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Weizhong Cheng Dept. Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai.

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Presentation on theme: "Weizhong Cheng Dept. Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weizhong Cheng Dept. Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai

2 Basics Best exam results Appreciate the role radiology plays ? Instill an interest in radiology

3  Textbook  Reference book  Literature  Internet  Apps  Teacher & classmate Histology and Embryology Anatomy Pathology Internal Medicine Surgery Gynecology Pediatrics Neurology 。。。 Everything 。。。 U need to know

4  X-ray  CT  MR  DSA  US  Nuclear Medicine PET/CT Radionuclide ventilation perfusion imaging

5  PA ( posteroanterior) & Lateral  More information  Two views  Standardized  Distance  Pt needs to be stable  Portable  Quick  Anywhere  One shot  No standardization

6 PA Portable

7 P-A (relation of x-ray beam to patient)

8 A-P Supine/Erect

9 Lateral

10 Lateral Decubitus Oblique

11 Type Orientation Rotation Inspiration/expiration Penetration

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16  ABCDE…  Airways  Trachea, endotracheal tube, etc  Bones  Clavicles, ribs, etc…  Cardiac  Diaphragm (Right hemidiaphragm slightly higher (~1.5 cm)  Everything else (tubes), effusions

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20 The big two densities are: (1) WHITE - Bone (2) BLACK - Air The others are: (3) DARK GREY- Fat (4) GREY- Soft tissue/water And if anything Man-made is on the film, it is: (5) BRIGHT WHITE - Man-made

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25 Right upper lobe:

26 Right middle lobe:

27 Right lower lobe:

28 Left lower lobe:

29 Left upper lobe with Lingula:

30 Lingula:

31 Left upper lobe - upper division:

32 Right border: Edge of (r) Atrium 3. Left border: (l) Ventricle + Atrium 4. Posterior border: Reft Ventricle 5. Anterior border: Right Ventricle

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34 IT’S NOT MINE….

35 Made of: 1. Pulmonary Art.+Veins 2. The Bronchi Left Hilum higher (max 1-2,5 cm) Identical: size, shape, density

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38 Apices Behind the heart Costophrenic angle (CPA) Below the diaphragm Soft tissues ( breast, surgical emphysema) Ribs & clavicle Vertebrae

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40  Darker areas  radiolucent  Pneumothorax  Cysts/bulla  Air bronchograms  Lighter areas  Opacities  Atelectasis  “infiltrates”  Blood  Pus  Water  Nodules or mass

41  Lobar or not….  Pneumonia  Pulmonary Edema  “fluffy,” diffuse, “bat wing” distribution  Hemorrhage  Can’t tell by x-ray, need bronch

42 RML pneumonia Opacities

43 RLL pneumonia Opacities

44 RUL pneumonia

45 LLL pneumonia

46 Consolidation on CT

47 Causes: 1. Adenopathies (neoplasia, infection) 2. Primary Tumor 3. Vascular 4. Sarcoidosis

48 Mass

49 Hilar Lymphadenopathy - BL

50 Multiple Masses Metas

51 Pleural Effusion

52 Pulmonary Fibrosis

53 Heart failure , Kerley A/B line ( Interstitial lung hyperplasia edema )

54 Heart failure

55 Pneumothorax

56 Emphysema

57 Cavitating lesion

58 Thin-walled Cavitating lesionThick-walled Cavitating lesion 3mm

59 Bronchiectasis

60 Miliary shadowing

61 Benign Patterns of Calcification Within a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

62 Chest Tube, NG Tube, Pulm. artery cath

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64  Clinical Factors  Growth Pattern  Size  Margin (Border) Characteristics  Density  Contrast-Enhanced CT  Other findings

65 airspace opacificationair bronchogramsdense multifocal segmental pneumonia

66 lung abscess cavitation Lobar/segmental consolidation Pneumonia finding

67 infiltratesMiliary shadowing Tuberculoma Chronic fibro-cavitary TB

68 Neoplastic: Malignant Bronchogenic carcinoma Solitary metastasis Lymphoma Carcinoid tumor Neoplastic: Benign Hamartoma Benign connective tissue and neural tumors (e.g., lipoma, fibroma, neurofibroma) Inflammatory Granuloma Lung abscess Rheumatoid nodule Inflammatory pseudotumor (plasma cell granuloma) Congenital Arteriovenous malformation Lung cyst Bronchial atresia with mucoid impaction Miscellaneous Pulmonary infarct Intrapulmonary lymph node Mucoid impaction Hematoma Amyloidosis Normal confluence of pulmonary veins Mimics of SPN Nipple shadow Cutaneous lesion (e.g., wart, mole) Rib fracture or other bone lesion loculated pleural effusion

69 Hamartoma

70 Bronchogenic carcinoma

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72  Granuloma chest radiograph shows a small, well- circumscribed, round opacity at the right lung base (arrows). Lateral view shows that the opacity is within the lung on two views (posterior segment of the right lower lobe) and thus represents a pulmonary nodule (arrow).

73 Contrast CT in Malignant Solitary Pulmonary Nodule. Thin-collimation (3- mm) CT scans through left upper lobe nodule in a 62-year-old woman with biopsy-proven lung cancer shows a lobulated contour with positive enhancement of 50 H after contrast administration Malignant SPN

74  Age at diagnosis: years (range years); M:F = 1.4:1  asymptomatic (10-50%) usually with peripheral tumors  symptoms of central tumors:  cough (75%), wheezing, pneumonia  hemoptysis (50%), dysphagia (2%)  symptoms of peripheral tumors:  pleuritic/local chest pain, dyspnea, cough  Pancoast syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome  hoarseness  symptoms of metastatic disease (CNS, bone, liver, adrenal gland)  paraneoplastic syndromes:  cachexia of malignancy  clubbing + hypertrophic osteoarthropathy  nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis  migratory thrombophlebitis  ectopic hormone production: hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, Cushing syndrome, gynecomastia, acromegaly

75  Cigarette smoking (squamous cell carcinoma + small cell carcinoma)  鈥搑 elated to number of cigarettes smoked, depth of inhalation, age at which smoking began  85% of lung cancer deaths are attributable to cigarette smoking!  Passive smoking may account for 25% of lung cancers in nonsmokers!  Radon gas: may be the 2nd leading cause for lung cancer with up to 20,000 deaths per year  Industrial exposure: asbestos, uranium, arsenic, chlormethyl ether  Concomitant disease:  chronic pulmonary scar + pulmonary fibrosis  Scar carcinoma  45% of all peripheral cancers originate in scars!  Incidence: 7% of lung tumors; 1% of autopsies  Origin: related to infarcts (>50%), tuberculosis scar (<25%)  Histo: adenocarcinoma (72%),  squamous cell carcinoma (18%)  Location: upper lobes (75%)

76  Adenocarcinoma (50%)  Most common cell type seen in women + nonsmokers  Intermediate malignant potential (slow growth, high incidence of early metastases)  almost invariably develops in periphery; frequently found in scars (tuberculosis, infarction, scleroderma, bronchiectasis) + in close relation to preexisting bullae  solitary peripheral subpleural mass (52%)/alveolar infiltrate/multiple nodules  may invade pleura + grow circumferentially around lung mimicking malignant mesothelioma  upper lobe distribution (69%)  air broncho-/bronchiologram on HRCT (65%)  calcification in periphery of mass (1%)  smooth margin/spiculated margin due to desmoplastic reaction with retraction of pleura

77 Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Solitary Pulmonary Nodule. A.Cone-down view of posteroanterior radiograph shows nodule in the right mid-lung (arrow). B.Thin-section CT shows 12-mm nodule with spiculated margins (arrow) in the superior segment of the right lower lobe. Transthoracic needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. solitary peripheral mass

78  Squamous cell carcinoma (30-35%)  Strongly associated with cigarette smoking  Central location within main/lobar/segmental bronchus (2/3)  large central mass & cavitation  distal atelectasis & bulging fissure (due to mass)  postobstructive pneumonia  All cases of pneumonia in adults should be followed to complete radiologic resolution!  airway obstruction with atelectasis (37%)  Solitary peripheral nodule (1/3)  characteristic cavitation (in 7-10%)  Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cell type to cavitate!  invasion of chest wall  Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cell type to cause Pancoast tumor

79 Central lung cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma. A.Posteroanterior chest film in a 58-year-old male smoker with hemoptysis shows a left hilar mass with left upper lobe atelectasis. B.Enhanced CT scan shows the left hilar mass occluding the left upper lobe bronchus with an endobronchial component (straight arrow). Note the presence of mucus bronchograms within the atelectatic lung (curved arrow)

80 Squamous Cell Carcinoma

81  Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma (15%)  Strongly associated with cigarette smoking  Rapid growth + high metastatic potential  typically large hilar/perihilar mass often associated with mediastinal widening (from adenopathy)  extensive necrosis + hemorrhage  small lung lesion (rare)

82  Large undifferentiated cell carcinoma (<5%)  Strongly associated with smoking  large bulky usually peripheral mass >6 cm (50%)  large area of necrosis  pleural involvement  large bronchus involved in central lesion (50%)

83 Large-cell bronchogenic carcinomasmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma

84 GROUND-GLASS OPACITY  the pattern was shown to be caused by predominantly interstitial diseases in 54% of cases, equal involvement of the interstitium and airspaces in 32%, and predominantly airspace disease in 14%  GGO is an important finding. In certain clinical circumstances, it can suggest a specific diagnosis, indicate a potentially treatable disease, and guide a bronchoscopist or surgeon to an appropriate area for biopsy

85 Pure GGO ( Ground-glass Opacity ) Early stage

86 98,6,17

87 12*8mm,Lobular resection,8 yrs alive Lung cancer:solid nodules

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