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What does it look like in Languages?

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1 What does it look like in Languages?
Quality Teaching The NSW model of pedagogy What does it look like in Languages?

2 A great teacher Activity 1
Think of a really great teacher you once had: What did they do that made them a great teacher? Run this activity as a whole group activity. Ask participants to describe the qualities of the teacher’s practice that made them great. Record the qualities on butchers’ paper as they come from the group. Point out that what you have created is a description of good pedagogy Display the butchers’ paper in a prominent place where you can refer to it through the presentations.

3 The NSW model of pedagogy
draws together a range of research. identifies eighteen elements that are indicators of quality teaching practice. is not mandatory for schools. It is a model of pedagogy that draws together a range of research including that known as Authentic Pedagogy (Newmann, FM and associates, 1996). It is not intended as the final word on pedagogy. It will be tested out and changed, as necessary, over time, as teachers engage with it. Queensland uses a similar model called Productive Pedagogies. The model is described in these books. Display blue, purple and teal coloured books. What does each colour tell us? Blue: introduces the background to developing the NSW model for pedagogy, and defines the dimensions and elements. Purple: expands on the definitions for each element and examines the coding of lesson delivery. Teal: examines the coding of anything written down, including assessment tasks and lesson plans.

4 How is the NSW model of pedagogy useful?
Provides a tool for teachers to use to reflect on their teaching practice. Can help teachers identify practices they do well and practices they might emphasise more. Can guide the planning and redesigning of activities, lessons and units of work. Provides a common vocabulary to use to talk about teaching and learning. Brings the key elements of good teaching practice Quality Teaching together in one place Emphasise that Quality Teaching is not to be used for assessing teacher performance. Acknowledge that teachers already do most of the things in the model of pedagogy. Quality teaching is about fine tuning and balancing their teaching.

5 Which students benefit?
Research has demonstrated that: all students K-12 benefit benefits are not affected by race, ethnicity, gender or socio economic status. Refer teachers to the Annotated Bibliography for details of the research

6 Components of the NSW model of pedagogy
eighteen elements in three dimensions the Intellectual Quality dimension is central the Quality Learning Environment and Significance dimensions underpin Intellectual Quality.

7 The dimensions of the model
Intellectual Quality Significance Quality Learning Environment Animation shows Quality learning environment and Significance underpinning Intellectual Quality Compare the final pattern with the Quality Teaching logo.

8 The elements of the model
Each dimension of the model is made up of six elements. Intellectual quality Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher-order thinking Metalanguage Substantive Communication No need say anything about each element at this stage. The purpose of this slide and the next two are just let teachers see the structure of the model and the names of the elements.

9 The elements of the model
Quality learning environment Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations Social support Students’ self-regulation Student direction

10 The elements of the model
Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative

11 The elements of the model
How many elements in a lesson? No expectation that every element should be seen in a single lesson. At least one element from each dimension should be found in a lesson. Across a unit of work all elements should be found.

12 The ‘journey’ developing an understanding of the elements
developing an understanding of what the elements mean in languages applying the elements in teaching today’s workshop may be your first step on the journey. A working understanding of the elements cannot be achieved in one sitting. Developing an understanding of what the elements mean in languages grows over time as you work with them, apply them and discuss them with other teachers. It’s a ‘journey’! I’m sure you will recognise that you are already doing many of the things in Quality Teaching model.

13 Intellectual quality

14 Intellectual quality Focuses on how students interact with the concepts, skills and ideas of the subject area.

15 Intellectual quality The elements
Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher-order thinking Metalanguage Substantive communication {Read through the elements and then say…} We will now look at each of these elements in more detail, with examples of what each of them may look like in the classroom.

16 Deep knowledge Lessons and tasks focus on:
a small number of key concepts the relationships among the concepts Point out that consideration of deep knowledge informs the way a teacher plans units of work, guides lessons and designs learning activities or tasks. Point out that whilst today’s workshop may have evidence of a range of elements from quality teaching, Deep Knowledge isn’t one of them because we are focusing on a large number of key concepts (because of the limited time available at a workshop).

17 Deep knowledge Using Language (communication and grammatical concepts)
Knowledge in Languages K-10 Languages syllabuses describe the knowledge (content) of Languages in terms of the objectives: Using Language (communication and grammatical concepts) Making Linguistic Connections (literacy and grammatical concepts) Moving Between Cultures (social, cultural and intercultural concepts)

18 Deep knowledge What is a ‘concept’? An idea or principle.
Concepts can be identified by completing the sentence: A key concept for the lesson is that… E.g. A key concept for the lesson is that the choice to use ‘tu’ or ‘vous’ is influenced by the nature of the relationship between the people. (French) Ask participants to suggest other examples of key concepts.

19 Relationships between key concepts
Teaching in topics makes it easier to look at the relationships between communication, literacy and cultural concepts. To teach numbers, then colours, then animals and and so on would superficial not deep. Teaching numbers, then teaching prices and language for shopping; Then teaching colours and how to describe clothing; Then teaching the language for buying clothing and integrating social and cultural concepts associated with shopping in a topic called e.g. ‘Shopping’ or ‘Around town’ could be identified as Deep Knowledge because it looks at the relationships between concepts.

20 Deep understanding Students demonstrate that they have grasped key concepts. Deep understanding: learning that students demonstrate Deep knowledge: teacher focusing lessons on key concepts It might help clarify the difference between deep knowledge and deep understanding to say: Look at what the students can do to see evidence of deep understanding. Look at the teacher’s input to see evidence of deep knowledge. In the classroom, students need opportunities to show deep rather than superficial understanding.

21 Deep understanding Example
If the topic is ‘Greetings and introductions’, students who show that they can manipulate language and incorporate nonverbal communication appropriately to greet someone and introduce themselves are demonstrating deep understanding.

22 Problematic knowledge
Treating knowledge as ‘problematic’ I.e. something that can vary according to social, cultural and political influences The opposite is treating knowledge as ‘given’ I.e. as facts Knowledge is not fixed body of information. It is something that people and societies construct and continue to develop. Knowledge varies between people and between groups of people because of the different influences on them. The influences include social, cultural and political influences. The element problematic knowledge involves presenting knowledge as ‘problematic’, i.e. presenting knowledge as something that can vary according to political, social and cultural influences. The opposite to treating ‘knowledge as problematic’, is presenting knowledge as ‘given’. This means presenting knowledge as facts to be acquired by students. Everybody has their own knowledge because they construct it from their unique experience and situation.

23 Problematic knowledge Examples
Discussing how: the relationship between people affects the way the language is used in any language there are a number ways to express the same idea Additional example Between languages, ‘dictionary’ equivalents have different nuances of meaning. Cont…

24 Problematic knowledge Examples continued
the etiquette associated with meal times varies between cultures and families different cultures may celebrate different things.

25 Higher-order thinking (HOT)
Students are regularly engaged in thinking that requires them to do things like: Evaluate Synthesise Analyse Apply Although lower-order thinking is essential to build the foundations for understanding, unless there are opportunities for students to engage in higher-order thinking, it is unlikely that they will achieve deep understanding of a concept. It is not about avoiding lower-order thinking, it is about ensuring that opportunities for higher-order are provided too. Exercises in course workbooks often target lower-order thinking. Teachers need to provide balance with richer tasks that engage higher-order thinking.

26 Higher-order thinking
The language content does not need to be complex to engage higher-order thinking. The nature of the question or task determines whether or not higher-order thinking is required.

27 Higher-order thinking Examples
“What is the French word for ‘to eat’?” engages lower-order thinking (knowing). “In this passage, highlight any words that are relevant to the topic ‘Eating and drinking’?” engages higher-order thinking (evaluating).

28 Higher-order thinking (HOT)
Using the communicative approach and maximising use of the target language in lessons engages higher-order thinking. To listen and understand (apply, analyse, hypothesise, evaluate) To respond (apply, evaluate, synthesise) To listen and understand, students need to: Apply what they have learnt to date Analyse what they hear Hypothesise about the connection between what they see and what they hear Hypothesise about the links between what they know already and what they see and hear Evaluate their hypotheses. When students respond in the target language they need to: Evaluate the correctness and appropriateness of language choices Synthesise (create) a response in the target language.

29 HOT - Evaluating Arriving at a decision about the value of something for a given purpose. Focus words: assess, choose, compare, conclude, decide, defend, discuss, evaluate, give your opinion, judge, justify, prioritise, rank, rate, recommend, select, support, value These words may help you focus on the kind of questions and tasks that get students ‘evaluating’.

30 HOT - Evaluating Examples
You have the opportunity to stay with an Indonesian family. Listen to these two teenagers describing their daily routines in Indonesian. Which of the two would you prefer to stay with? Explain why. (respond in English) Look at the clothes in an Italian fashion magazine. Choose at least three items of clothing that you would like to have. Explain to a classmate, why you would like to buy them. (respond in Italian) On the use of English In communicative language teaching, teachers try to maximise their use of the target language in the classroom. This does not mean that teachers use the target language all the time. Higher-order thinking can be engaged through a stimulus text in the target language, even though students may respond to the task in English. There are aspects of the syllabus objectives that can be best achieved through discussion in English.

31 HOT - Synthesising Combining concepts and ideas to form a new product, plan or communication. Focus words: Change, combine, compose, construct, create, design, imagine, improve, plan, predict, pretend, produce, propose, rearrange, reorganise, suggest, suppose, visualise, write. These words may help you focus on the kind of questions and tasks that get students ‘synthesising’.

32 HOT - Synthesising Examples
Create an invitation to a party. (respond in German) With a partner, imagine the conversation you might have with a local who is helping you find your way to a famous landmark in a French town. Prepare the conversation and perform it for the class. (respond in French)

33 HOT - Analysing Breaking things down into parts. Understanding how something is organised. Focus words: Analyse, categorise, classify, compare, contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect, examine, explain, identify, investigate, separate, specify These words may help you focus on the kind of questions and tasks that get students ‘analysing’.

34 HOT - Analysing Examples
You have received an from a Chinese keypal. In it she has described her family. Read the and draw her family tree. (respond in Chinese) You will be staying with a family in Japan for a week. Listen to the phone message telling you what you will be doing during that week. Write an itinerary for your stay. (respond in Japanese)

35 HOT - Applying Using learned material in a new situation. Applying rules and methods. Focus words: Apply, complete, conclude, construct, demonstrate, draw, examine, find out, give an example, illustrate, make, show, solve, use These words may help you focus on the kind of questions and tasks that get students ‘applying’.

36 HOT - Applying Example A Japanese class has been learning how to give street directions. So far they have practised as a class with the teacher. Using this map give directions in Japanese to help your classmate get to the places he wants to go to.

37 HOT - Applying Example A Spanish class is doing a unit of work on ‘food and drink’. Previously they have done a unit of work on ‘sport and pastimes’. You have learnt to discuss likes and dislikes about food, now find out your classmate’s likes and dislikes in relation to sport.

38 Metalanguage Metalanguage is the language used to discuss language.
The element metalanguage involves discussing how the language works. In discussing how the language works the teacher and students use the specialist terminology of language including grammatical terms. It includes talking about text types, audience and purpose. The syllabus objective Making Linguistic Connections (MLC) provides opportunities for discussion about how language works.

39 Metalanguage Example On an OHT the teacher displays a letter in the target language with deliberate mistakes of various kinds. The class works together to identify mistakes and discusses what the problems are. In discussion, students and teacher use the specialist terminology of language.

40 Substantive communication
Sustained interaction about the content of the lesson Can be: Teacher  student(s) Student(s)  student(s) Substantive communication can be between the teacher and students or between students. Pair or group work can require students to communicate in a substantive way about what they are learning. With beginning students, the substantive communication is likely to be in English. Substantive communication about how language works and intercultural ideas is likely to be in English.

41 Substantive communication Example
A discussion about family including: Family members Ages Interests Pets (in the target language) The elements of the model of pedagogy are usually found in combination. This same example task, used before for other elements, involves substantive communication as well as higher-order thinking and metalanguage. As beginning students, the sustained conversation about what they are doing is most probably going to be in English.

42 Substantive communication
Purposeful communicative tasks can provide opportunities for substantive communication in the target language Tasks that require students to work together in pairs or groups can be high in substantive communication.

43 Quality learning environment

44 Quality learning environment
Focuses on what makes the classroom a place where students and teachers work together productively.

45 The elements Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations
Social support Students’ self-regulation Student direction {Read through the elements and then say…} We will now look at each of these elements in more detail, with examples of what each of them may look like in the classroom.

46 Explicit quality criteria
Students have a clear understanding of how well the teacher expects them to do something. Students have a reference point to which they can compare the quality of their work. ‘Quality criteria’ tell students what constitutes a good answer or product and how to achieve it. Procedural information tells students what they have to do. Teachers need to be careful not to confuse procedural information with quality criteria. Quality criteria answer the question “What is the teacher looking for?”.

47 Explicit quality criteria Strategies
Provide work samples or models. Make statements about the quality of work required often during a lesson. Provide detailed criteria with tasks and explain them clearly. Use the criteria to give feedback on students’ work while they are doing it as well as when it is completed. Provide work samples or models – these can be from past students. Annotate them with comments that show why they achieved high marks.

48 Engagement Students are interested and on task most of the time.
Students are attentive and focused. Students take initiative to raise questions. Students contribute to group tasks.

49 Engagement What are some strategies that you use to engage students?
Short discussion before proceeding to the next slide: Ask teachers to share with their groups, or with the whole group strategies, that they use to engage students.

50 Engagement Strategies
Use group work with varied roles for all students so that all will be included. Make the learning meaningful for students by relating it to real life and to issues in which they are interested e.g. youth culture. Provide scaffolding for students who need more support, and open-ended tasks that provide for a range of responses.

51 High expectations Students are given challenging work.
Students are encouraged to try hard. Students are encouraged to take risks with the language Students’ work/efforts are acknowledged. Students to be encouraged to take risks with the language and not worry about making mistakes. Worrying about mistakes interferes with communication.

52 High expectations Strategies
Identify the prior learning of the students so that the work is appropriately challenging. Challenge your own assumptions – teachers’ expectations for students tend to be self-fulfilling. Encourage students to aim high, not just get by. Always recognise the efforts of students. One-to-one feedback Identify the prior learning of the students so that the work is appropriately challenging. This is particularly important in the transition from primary to secondary school. Challenge your own assumptions about how well students can achieve – some students become “labelled” and then conform to the low standard they believe is expected of them. Suggest the strategy of giving each student informal feedback on their progress on two occasions in a term. Could be given after class, at sport or in the playground.

53 Social support Students feel safe and accepted.
Students are encouraged to try hard and take risks in a climate of mutual respect. Effort, participation and the expression of points of view are valued.

54 Social support Strategies
Use a variety of collaborative activities. Design flexible learning tasks so that all students can experience success. Always respect, value and incorporate the ideas and opinions of all class members. This is particularly relevant in tasks with an intercultural focus. Allow all students to contribute and collaborate through activities such as think-pair-share and jigsaw. Think-pair-share: A group or class activity. Students first think of the response/contribution, then share it with a classmate, then share it with the whole group or class. Jigsaw: there are various versions including every member of a team being given a word, then the team members arrange themselves into a sentence.

55 Student self-regulation
Students demonstrate self-control and initiative in relation to their behaviour. Students understand and have internalised the standards of behaviour required in the class.

56 Student self-regulation Strategies
Ensure activities are purposeful and interesting with clear goals that students perceive to be worthwhile. Encourage students to evaluate their own progress and achievement. Negotiate a shared understanding of classroom behaviour and responsibilities.

57 Student direction Student direction is about students assuming responsibility for class activities by exercising some control over: choice of activities time spent on activities pace of the lesson criteria by which they will be assessed.

58 Student direction Strategies
Colour code workbook exercises with points associated with a colour. Students accrue a set number of points. Allow students to choose: how they go about a task e.g. independently, as a pair, as a group how they present their work. Negotiate with students how much time is required to complete their work Let students participate in determining the criteria by which they will be assessed. Colour coding: easier exercises score fewer points, more challenging exercises more points.

59 Significance

60 Making what we do more meaningful for our students.
Significance Making what we do more meaningful for our students. Significance often has the meaning of ‘importance’. In this context, significance refers to meaningfulness, i.e. making what we do with students meaningful to them.

61 The elements Background knowledge Cultural knowledge
Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative {Read through the elements and then say…} We will now look at each of these elements in more detail, with examples of what each of them may look like in the classroom.

62 Background knowledge Knowledge gathered in: previous lessons
personal lives. Background knowledge is is often the hook to get students’ attention and to engage them in each topic. It will often be part of building the field for a unit of work. Building the field activities can incorporate students’ background knowledge, whether from previous lessons or from their outside-school experience.

63 Background knowledge Examples
Before reading a menu in the target language, ask students what information they would expect to see on a menu. On the topic of ‘School’ ask students what language they think they will need to talk about the school day (e.g. time, subjects, days of the week etc.) then brainstorm the vocabulary and structures they already know and could use. Ask students: What do you already know? (the answer can be language or general knowledge)

64 Cultural knowledge Linking the lesson content to one or more specific social groups. Valuing These groups can include race, religion, gender and socio-economic background. By incorporating cultural knowledge, we validate our students’ backgrounds and experiences. We acknowledge and respect their right to be different. The key here is not just teaching about the Target Culture, but asking students to share their own experiences and cultures. Cultural knowledge recognises that all cultures in the classroom are equally valued. When studying a unit of work, students should feel they can contribute their own cultural knowledge, and it will be respected and valued. Cultural knowledge in programming: Key concept: Different cultures have their own celebrations and festivals Why does the learning matter? Students will develop a better understanding of the values and beliefs of other cultures within their class OR Key concept: Different cultures have different perceptions about health and body image Why does the learning matter? Being able to compare and contrast health and fitness between Australian and Arabic cultures will enable students to gain an understanding of a range of cultural perceptions. Cultural knowledge is also in the Moving Between Cultures (MBC) objective and Socio-cultural content (e.g. comparing German and Australian school systems) and should also be incorporated into Teaching and learning activities. Taking an interest in the cultures of students is a way of valuing and demonstrating your acceptance of their cultures. Accepting

65 Cultural knowledge Examples
When teaching a unit on birthday celebrations, discuss how different students celebrate their birthdays at home, or if there are other celebrations of greater importance. When teaching food and drink, find out what the typical food items on the table are at dinner time at the students’ homes, and how/when they are eaten. There is a clear link between Cultural knowledge, Inclusivity and Problematic knowledge. By discussing and valuing the cultures within the class, we can include all views and recognise that different backgrounds and/or cultures may view the world differently. As teachers, we model acceptance and address stereotypes.

66 Knowledge integration
Taking the pieces of the puzzle and fitting them together to form a bigger picture, by: linking to other subjects/KLAs linking to other topics within the language. There are two important aspects to Knowledge integration. Firstly, we create links between other subjects and/or KLAs. For example: when teaching about 24 hour time, or world time zones (link to numeracy) Secondly, Knowledge integration can also refer to links between other topics within the language, for example grammatical connections (accusative case in German with pets, and then family) or vocabulary (such as colours – can be used with animals, school items, clothes etc.).

67 Knowledge integration Examples
Across KLAs/subjects: Designing a brochure (literacy) Using the food pyramid to understand healthy eating (PD/H/PE and/or Food Technology) Teaching a unit on the environment (HSIE). Within the language: Grammar, e.g. learning likes and dislikes within the topic of animals and then using the similar structures when shopping for clothes Vocabulary, e.g. numbers are revisited when teaching time and/or dates. When Knowledge integration happens within the Language, there is an overlap with Deep knowledge because you are looking at the relationships between key concepts. Knowledge integration reinforces the importance of working with a scope and sequence.

68 Inclusivity Key questions:
Are all students of all social groups included in the public work of the class? Are the contributions of all students taken seriously and valued by their classmates and the teacher? You may need to compare Inclusivity with Cultural Knowledge. Cultural Knowledge relates to the lesson content (valuing and accepting cultures and backgrounds through the lesson content) Inclusivity is about students themselves being and feeling included regardless of their cultures or background.

69 Inclusivity Examples Vary the grouping, e.g. individual work, pairwork, friendship groups, ability groups, class surveys (as oral work) Questioning techniques, e.g. teacher to student and student to student, group responses and individual responses, moving from closed questioning to open-ended questioning. Positive feedback to students, including clarification, e.g. “Your pronunciation was spot-on that time”. When correcting a student’s answer, involve the class in practice/feedback. As teachers, we model positive relationships and set the tone for the class. We can ensure that all students feel valued and are included in the learning process.

70 Connectedness SCHOOL REAL WORLD
Connectedness is the link between what students learn at school and real-world contexts – can they use what they learn in the classroom beyond the classroom? When planning a unit of work, our Teaching and learning activities should be as relevant and authentic as possible.

71 Connectedness Examples
The use of realia such as menus, timetables, brochures. Incorporating skills such as numeracy and literacy. Real world skills and tools such as map-reading and the use of ICT play a vital role in connecting what happens in the classroom to the world beyond.

72 Narrative The use of stories or anecdotes to contextualise the learning, making it more meaningful. Personal stories are better remembered by students. Narrative can be oral or written. It is often incidental (although can sometimes be planned), and can be used to illustrate or emphasise cultural and language points. Narrative can bring the learning alive, illustrate difficult concepts and help students see why the learning matters.

73 Narrative Examples The “When I was in Japan/Germany/France…” story.
Reading out sample biographies of real people for a “Who am I?” game, e.g. I am 25 years old. I come from America. I’m a woman. I’m very thin and have long blonde hair. I love shopping, flirting and parties. If possible, presenter to give their own example.

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