Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 2 Think about… 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood 3.2 Control of breathing 3.3 Control of heartbeat 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 2 Think about… 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood 3.2 Control of breathing 3.3 Control of heartbeat 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1

3 2 Think about… 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood 3.2 Control of breathing 3.3 Control of heartbeat 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output Recall ‘Think about…’ Summary concept map

4 3 cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( 心肺復蘇法 )

5 4 The survival chance is higher if patients are treated by CPR within 6 minutes after breathing and heartbeat have stopped.

6 5 CPR involves blowing exhaled air forcefully into the lungs and compressing the chest.

7 6 They are done alternately in rhythm until breathing and pulse resume.

8 7 Why does blowing exhaled air into the lungs of the patient help sustain life 1

9 8 What is the purpose of compressing the chest 2

10 9 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood Which gas content in blood must be kept stable?

11 Importance of regulating gas content in blood oxygen content carbon dioxide content for respiration

12 Importance of regulating gas content in blood oxygen content carbon dioxide content affects blood pH affects functioning of enzymes affects blood pH affects functioning of enzymes

13 Importance of regulating gas content in blood carbon dioxide content oxygen content how fast the gases are exchanged in the air sacs how fast blood is transported from the heart to the lungs and body cells how fast the gases are exchanged in the air sacs how fast blood is transported from the heart to the lungs and body cells depend on

14 Importance of regulating gas content in blood carbon dioxide content oxygen content controlling breathing and heartbeat regulated by

15 14 a To ensure there is a sufficient supply of oxygen to body cells for. 1 Importance of regulating the gas content in blood: respiration 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood

16 15 b To maintain a stable blood pH for in cells to function properly. 1 Importance of regulating the gas content in blood: enzymes 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood

17 16 2 By controlling and breathing The gas content in blood., the body can regulate heartbeat 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood

18 Control of breathing under the involuntary control by the medulla oblongata backfront

19 18 Which part of the medulla oblongata controls breathing? 3.2 Control of breathing respiratory centre contains chemoreceptors detect changes in carbon dioxide content and oxygen content in blood

20 Control of breathing respiratory centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies stretch receptors in lungs nerve impulses

21 Control of breathing respiratory centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies stretch receptors in lungs nerve impulses to respiratory muscles to trigger inhalation

22 Control of breathing respiratory centre stretch receptors in lungs stimulated when the lungs inflate Inhibitory nerve impulses

23 Control of breathing respiratory centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies stretch receptors in lungs when there is no impulse, exhalation occurs

24 Control of breathing respiratory centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies stretch receptors in lungs nerve impulses

25 24 How does the respiratory centre control breathing? 3.2 Control of breathing the basic rhythm is brought about by feedback mechanisms between the respiratory centre and stretch receptors

26 Control of breathing respiratory centre inhalationexhalation stretch receptors stimulated neurones stimulated neurones inhibited stretch receptors no longer stimulated

27 26 one breath = inhalation + exhalation  measures how fast we breathe rate of breathing ( 呼吸速率 ) = number of breaths per minute 3.2 Control of breathing  measures how deeply we breathe depth of breathing ( 呼吸深度 ) = volume of air that we breathe in after an exhalation

28 27 Effects of CO 2 content in blood on breathing respiratory centre responds to changes in blood pH 3.2 Control of breathing in blood: in body cells (high CO 2 conc) in air sacs (low CO 2 conc) CO 2 H2OH2O H+H+ HCO 3 - lowers blood pH

29 28 respiratory centre (contains chemoreceptors) normal CO 2 content in blood CO 2 content in blood rises (blood pH falls) chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies faster and stronger contraction of intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles rate and depth of breathing increase CO 2 content falls 3.2 Control of breathing

30 29 respiratory centre (contains chemoreceptors) normal CO 2 content in blood CO 2 content in blood falls (blood pH rises) chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies slower and weaker contraction of intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles rate and depth of breathing decrease CO 2 content rises 3.2 Control of breathing

31 30 1 The feedback mechanisms between the and the in the lungs respiratory centre bring about the basic rhythm of breathing. stretch receptors 3.2 Control of breathing

32 31 2 When carbon dioxide content in blood rises, blood pH. This is detected by the in the respiratory centre, the aortic and carotid bodies. chemoreceptors falls 3.2 Control of breathing

33 32 2 nerve impulses 3.2 Control of breathing The receptors send to the respiratory centre. The centre causes the muscles and intercostal diaphragm faster and more strongly. This increases the rate and depth of breathing. The opposite occurs when carbon dioxide content in blood falls. muscles to contract

34 Control of heartbeat Which part of our body initiates heartbeat? sinoatrial (SA) node ( 竇房結 ) Animation a group of special cardiac muscles

35 Control of heartbeat Which part of our body initiates heartbeat? generates electrical impulses sinoatrial (SA) node ( 竇房結 )

36 Control of heartbeat Which part of our body initiates heartbeat? also called the pacemaker sinoatrial (SA) node ( 竇房結 )

37 Control of heartbeat anterior vena cava right atrium posterior vena cava aorta pulmonary artery pulmonary veins left artrium left ventricle right ventricle

38 Control of heartbeat pacemaker both atria contract at the same time

39 Control of heartbeat the ventricles contract after contraction of the atria atrio- ventricular (AV) node

40 Control of heartbeat What happens in a cardiac cycle? Animation the sequence of events that take place in one heartbeat

41 Control of heartbeat 1 Atria contract (atrial systole) electrical impulses spread from the pacemaker to the atria atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole the atria contract

42 Control of heartbeat atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole the ventricles are in a relaxed state the semilunar valves are closed 1 Atria contract (atrial systole)

43 Control of heartbeat 2 Ventricles contract (ventricular systole) the atria relax atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole electrical impulses reach the ventricles and cause them to contract this occurs about 0.1 s after the atria started contracting

44 Control of heartbeat 2 Ventricles contract (ventricular systole) time is allowed for the ventricles to fill completely with blood before they contract atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole the pressure inside the ventricles increases as they contract, the semilunar valves are forced to open

45 Control of heartbeat 2 Ventricles contract (ventricular systole) the tricuspid and bicuspid valves are forced to close atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole  the first heart sound ‘lub’

46 Control of heartbeat both the atria and the ventricles are in a relaxed state atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole 3 Atria and ventricles relax (diastole) the semilunar valves are closed  the second heart sound ‘dub’

47 Control of heartbeat blood from the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins flows into the atria and the cycle repeats atria ventricles 0 0.1s0.4s 0.8s relaxation / diastole contraction / systole 3 Atria and ventricles relax (diastole)

48 Control of heartbeat What is cardiac output? heart rate ( 心搏率 ) = number of heartbeats per minute When a person is at rest, the heart rate is about 60 to 80 beats/min.

49 Control of heartbeat stroke volume ( 心搏量 ) = volume of blood pumped by each When a person is at rest, the stroke volume is about 70 mL. ventricle in one heartbeat What is cardiac output?

50 Control of heartbeat  measures the performance of the heart as a pump cardiac output ( 心輸出量 ) = volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute What is cardiac output? = cardiac output (mL/min) stroke volume (mL/beat) x heart rate (beats/min)

51 Control of heartbeat How does the body control cardiac output? Nervous control Hormonal control

52 Control of heartbeat medulla oblongata 1 Nervous control cardio-acceleratory centre cardio-inhibitory centre cardiovascular centre ( 心血管中樞 ) consists of

53 Control of heartbeat 1 Nervous control cardio-acceleratory centre cardio-inhibitory centre pacemaker sympathetic nerve ( 交感神經 ) stimulated to increase cardiac output

54 Control of heartbeat 1 Nervous control cardio-acceleratory centre cardio-inhibitory centre pacemaker parasympathetic nerve ( 副交感神經 )

55 Control of heartbeat 1 Nervous control cardio-acceleratory centre cardio-inhibitory centre pacemaker vagus nerve ( 迷走神經 ) inhibited to decrease cardiac output

56 55 cardio- vascular centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies 3.3 Control of heartbeat detect changes in carbon dioxide content and oxygen content in blood

57 56 cardio- vascular centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies sensory nerve stretch receptors in: carotid arteries aorta 3.3 Control of heartbeat detect changes in blood pressure

58 57 cardio- vascular centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies sensory nerve stretch receptors in: carotid arteries aorta 3.3 Control of heartbeat stimulated when blood pressure increases

59 58 cardio- vascular centre chemoreceptors in: carotid bodies aortic bodies sensory nerve stretch receptors in: carotid arteries aorta sensory nerve pacemaker sympathetic nerve vagus nerve 3.3 Control of heartbeat

60 59 cardio-inhibitory centre in medulla oblongata normal blood pH / blood pressure 3.3 Control of heartbeat blood pH rises blood pressure rises chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies stretch receptors in aorta and carotid arteries vagus nerve

61 60 pacemaker is inhibited slower and weaker contraction of cardiac muscles 3.3 Control of heartbeat vagus nerve cardiac output decreases blood flow to lungs decreases blood pH falls; blood pressure falls

62 61 cardio-inhibitory centre in medulla oblongata normal blood pH / blood pressure 3.3 Control of heartbeat blood pH rises blood pressure rises chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies stretch receptors in aorta and carotid arteries vagus nerve

63 62 cardio-acceleratory centre in medulla oblongata normal blood pH / blood pressure 3.3 Control of heartbeat blood pH falls blood pressure falls chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies stretch receptors in aorta and carotid arteries sympathetic nerve

64 63 pacemaker is stimulated faster and stronger contraction of cardiac muscles 3.3 Control of heartbeat cardiac output increases blood flow to lungs increases blood pH rises; blood pressure rises sympathetic nerve

65 64 cardio-acceleratory centre in medulla oblongata normal blood pH / blood pressure 3.3 Control of heartbeat blood pH falls blood pressure falls chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies stretch receptors in aorta and carotid arteries sympathetic nerve

66 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control  When a person is under stress or excited, adrenal gland secretes more adrenaline ( 腎上腺素 ). kidney adrenal gland

67 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control  When a person is under stress or excited, adrenal gland secretes more adrenaline ( 腎上腺素 ).

68 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control  Adrenaline is transported around the body by the circulation of blood. blood vessel

69 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control  Adrenaline is transported around the body by the circulation of blood.

70 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control  Adrenaline acts on cardiac muscles to increase the cardiac output.

71 Control of heartbeat 2 Hormonal control the cardiac output increases to prepare the body for action in emergencies

72 Control of heartbeat a The pacemaker generates 1 How the pacemaker initiates a heartbeat: electrical impulses that cause both atria to contract at the same time.

73 Control of heartbeat b The impulses also travel to the atrioventricular node. The AV node relays the impulses to the base of the. 1 How the pacemaker initiates a heartbeat: ventricles

74 Control of heartbeat b after the atria started contracting. 1 How the pacemaker initiates a heartbeat: The ventricles contract about 0.1s

75 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval0-0.1 s Atria Ventricles Blood flowAtria to ventricles Contract Relax

76 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval0-0.1 s Tricuspid and bicuspid valves Semilunar valves Open Close

77 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval s Atria Ventricles Blood flow Right ventricle to pulmonary artery Left ventricle to aorta Relax Contract

78 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval s Tricuspid and bicuspid valves Semilunar valves Close (gives 1st heart sound) Open

79 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval s Atria Ventricles Blood flow Venae cavae to right atrium Pulmonary veins to left atrium Relax

80 Control of heartbeat 2 In a cardiac cycle: Time interval s Tricuspid and bicuspid valves Semilunar valves Close Close (gives 2nd heart sound)

81 80 a is the number of heartbeats per minute. 3 Heart rate 3.3 Control of heartbeat b is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one heartbeat. Stroke volume

82 81 c is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute. 3 Cardiac output 3.3 Control of heartbeat = cardiac output (mL/min) stroke volume (mL/beat) x heart rate (beats/min)

83 Control of heartbeat a When the CO 2 content in blood rises or blood pressure falls, the 4 Control of cardiac output: cardiovascular centre sends more nerve impulses along the sympathetic nerve to the pacemaker to increase the cardiac output.

84 Control of heartbeat b When the CO 2 content in blood falls or blood pressure rises, the cardiovascular centre sends more 4 Control of cardiac output: nerve impulses along the vagus nerve to the pacemaker to the cardiac output. decrease

85 Control of heartbeat c When a person is under stress or excited, the adrenal glands secrete more to increase the cardiac output. 4 Control of cardiac output: adrenaline

86 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output How does exercise affect the rate and depth of breathing?

87 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output during exercise, the energy requirement for vigorous muscular activity increases  more oxygen is needed to allow a higher rate of aerobic respiration  achieved by increasing both the rate and depth of breathing

88 87 volume of air in lungs (cm 3 ) time (s) Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output at rest during exercise

89 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output as we breathe faster and deeper, gas exchange occurs at a higher rate blood flow CO 2 O2O2

90 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output as we breathe faster and deeper, gas exchange occurs at a higher rate  body can supply oxygen to muscle cells and remove carbon dioxide from them more rapidly

91 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output after exercise, the rate and depth of breathing remain at a high level for some time  provides more oxygen for the breakdown of lactic acid

92 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output the amount of oxygen required to remove all lactic acid after exercise is called oxygen debt ( 氧債 ) amount of O 2 breathed in time rest exerciserecoveryrest

93 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output the rate of breathing can be measured by counting the number of breaths within a certain period of time the depth of breathing can be measured by a breath volume kit, a data logger with a respiration rate sensor or a spirometer ( 肺量計 )

94 Study of the changes in breathing before and after exercise using a breath volume kit 1 Sit down quietly for 2 minutes. 2 Get a classmate ready to do the timing and counting. Breathe through the mouthpiece of the breath volume kit for 20 seconds. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output Video

95 Record the number of breaths you take in that 20 seconds. 4 Force all of the air in the bag to the far end and record its volume. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 5 Run on the spot for 3 minutes. 6 Repeat steps 2 to 4 to record the number of breaths and the volume of exhaled air in 20 seconds.

96 Study of the changes in breathing before and after exercise using a data logger Part 1: Computer set-up 1 Connect the data logger interface to the computer. Turn on the interface and the computer. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output Video 2 Connect the low pressure sensor to the interface.

97 Run the software and open the pre-configured file. Part 2: Equipment set-up 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Wrap around the chest of the test classmate with the respiration belt. 2 Connect the tube of the rubber bladder to the low pressure sensor.

98 Close the valve of the squeeze bulb. Squeeze the bulb to inflate the rubber bladder. Part 3: Data recording 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Let the test classmate sit down quietly for 2 minutes. 2 Start recording his / her breathing rate before exercise (i.e. at rest). 3 Record data for 1 minute and then stop.

99 Let the test classmate run on the spot and start recording his / her breathing rate during exercise at the same time. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 5 Record data for 1 minute and then stop. 6 Ask the test classmate to stop running and sit down. At the same time, start recording his / her breathing rate after exercise for 1 minute again.

100 Part 4: Data analysis 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Use the graph display function to display the data. 2 Calculate the minimum, maximum and mean breathing rate for each run by using the built-in functions of the software.

101 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output How does exercise affect cardiac output?

102 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output during exercise, the cardiac output increases  facilitates the transport of oxygen to muscle cells and carbon dioxide to the lungs for removal

103 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output exercise cardiovascular centre stimulated pacemaker generates more electrical impulses cardiac muscles contract faster and more strongly cardiac output increases adrenal glands secrete more adrenaline

104 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output the heart rate can be measured by - a data logger with a heart rate sensor - measuring the pulse with a pulse sensor

105 Study of the changes in heart rate before and after exercise using a data logger Part 1: Computer set-up 1 Connect the data logger interface to the computer. Turn on the interface and the computer. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output Video 2 Connect the heart rate sensor to the interface.

106 Run the software and open the pre-configured file. Part 2: Equipment set-up 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Clip the ear clip of the heart rate sensor to the earlobe of the test classmate. 2 Connect the ear clip to the heart rate sensor.

107 Part 3: Data recording 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Let the test classmate sit down quietly for 2 minutes. 2 Start recording his / her heart rate before exercise (i.e. at rest). 3 Record data for 1 minute and then stop.

108 Let the test classmate run on the spot and start recording his / her heart rate during exercise at the same time. 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 5 Record data for 1 minute and then stop. 6 Ask the test classmate to stop running and sit down. At the same time, start recording his / her heart rate after exercise for 1 minute again.

109 Part 4: Data analysis 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output 1 Use the graph display function to display the data. 2 Calculate the minimum, maximum and mean heart rate for each run by using the built-in functions of the software.

110 109 a During exercise, both the rate and depth of breathing. 1 increase 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output

111 110 b This allows the body to obtain 1 oxygen 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output for aerobic respiration in muscle cells and remove carbon dioxide from them at a higher rate. They also provide oxygen to break down produced during anaerobic respiration in the muscle cells. lactic acid

112 Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output exercise stimulated generates cardiac muscles contract faster and more strongly cardiac output increases adrenal glands secrete cardiovascular centre adrenaline pacemaker more electrical impulses more

113 112 The increased cardiac output facilitates the transport of oxygen to muscle cells for respiration and the transport of carbon dioxide to the for removal Effects of exercise on breathing and cardiac output aerobic lungs

114 113 Why does blowing exhaled air into the lungs of the patient help sustain life? 1 Exhaled air still contains 16% oxygen which helps maintain oxygenation of the blood.

115 114 Why does blowing exhaled air into the lungs of the patient help sustain life? 1 Its high carbon dioxide content also helps stimulate the respiratory centre to trigger breathing in the patient.

116 115 What is the purpose of compressing the chest? 2 Compressing the chest helps maintain cardiac output to supply blood to the brain and other vital organs. This delays damage to tissues until further medical treatment is available.

117 116 refers to Gas content in blood oxygen content carbon dioxide content (blood pH) regulated by controlling breathingheartbeat

118 117 receive nerve impulses from controlled by respiratory centre breathingheartbeat cardiac cycle cardiovascular centre controlled by once in one chemoreceptors stretch receptors and

119 118 sends nerve impulses to intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles to regulate rate and depth of breathing respiratory centre

120 119 rate and depth of breathing cardiac output exercise increase during

121 120 sends nerve impulses along cardiac output cardiovascular centre adrenal glands pacemaker sympathetic nerve vagus nerve determines secrete adrenaline to increase


Download ppt "1 2 Think about… 3.1 Importance of regulating gas content in blood 3.2 Control of breathing 3.3 Control of heartbeat 3.4 Effects of exercise on breathing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google