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1 Bolstering Confident and Competent Vocabulary Use Through Explicit Instruction Dr. Kate Kinsella San Francisco State University

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Presentation on theme: "1 Bolstering Confident and Competent Vocabulary Use Through Explicit Instruction Dr. Kate Kinsella San Francisco State University"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Bolstering Confident and Competent Vocabulary Use Through Explicit Instruction Dr. Kate Kinsella San Francisco State University (707) Education Service Center, Region 2 Austin, TX June 14, 2010

2 2  Components of a school-wide vocabulary development program  Common vocabulary activities that fail to teach word meanings  Viewing of taped lessons with explicit vocabulary instruction  Demonstration of evidence-based explicit vocabulary instruction with structured speaking and writing tasks  Steps in the research-informed explicit instructional routine  Guidelines for structuring effective application tasks  Recommended formats for an academic vocabulary notebook  Appropriate dictionaries for mixed-ability 3-12 classrooms  Practical daily “warm-up” vocabulary assessments Workshop Components

3 3 Precision Partnering Setup  Make eye contact with an elbow partner. Determine who will be partner one and two.  Observe the “4 Ls” for working with a partner:  Look(Make eye contact.)  Lean(Turn toward your partner.)  Low Voice (Use your private voice.)  Listen(Show active, respectful listening.)

4 4 Building Academic Vocabulary: Instructional Cornerstones 1. Fluent, Wide Reading with Increased Nonfiction 3. Word Knowledge & Study Strategies 4. Structured Contexts for Applying New Words in Speaking, Writing Increased Lexical Power & Reading/Writing Proficiency 2. Explicit Teaching of Critical New Words of Critical New Words

5 5 Percentile Rank on Chapter Test No Vocabulary Instruction Explicit Vocabulary Instruction: Content Related Words (effect size =.97) Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Stahl & Fairbanks (1988)

6 6 What Explicit and Accountable Vocabulary Development is Not…  Independent or collaborative dictionary work devoid of explicit prior instruction in word meaning  Activities devoid of explicit prior instruction: word sorts, word walls, crossword puzzles, work sheets  Sustained silent reading to get exposure to new words  Context meaning guessing versus analysis followed by verification of work meaning and additional examples  Preparation-free meaning mentioning by the teacher at the point of word encounter within a lesson

7 7 Think (Independent Reflection) A common assignment in both elementary and secondary classes is looking up a list of lesson terms in a desktop dictionary then applying the new words in original sentences. Consider the potential limitations of this widespread task in terms of genuine vocabulary learning.

8 8 Write ( Independent Writing)  Sentence Frame: Students typically fail to grasp a new word’s meaning when using a desktop dictionary because the definitions __ Precise VerbsPrecise Adjectives include …challenging fail to include …complex require …obscure  Write: Select one key reason and write a complete sentence using the sentence frame.

9 9 Model Response Students typically fail to grasp a new word’s meaning when using a desktop dictionary because the definitions often include other forms of the target word.

10 10 Dictionaries Are Not Necessarily Productive Learning Tools Definition: categorize, v.t. Random House Webster’s Dictionary (2001): to arrange in categories; classify. Longman Advanced American Dictionary (2001): to put people or things into groups according to what type, level, etc. they are, or to say what group they are in. The population is categorized according to age, gender and occupation. How would you categorize your relationship with your parents?

11 11 Pair-Share (Partner Directions)  Partner #1 shares first using the starter.  Partner #2 restates partner #1’s idea. In other words, you think that…  Partner #1 confirms or corrects. Yes. That’s correct. No. What I meant was…  Switch roles.  Keep sharing until I say: 1-2-3, eyes on me.

12 12 Language for Classroom Learning: Paraphrasing to Verify Understanding  Casual Conversational English You think __? You mean __?  Formal Spoken English So what you are saying/suggesting is __. In other words, you believe that __. If I understand you correctly, you think that __.

13 13 Lesson Observation Task: 6th Grade English/Social Studies Core Expository Text Pre-reading Discussion Task: “Have you ever had anything written about you that was inaccurate, that wasn’t right, not like a note at recess about somebody who likes someone else or anything like that, but something official in a magazine or newspaper, and it upset you because it wasn’t right ?” 1. Potentially unfamiliar words: 2. Number of student responses: 3. Register and vocabulary use in student responses:

14 14 Explicit Accountable Vocabulary Instruction with Structured Oral and Writing Tasks WordMeaningExamples accurate ( adjective) _____________________ ANT: inaccurate right or 100% _____________ in every ______ Students can check to see if their ___________ are accurate with ____________________ I can check to see if my spelling is ___________ with ________________. Writing Task: ______________ is an _____________ source of information for a report on the effects of soft drinks on children’s health. __

15 15 Structured and Accountable Oral Task with a Response Frame and Vocabulary Frontloading Casual Precise Nouns Casual Precise Adjectives a kida neighborbadangry a guya classmatemadfrustrated a persona relativesad embarrassed somebodya teacherdisappointed Frame: One time _ (noun) said something inaccurate about me, and I felt _ (adjective). Think of a time when someone said something inaccurate about you. How did you feel?

16 16 Think-Pair-Share Identify two explicit instructional strategies the teacher utilized to ensure that every student was actively involved in learning the target lesson vocabulary. We observed that she __ (verb: past tense) Everyday Precise Verbs gave provided … showed modeled … helped guided, assisted …

17 17 Model Response We observed that she __ (verb: past tense) clearly communicated her expectations for active listening and note-taking during vocabulary instruction.

18 18 A Note-Taking Guide to Facilitate Active Listening and Retention WordMeaningExamples portion (noun) _______ SP: porcíon 1.A small ________ or section of a larger thing 2.A serving of ______________ 1.I put a small portion of my ____________ into my bank account. 2.On Wednesdays the cafeteria serves one portion of ________. For dinner we usually eat one _________ of ________________.

19 19 Check for Understanding of Task Directions Use a finger rubric to communicate your level of understanding: 3 I know what to do. I can explain the directions to the class. 2 I am a little confused. 1 I am very confused. I do not know what to do.

20 20 Language for Classroom Learning: Asking for Clarification  Casual Conversational English Huh? What? I don’t get it.  Formal Spoken English I don’t quite understand (the directions, the task). Could you explain what you mean by __? Could you provide another example of __? Could you define the term __? Could you show me how to _?

21 21 Language for Classroom Learning: Pointing Out Similarities  Formal Spoken and Written English My idea is similar to __’s. My idea builds upon __’s. I agree with __. I also think that __.  Casual Conversational English Mine’s the same. Oh yeah. Right. Me too.

22 22 Structured Oral Application Tasks For a Newly-Taught Word For dinner we usually eat one portion of _ (noun: salad) If I wanted to eat a healthier diet, I could eliminate _ (noun: coffee) Students can reduce exam stress by _ (verb + ing: preparing…)

23 23 Explicit language instruction includes:  Conscientiously directing students’ attention to a new word, language rule, or form;  Clearly explaining and demonstrating that language element;  Guiding appropriate use of newly-taught language elements in a gradual release model: I do it, We do it, You do it;  Providing ample meaningful opportunities for use of newly-taught language elements with high accountability for application.

24 24 A Gradual Release of Responsibility Within Explicit Language Instruction I do it We do it You do it Curricula and instruction typically segue directly from “I do it” to “You do it”!

25 25 Receptive Vocabulary: Expressive (Productive) Vocabulary: words that are recognized and understood when we hear or see them; typically much larger than expressive vocabulary, and may include many words to which we assign some meaning, even if we don’t know their full definitions and connotations, or ever use them as we speak and write words we use comfortably in speaking and writing Receptive vs. Expressive Word Knowledge

26 26 Vocabulary Knowledge Does Not Operate Like an On and Off Switch (You either know a word or you don’t.)

27 27 Vocabulary Knowledge Operates Like a Dimmer Switch (Our familiarity with a word exists upon a continuum of knowledge.)

28 28 Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Routine with a Structured Oral Task WordMeaningExamples factor (noun) _______ SP: factor 1.A number that you can _______ into another number evenly 2.One of ________ things that affects a situation 1.3 is a factor of ____ because 15/5 = ____. 2.An important factor when I purchase a gift for someone is the person’s _________. _________________

29 29 Partnering Directions  Partner #1 shares first using the sentence frame. Partner #2 shares next.  Keep sharing until I say: “1-2-3, eyes on me.”  If you don’t have a second idea, share the teacher’s idea or your partner’s idea.

30 30 Check for Understanding of Task Directions  Partner #1, explain to #2 what you are supposed to do right now.  Partner #2, listen to see if your partner left out an important step.

31 31 Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Routine with Structured Oral and Writing Tasks WordMeaningExamples significant (adjective) __________ 1.__________ 2.quite _____ or noticeable The election of Obama was significant because he (verb: past) __________________. Cheetos contain a significant amount of (noun)_____________. Writing Task: Students make ___________ improvement In their writing when their teachers __________________.

32 32 Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Routine  Guide students in reading and pronouncing the word a few times.  Have students clap/tap out the syllables for polysyllabic words.  Provide a cognate connection when possible.  Explain the meaning using familiar language.  Provide two examples within students’ experiential realm.

33 33 Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Routine  Structure an oral task with an engaging context to create some “vocabulary velcro”.  Model an appropriate response with a starter.  Lead students in chorally repeating your response.  Partner students to share responses using the starter before calling on individuals.  Guide making a quick, simple sketch of abstract words.  Assign a writing task with a frame that requires application of the appropriate form of the word (plural, tense, etc.) and relevant content.

34 34

35 35 Lesson Planning Steps Using Longman Dictionaries 1.Write the word. 2.Write the syllabication; separate syllables with dots. 3.Write the part of speech in parentheses. 4.Copy the definition and omit one or two words. Choose the appropriate meaning for the context. 5.Copy the example sentence. Omit one word or phrase and leave a blank. 6.Design a practice task using a different familiar context. Write a simple response frame. Determine the grammar necessary to complete the frame.

36 36 Student Vocabulary Note-taking Guide Prepared Using the Longman “LEDT” WordMeaningExamples tradition (noun) _____________________ a ___________; something that people have done for a long _________, and continue to do There is a tradition in the U.S. to eat _______ on Thanksgiving Day. A birthday _________ in my family is (verb + ing) ____________________ Writing Task: Our community has some ___________________ for the ____________ holiday. For example, every year there is/are _____________________________________________________.

37 37 Tips for Writing an Effective Oral Practice Task  Choose a familiar context that is different from the dictionary example sentence(s).  Write a response frame that doesn’t require unnecessarily complex grammar.  Write a response frame that can be completed in many ways using students’ knowledge/experiences.  Prepare a model response that you anticipate students will not come up with on their own.  Specify the grammar to complete the sentence.

38 38 The Ultimate Objective of English Language Development: Accurate Oral Fluency Accurate Oral Fluency: ease of producing accurate target language forms (vocabulary, syntax, grammar) and ability to follow along and comprehend while listening to more sophisticated language Oral Fluency: ease of target language production and listening comprehension 

39 39 To Narrow the Verbal Achievement Gap Lessons Must Include Scaffolded and Accountable Academic Talk Academic talk is “comprehensible verbal output” addressing focal lesson content, framed in complete sentences with appropriate register, vocabulary, syntax, and grammar. Dutro & Kinsella, 2009 Swain & Lampkin, 1998

40 40 Frame: My Read 180 teacher requires that we __ use our public voice. work with a partner. Verb Bank: try, practice, read, listen Development of Word Knowledge and Accurate Oral Fluency with a Sentence Frame

41 41 Bolster Expressive Word Knowledge with Structured Writing Tasks  DEMONSTRATE: A classmate ___________ respect to a lesson partner by _____________ and ______________.  REDUCE: Students in our school have _______________ the amount of trash they produce by __________________. Design writing tasks that require providing: 1) the appropriate form of the word (e.g., plural, past tense); 2) content that illustrates their conceptual grasp of the word.  FACTOR: Two major ____________ influencing a teen’s driving insurance premium are _______________________.

42 42 Sample 5-Minute ”Do Now” Warm-Up Vocabulary Assessment Task Show your understanding of the word significantly. Write a “show you know” sentence in your vocabulary notebook using this sentence frame: Eating more __ and less __ would significantly improve my __. This is because __. Practice reading your response to prepare for our partner discussion.

43 43 Explicit Word Family Instruction with Structured Oral Tasks WordMeaningExamples character (noun) characteristic (noun) A person in a book, play or ___________ A quality that is ___________ of someone or something _________ is an important character in the movie ____________________. Martin Luther King’s leadership characteristics made people _______ him. One of my best characteristics is that I am __________________.

44 44 A Word Form Chart for Academic Word Families to Foster “Word Consciousness” Noun Verb Adjective Adverb accuracy inaccuracy accurate inaccurate accurately inaccurately predictionpredict predictable unpredictable predictably productionproduce productive unproductive productively unproductively dependence independence depend (on/upon sth) dependent independent symptomsymptomatic asymptomatic

45 45 The AWL: A High-Incidence Academic Word List ( 570 Critical Word Families for Secondary Curricula) Group 1/10 (Highest Incidence): analyze assume benefit concept consist context economy environment establish estimate factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal major method occur percent principle section significant similar source specific structure... word family: assume, v. assumed, adj. assumption, n. Source: (Averil Coxhead, 2000)

46 46 Vocabulary Notebook Entry with Structured Application Tasks

47 47 Vocabulary Notebook Entry with Structured Application Tasks

48 48 Vocabulary Notebook Entry: Academic Word Family

49 49 Words that Warrant Robust Instruction  “big idea” words that relate to lesson concepts stereotype, outsourcing, fossil fuel  high-frequency/high-utility “academic tool kit” words consequence, issue, analyze  high-use “disciplinary tool kit” words economy, metaphor, species  words to engage in literate discourse about the topic words relevant to discussing the theme or issues yet not included in the text (esp. with literature!)

50 50 analyze approach role consist major require significant vary interpret respond consequence Word Types : A Lens for Thinking About Vocabulary (Beck et al., 2002) & Choosing Important Words to Teach Tier 1: Basic Tier 2: Frequent Academic Tier 3 Content Specific home dog happy see come again find go look boy volcano lava pumice glaciated abdominal peninsula molten phonological diphthong Research: Coxhead “brick” words “mortar” words

51 51 Vocabulary Analysis and Selection Read 180 rBook - B: A New Immigration Boom primarily lesson “bricks” or topic specific terms, will not generalize as well to other academic, professional or social contexts primarily “mortar” or high-utility academic words, very generalizable to other contexts, should become part of students’ academic vocabulary “tool Kit” to respond, v. trend, n. minimum, adj. policy, n. impact, n. to influence, v. opportunity, n. percentage, n. census, n, immigrant, n. immigration, n. newcomer, n. to settle, v. motivate, v. to be founded on, v.

52 52 Short Story Synopsis: Raymond’s Run Raymond’s Run by Toni Cade Bambara is a story about the ways in which youths earn and demonstrate respect to significant peers such as siblings and classmates. Squeaky, a natural athlete and the fastest runner in her class, participates in a competitive race and nearly ties with a classmate. However, while running the race she notices that her developmentally delayed brother Raymond is running on the other side of the fence and keeping up with her. As the judges decide who won the race, Squeaky realizes she is so proud of Raymond that winning doesn’t matter to her any more. She recognizes that she has many additional ways in which she can excel, like winning a spelling bee or taking care of her brother. In the end, as the judges announce that she actually won, Squeaky demonstrates respect to her formal rival with a friendly smile.

53 53 Short Story Vocabulary Analysis: Raymond’s Run (Toni Cade Bambara) Publisher’s Selected Words (drawn directly from the story) Dr. Kinsella’s Selected Words (not contained within the story but useful for literate discourse)  prodigy, n.  ventriloquist, n.  periscope, n.  signify, v. (low incidence) (high-incidence word forms): significant, adj. significance, n. significantly, adv. Central Lesson Concept Terms  respect, n. respectful, adj.  disability, n. High-Use Academic Words  gain, v. earn, v. obtain, v.  demonstrate, v. involve, v.  individual, n. peer, n.  sibling, n. classmate, n.

54 54 Structured Oral Task Including Thematic Vocabulary (Not Highlighted by Publisher) How do you (or could you) demonstrate respect to your peers? I (could) demonstrate respect to my peers (classmates, teammates) by ___ (verb + ing). Word Bank: being … honest, kind, loyal listening … helping with …

55 55 All students are AELL (Academic English Language Learners) Academic English is not a natural language that we acquire through extensive listening and social interaction. Academic English, including vocabulary, syntax and grammar must be explicitly and systematically taught, not merely caught.

56 56 Structured, Accountable Instruction Engages ALL Students Nor Just the “Professional Participants”

57 57 Calling primarily on volunteers routinely excludes:  students who require more wait time to ________________________________  students who are _______ to participate  students unsure of the _____________  students who feel disconnected from ________________________________  the vast majority of students who are ________________________________

58 58 Strategically Partner Students in Mixed-Ability Classrooms  Begin by partnering students with neighbors, then make well calculated adjustments.  Create a supportive range in ability (e.g., high with fairly high or middle, middle with low) rather than pairing extremes or equally low students.  Include a newcomer or exceptionally low reader in a trio with responsible students who share first.  Partner reticent participants with encouraging students, not impulsive or impatient responders.  Assign two “floaters” each month who fill in and work with a classmate whose partner is absent.

59 59 Pragmatics of “Precision Partnering”  Arrange seating conducive to partnering.  Assign partners thoughtfully rather than randomly.  Change partners routinely (a new month, unit).  Designate who is partner 1/2, A/B, green/blue.  Designate who speaks first for a particular task.  Assign a concrete task and a specific time frame.  Check for understanding of task expectations.  Provide a clearly displayed response frame and model appropriate use.  Assign a related follow-up task for fast finishers.

60 60 Follow-up Tasks for Partnering Fast Finishers  Share a second idea using the starter.  Share another idea using a challenge starter.  Write your idea in your notebook.  Write your partner’s idea in your notebook.  Paraphrase your partner’s idea.  Prepare to report your partner’s idea.  Decide together which answer is the strongest.

61 61 Language Functions (Purposes) Within Academic Interaction  Expressing an opinion  Asking for clarification  Paraphrasing  Soliciting a response  Agreeing/Disagreeing  Affirming  Holding the floor  Acknowledging ideas  Comparing ideas  Justifying  Predicting  Summarizing  Offering a suggestion  Reporting/Citing

62 62 Language For Class Discussions: Reporting Someone Else’s Idea  Casual Conversational English __ said that … __ told me that …  Formal Spoken and Written English __ pointed out that … According to __, __ indicated that … __ observed that … __ emphasized that …

63 63 Language For Classroom Learning: Reporting A Pair’s/Group’s Idea  Casual Conversational English We think … We said …  Formal Spoken and Written English We decided that … We agreed that … We determined that … We concluded that … We observed that … We believe that …

64 64 Think-Pair-Share Identify one (of several) strategies I used after posing a question to elicit responses from more than the “professional participants.” Starter: You structured democratic verbal participation by __ (verb + ing) Word Bank: Casual Verbs Precise Verbs lettingallowing usingutilizing pickingselecting

65 65 Structure Democratic Responses AFTER “Precision Partnering”  Pre-selected initial responses: Discussion _____  Name cards or sticks  Random (or seemingly random) selection  Partner ____________________  __________________ the partner’s idea  Popcorn: participant #1 selects #2 from another section of the classroom, etc.  Choose one per table group using pre-assigned color/number codes: All greens report…  Authentic volunteers (after ______________)

66 66 Sample Participation Incentives (For Voluntary Discussion Contributions and Spontaneous Use of Academic Language) This assignment pass entitles ________ to not turn in one Reading Journal entry or Vocabulary Quiz. This pass is not valid for a unit paragraph or project. This coupon entitles ________ to select his/her lesson partner for the month of _________. This coupon entitles ________ to a 20-minute writing conference with ________.

67 67 Considerate Learners’ Dictionaries 45,000 headwords 100,000 words and phrases 23,500 headwords 55,000 words and phrases 12,000 headwords 24,000 words and phrases 10,500 headwords 20,000 words and phrases

68 68 English Learners and striving readers need all of their teachers to be: Licensed Lexical Contractors NOT Lexical Decorators Equip your students with high-leverage words through explicit, accountable instruction!

69 69 Evidence-Base for Explicit ELD  August, D. & Shanahan, T., (Eds.). (2006). Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Youth. Lawrence Erlbaum.  Goldenberg, C. (Summer 2008). Teaching English Learners: What the Research Does-and Does Not-Say. American Educator.  California Department of Education. (Fall 2009). Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches.  Dutro, S. & Kinsella, K. (2009). English Language Development: Issues and Implementation in Grades In CDE (Fall 2009).  Norris, J. & Ortega, L. (2006). Synthesizing Research on Language Learning and Teaching. John Benjamin.  Saunders, W. & Golderberg, C. (2009). Research to Guide English Language Development Instruction. In CDE (Fall 2009).  Spada, N. & Lightbown, P. (2008). Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated. TESOL Quarterly, 42(2).

70 70 Sources for Dr. Kinsella’s Resources Santa Clara County Office of Education California Department of Education Office of Middle and High School Support (4 webinars focusing on structured engagement)

71 71 Permission for Materials Use Any materials included in this presentation handout may be used with the permission of the author, Dr. Kate Kinsella, for professional purposes such as classroom instruction or school site trainings but may not be distributed at conferences or on the web without contacting the author:

72 72 The End Kate Kinsella, Ed.D. San Francisco State University (707)


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