Board to investigate government employees.This Board questioned more than 3 million people and removed about 200 from their jobs.
58 The House Committee on Un-American Activities In 1947, a Congressional committee called the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) began an investigation of Communist influence in the movie industry.Although most people brought before the committee cooperated, ten men refused.These men, known as the Hollywood Ten, felt that the committee’s questions were unconstitutional, and they went to prison for refusing to answer. Their careers were ruined.
59 McCarran ActIn 1950, over Truman’s veto, Congress passed the McCarran Act that outlawed the planning of any action against the government.People who were thought to be “Communists” were blacklisted and lost their jobs
60 Spies Two spy cases in the late 1940’s increased fears of communism The first involved a State Department official named Alger Hiss, who was accused of spying for the Soviet Union.In the second case, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, members of the American Communist Party, were convicted of helping to give the Soviets information about the atomic bomb.The Rosenberg's were executed for their crime.
61 Were they really guilty? Hiss maintained until his death (he died in prison serving a sentence for perjury) that he was innocent. No one has ever been able to prove that he was a spy…or that he wasn’t.Much like the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, many Americans feared that the Rosenburgs might have been innocent.In 1997 the Venona Papers were released proving that a secret government investigation had revealed the names of Soviet Spies in America, including Julius Rosenberg.
62 Joseph McCarthy Remember Mitchell Palmer??? In the early 1950s, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed that hundreds of Communists were taking over the government.McCarthy never actually produced any evidence to prove his accusations.His Republican colleagues in the Senate encouraged his bullying tactics, known as McCarthyism.
63 McCarthy’s FallMcCarthy’s unsupported charges violated the constitutional rights of the people he accused and often ruined their careers.Then in 1954, during televised hearings into the U.S. Army, McCarthy’s vicious behavior was revealed to American viewers.As a result, he lost public support, and the Senate voted to condemn him for improper conduct.
64 Interactive Notebook Activity Include 5 examples of Communist fear in the U.S.List 4 Major Events of the Korean War…(Include Dates)Pgs126.96.36.199.Use textbook pgs