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An Introduction to Teaching Social Studies in the Bilingual Classroom

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1 An Introduction to Teaching Social Studies in the Bilingual Classroom
Prepared by Global Language Solutions, LLC for the Institute for Second Language Achievement (ISLA) at Texas A&M - Corpus Christi and the Texas Education Agency (TEA) SLIDE 1: INTRODUCTION This module is designed to provide practical information for the elementary bilingual teacher in the effective instruction of social studies for English language learners (ELLs). The structure of this module includes some important information about the social studies curriculum, why social studies is challenging for ELLs, how to design instruction to build on students’ individual backgrounds and simultaneously develop language proficiency, and classroom activities that are effective with ELLs. While most of the activities are presented in English, the teacher should determine the language of instruction in accordance with students’ levels of language proficiency and school program model. All activities presented are equally effective in Spanish and English. It is recommended that participants have access to a copy of the social studies TEKS for reference during this training. Also, access to the adopted textbooks in Spanish and English for social studies will facilitate learning in this module. Handouts containing activities are included with this training module.

2 International BINGO Sign your name in the center “free” box
You will need a pen or pencil and your BINGO sheet for this activity Ask your classmates the questions on the BINGO sheet. If they can answer “Yes,” ask them to sign the box You may only sign a classmate’s BINGO sheet one time When you get 5 signatures in a row, call out, “BINGO!” SLIDE 2: Activity 1 is designed as a warm-up for participants; however, it may be used with students in grades 3-6. If modified, it may also be used at 2nd grade. This activity would address the following TEKS: 2nd (b) (18) (A); 3rd (b) (17) (A); 4th (b) (23) (C); 5th (b) (26) (C); 6th (b) (22) (C). Distribute one game sheet (“International Bingo”) to each participant. Instruct the participants to sign their name in the center “free” box. All they will need for this activity is their pencil or pen. Explain that they are to collect classmates’ signatures so they complete an entire row (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally). To promote as much movement and interaction in the class as possible, a student may sign an individual classmate’s game sheet only once. (As the presenter, you may or may not want to be available for signatures.) Make sure the students understand that afterwards they may be asked to explain why and how they were eligible to sign a particular box. Allow enough time so that someone can collect enough signatures to achieve “BINGO.” When that occurs, give the signal for all participants to take their seats. Check the winning game sheet aloud by calling out the names in each box and asking participants to provide explanation as to why they were eligible to sign. You may want to award a small door prize to the winner. Bring closure to the activity by facilitating a discussion: How difficult was it to find signatures for the boxes? Which was the hardest box for which you had to find a signature? Which was the easiest? Did you learn something special about a classmate? How could you use this kind of activity with your students? How does this activity promote language development?

3 Objectives Address TEKS for social studies and Spanish and English language arts Focus on the effective teaching of social studies content through the use of appropriate methods for developing bilingual proficiency in students SLIDE 3: The primary objective of this training is the second objective listed on this slide. However, without a thorough understanding of the grade level TEKS for social studies, effective instruction is not possible.

4 Social Studies TEKS Grades K-6
Pre-Kindergarten Guidelines—nature of people and their world, the heritage of the past, and contemporary living and culture Kindergarten—introduction to basic social studies concepts Grade 1—home, school, and community Grade 2—community, state, and nation Grade 3—communities (past/present, here/there) Grade 4—Texas in the Western Hemisphere Grade 5—United States studies Grade 6—Contemporary World Societies SLIDE 4: This summary of the Guidelines and TEKS for Social Studies provides an overview of the curriculum through the elementary grades. The next slide discusses the eight strands of the social studies curriculum and the purpose of each strand.

5 Structure of the TEKS Eight Strands—integrated for instructional purposes History Geography Economics Government Citizenship Culture Science/Technology/Society Social Studies Skills SLIDE 5: History—People, events, and issues from the past influence the present and the future. Students learn how individuals and societies interact over time in order to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to make effective decisions in life. Geography—Relationships among people, places, and environments result in geographic patterns on Earth’s surface. Students can compete in the global economy, ensure the viability of Earth’s environments, and comprehend the cultures of the diverse people who share the planet through an understanding of geographic relationships. Economics—People organize economic systems to produce, distribute, and consume goods and services. Students make effective decisions as consumers, producers, savers, investors, and citizens by understanding economic systems including the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system. Government—People create systems of government as well as structures of power and authority to provide order and stability. Students recognize ways individuals and governments achieve their goals by understanding the purposes, structures, and functions of political systems. Citizenship—Citizenship in the United States requires an understanding of and commitment to civic responsibilities, rights, and ethical behavior. People fully participate in society when they understand civic ideals, citizenship practices, and the basis of our constitutional republic. Culture—People develop, learn, and adapt cultures. Students develop an appreciation and respect for the variety of human cultures in the community and around the world by exploring the similarities and differences among people. Science, Technology, and Society—Advances in science and technology affect the development of society. Students understand changes in ways people live, learn, and work—past, present, and future—through analyzing the relationships among science, technology, society, and the environment. Social Studies Skills—Social studies skills are necessary in order to acquire, organize, and use information for problem solving and decision making. Students apply social studies knowledge and skills to become competent problem solvers, decision makers, and independent lifelong learners. These strands help unify the TEKS into a comprehensive, coherent, and cohesive statement of what students should know about social studies and what they should be able to do with what they know. Concepts introduced in the elementary grades are presented in greater depth and with more complexity as students progress through middle school and into high school. A comprehensive social studies program depends on the integration of the eight strands to ensure that the students become responsible citizens in the 21st century and that they possess factual and conceptual knowledge, intellectual skills, and basic democratic values.

6 Description of the Social Studies Curriculum
Promotes knowledge and cultural understanding, democratic and civic values, and skills attainment and social participation Stresses historical and geographical literacy, important concepts about human society, approaches to solving problems SLIDE 6: A content area of major importance in the curriculum is social studies, referred to by some educators as social science. The study of history, geography, government, and civics falls within the curricular area of social studies. While social studies is an area of intrinsic interest for many, the academic language and prior knowledge background needed for learning about social studies make this a difficult subject for many ELLs.

7 Description of the Social Studies Curriculum
Teaches democracy’s development, values and current practice in the U.S.A Designed to teach procedural knowledge (study skills and social skills) needed for participation in cooperative and democratic activities SLIDE 7: Social studies is a curricular area that is not just focused on knowledge and facts. Rather, it is an area through which students learn important social and study skills as well as explore their native culture while learning about U.S. culture.

8 What’s Difficult about Social Studies for ELLs?
Curriculum assumes prior historical, geographical, and civic knowledge and culturally based values which may be unfamiliar to students Specialized vocabulary often refers to abstract concepts Discourse is primarily expository; language functions include both lower and higher-level thinking skills SLIDE 8: Because the social studies curriculum requires a high level of literacy and because the concepts developed often deal with abstract ideas rooted in philosophy, anthropology, political science, and economics, it can be very difficult for ELLs. Since social studies depends heavily on language, ELLs encounter many difficulties in understanding information presented by the teacher and the textbook. As an example, ask participants to imagine a new immigrant ELL student who has just arrived from a communist country. How would their background knowledge and experience make learning social studies in Texas schools challenging? They would have a different concept of democracy They would have a different concept of how goods and services should be distributed/allocation of resources They would have a different concept of crime and punishment They may have little or no background knowledge of Texas or U.S. history They may be uneasy with stating opinions and freedom of expression They may be uncomfortable with choice

9 What’s Difficult about Social Studies for ELLs?
Reading texts include sentences with multiple embedded clauses, complex past tense forms, and extensive use of pronouns Decontextualized language is used in relationship to unfamiliar concepts Students may have had little experience locating information, using maps and graphs, and using effective strategies for listening, reading, and writing SLIDE 9: The potential difficulties listed on this slide offer a good rationale for using adapted text and other materials to supplement the social studies textbooks.

10 Teaching Guidelines for Social Studies
Assess students’ prior knowledge about social studies topics Select high priority content objectives from the TEKS; include both lower and higher-order thinking skills Provide academic language activities in which students read, listen to, discuss, make presentations on, and write about social studies content Teach and have students practice learning strategies with all social studies activities SLIDE 10: Teachers should make every effort to find out what students know about a topic and build on this knowledge. It is up to the teacher to maintain high expectations and teach the curriculum at the level that it will be assessed. Too often, teachers assume that since a student has little background knowledge in a particular area that he/she is not capable of higher level thinking about the topic. Teachers should be cautioned to avoid equating limited English proficiency with limited cognitive ability. ELLs, on the contrary, can think and perform work at the highest levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Since the TEKS are written to be taught at high levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy and TAKS items are stated at the highest levels, instruction should also challenge students to think critically and creatively about the curriculum.

11 Addressing the Textbook
Work with a partner Fold a scratch paper in half On the left side of the paper brainstorm all the things that make reading your social studies textbook difficult for ELLs On the right side of the paper brainstorm all the things that make reading your social studies textbook easy for ELLs Debrief Consider how you can incorporate more of the things that make the textbook easy and overcome the things that make the textbook difficult SLIDE 11: Some things that make the textbook difficult include: Technical vocabulary Lots of words Visuals, maps, graphs often are not located on the same page as the text Lack of background information Written using abstract and complex language Some things that can make the textbook easy include: Glossary Headings and subheadings Bold-faced key terms Visuals CD-ROM

12 Addressing the Textbook
Provide opportunities for spoken and written connections to the textbook Provide supplementary reading materials that are related to the textbook and allow students to choose and read independently Utilize a before, during, and after approach when reading the textbook Guide students in how to read the textbook, including the organization and the format SLIDE 12: Students should always be given opportunities to respond to the text orally or in writing. In addition, students should be given graphic organizers, outlines, or some other scaffold to promote active reading. Supplementary reading materials may include: picture books, children’s stories related to the topic, culturally relevant texts, or text that the teacher has adapted. Examples of before activities: Chapter walks Viewing pictures and asking questions Brainstorming Examples of during activities: Share with a partner after reading a section Complete information on a graphic organizer Highlight important terms and concepts Write summaries after each section Examples of after activities: Act out what was read Interview each other playing the role of a historical person Create a human map Create a timeline, poster, or other artifact

13 Adapting Written Materials
Use a predictable text structure (i.e., topic sentence followed by supporting details) Reduce the number of pronouns and synonyms Simplify the vocabulary, but retain key concepts and technical terms Use active and simple verb tenses Provide contextual definitions for new vocabulary terms Avoid indefinite terms, such as “it,” “there,” and “that” Minimize the use of negatives, especially those like “no longer” or “hardly” SLIDE 13: Sometimes, written materials need to be adapted before students can comprehend them. Make sure each paragraph begins with a topic sentence to help students orient to the subject matter. Use shorter paragraphs that eliminate relative clauses, and the passive voice, if possible. Replace potentially ambiguous pronouns, (“it,” “he/she”) with the noun to which they refer (“Plymouth Rock,” “Mr. Mustard”).

14 Adapting Written Materials
Rewrite the following sentences to make them more comprehensible for ELLs: The Declaration of Independence was signed by John Hancock. There were many reasons people left Europe for America. The discovery of tobacco as a cash crop to be traded in Europe guaranteed that the colony would do well. John Smith is remembered for his pragmatic leadership. SLIDE 14: Ask participants to practice simplifying written materials by rewriting these sentences. Look for active voice, simple tenses, and simple vocabulary in the new sentences. Example: John Hancock signed The Declaration of Independence.

15 Well-Equipped Classroom
Current world map and globe Realia, visuals, and hands-on materials Culturally relevant reading materials Audio-Visual materials Classroom reference library Social Studies Center SLIDE 15: Maps and globes should be appropriate for the grade level, purpose of instruction (i.e., political, physical, thematic, historical), be accurate and up-to-date, and provide a realistic view of the world. Cultural artifacts, posters, puzzles and other hands-on materials should be accurate and realistic. Ensure that culturally relevant reading materials are available for students. To determine whether or not reading materials are culturally relevant, you can use the following questions as a guide: Are the characters in the story like you and your family? Have you ever had an experience like one described in the story? Have you lived or visited places like those in the story? How close do you think the main characters are to you in age? Could this story take place this year? Are the main characters in the story boys or girls? Do the characters talk like you and your family do? How often do you read stories like these? A list of culturally relevant texts is included under in Activity - 8. Audio visual resources should include: audio tapes, video tapes, CD-ROMs, bulletin boards, and transparencies. Anyone responsible for ordering CD-ROMs should refer to the Social Studies TEKS CD-ROM List produced by SSCED. It provides an annotated list of CD-ROMs to support the TEKS for Social Studies and references other catalogues (see Each classroom should have a classroom reference library. Suggested items for the library are as follows: newspapers and magazines, almanacs, dictionaries, atlases, grammar reference books, encyclopedias, historical reference books, and fiction and nonfiction references related to the curriculum.

16 Social Studies Center Flags of different cultures Thematic books
Realia from different cultures, coins, etc. Photographs Visuals of heroes and famous people Timelines Posters Music from different cultures and different historical periods World map SLIDE 16: Centers allow students to extend their content learning in an independent manner. Once you set up your center, you should teach students appropriate ways to use the flags and materials located in the center. As some students are in centers, the teacher can provide small group instruction to other students . Students can study and create their own flags using a half sheet of white paper. These can be stapled together to create flag books. Thematic books -Include both fiction and non-fiction books from a variety of genres. Students can use these books to research different countries, states, or social studies topics. Realia - Invite students to bring in real objects from home. Label the objects. Photographs - can be used to generate words, create headlines, titles, or as prompts for stories. Posters - You can add paper to the bottom of posters so that students can write words or comments about what they see in the poster. World map - Whenever you read a story or talk about a particular country, students in finding the locations on the map.

17 The Nature of Language Proficiency:
BICS CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Conversational Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Textbook language SLIDE 17: A good first step in understanding how to help ELL students learn social studies is becoming familiar with the stages of second language acquisition (SLA). There are many models of the process of SLA, but one simple model is based on the work of Jim Cummins. Explain that this is one of the critical concepts of the training. Talk about two basic understandings that all teachers must have about 2nd language learning. BICS and CALP. The next two slides will explain this. Share this with your staff and administrators. Be an advocate. Cummins, 1979

18 Levels of Language Proficiency
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) Everyday language Communicative Universal across all native speakers Not related to academic achievement Usually attained within 2 years SLIDE 18: Read slide. Think about a student who has just entered your classroom. He can ask for a pencil, a book, or even a drink of water. Sometimes teachers hear a student using BICS language and think that the student is a fluent speaker of English. The student may sound like a fluent speaker of English, but he only knows labels and has not learned CALP. Everyone acquires BICS in their own language. Have you ever traveled to another country? What were some of the first words that you used? (money, restroom, food, basic needs, etc.) OPTIONAL: Ask participants to think of some synonyms for BICS. (Social, conversational, everyday, survival)

19 Levels of Language Proficiency
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) Abstract, decontextualized language Non-interpersonal Related to literacy skills and academic achievement CALP in L1 and L2 overlap despite differences in surface features Usually develops in 5 to 7 years or longer depending on individual and contextual variables SLIDE 19: Explain CALP. (Language used in textbooks) Highlight the last bullet. The 5 to 7 years is a range, depending on many variables. It could be less than 5 years or more than 7 years. Take time to discuss BICS vs. CALP. Bloom’s taxonomy- higher levels - Knowledge - Comprehension - Application - Analysis - Synthesis - Evaluation OPTIONAL: Again, ask participants to think of some synonyms for CALP.

20 Iceberg Analogy BICS CALP SLIDE 20:
The iceberg analogy helps understand BICS and CALP. As with an iceberg, only a small fraction of language, about 10 percent, is easily observable. This BICS level of language is often what teachers can see and hear readily. Students at this level can converse and use social language. They may even be able to decode text in English. However, as the visual on this slide clearly demonstrates, it is only a small part of the whole of language proficiency. CALP is the foundation of language proficiency, and as with the iceberg, it is less easy to see. Nevertheless, CALP represents the majority of language proficiency that students need to be successful in school. All students struggle with CALP and come to school to acquire CALP.

21 The “Dual Iceberg Representation of Bilingual Proficiency”
SLIDE 21: The dual iceberg analogy demonstrates that much of the language proficiency that students acquire in their native language, L1, transfers to the second language, L2. When students have strong literacy skills and high levels of CALP in their L1, that provides a strong foundation for their L2 development. If you have learned about landforms in your native language, those concepts will transfer. Now you just have to learn the new labels.

22 Cummins’ Four Quadrants
Cognitively Undemanding (BICS) A C B D Context Embedded Viewing Talking Context Reduced SLIDE 22: Among the most effective strategies for teaching social studies to ELL students is to provide a high degree of contextual support. Jim Cummins developed an easily understood and widely used model for providing contextual support and helping students successfully complete cognitively demanding academic tasks. He defined everyday language conversation as BICS and proficiency in using the language in the classroom as CALP. His model has two distinct dimensions to distinguish conversational from academic language: (1) the level of contextual support such as maps, visuals, gestures, clues, etc. and (2) the degree of cognitive demand, which refers to the level of difficulty of the task or topic for the ELL student. Teachers can use contextual support to assist learners with cognitively demanding content before moving on to tasks that depend primarily on high levels of cognitive academic language proficiency. Cummins’ Quadrants is a useful tool for designing content area lessons that build language proficiency and content knowledge through comprehensibility. The lesson should begin with “view” activities that are cognitively undemanding and context-embedded, such as viewing a video clip. Then “do” activities should follow, which might include creating a map or timeline. The next part of the lesson should include “talking” in cooperative groups about the topic. The lesson should end in Quadrant D where students will “transform” their understanding of the content into the technical CALP language. This may be when students read the textbook for understanding or write essays. Doing Transforming Cognitively Demanding (CALP)

23 View Pictures and primary source documents Active video viewing
SLIDE 23: The next 16 slides cover practical strategies that can be used with ELLs in the classroom. They are organized according to Cummins’ four quadrants. There are two ways to present this material. One is fairly passive and involves explaining to participants each activity using the trainer notes. The recommended way to present these slides is to actually do each strategy/activity with participants so that they can experience the benefits of each. Alternatively, you may wish to present these slides using a combination of sit and get and active participation.

24 Pictures SLIDE 24: Grade Level: 1st & 2nd TEKS: (b) (15) (A); (b) (15) (A) May be used by other grade levels to address the cultural strand of the Social Studies curriculum. Show participants the slide of the Carmen Lomas Garza picture “Barbacoa Para Cumpleaños.” Ask questions like the following: What can you see in the picture? What are the people in the picture doing? How do you think the people are feeling? Does this look like something you and your family have done before? How does this celebration compare with how you celebrate your birthday? A good source for other images is You can search for images of almost any social studies concept.

25 Suggestions for Implementation
Generate random vocabulary Describe the picture Interpret the picture Brainstorm a list of possibilities Talk and write answer questions specific to the picture Read the passage and make connections SLIDE 25: This slide offers suggestions on how to use the Carmen Lomas Garza picture on the preceding slide. You can use these suggestions with any pictures or photographs from books, magazines, or newspapers. Students can also bring pictures from home.

26 Active Viewing As students view any video clip, they should take notes on an active viewing handout Any graphic organizer or scaffold used with a video will allow students to gain more information SLIDE 26: Activity 2 is to be used for active video watching or active reading. Since it is presented as a “View” activity, it can be used to actively watch a video clip. You may opt to show any video clip about social studies that is available for your training. Tell participants watch the video clip and jot down their notes on Active Viewing handout: What they saw, heard, and felt. Then ask for two or three volunteers to share their summaries with the group. Activity 2 helps ELLs get the main idea from something they view and provides practice in writing.

27 Do TPR Picture Stories BINGO SLIDE 27:
These are all activities for the “do” quadrants. These will involve using realia, manipulatives and other hands-on materials.

28 Total Physical Response
SLIDE 28: Grade Level: Kindergarten TEKS: (b) (7) (A) and (b) (9) (A). This activity may be adapted to all grade levels using key terminology appropriate to the grade-level TEKS. Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language learning activity developed by Asher that involves the teacher giving commands and students responding to those commands physically. Typically, the teacher introduces key vocabulary using real objects, realia, or pictures of real objects. The teacher will show the realia or picture and ask students to pass the objects around the room to other students. TPR focuses primarily on listening comprehension and does not require students to produce language. For this activity, you may choose to conduct a demonstration by bringing in real objects, realia, like those on the slide. These would be items used by key people in the community. You can introduce each object and the name of the key community member. Use commands to have students touch the objects and pass them to other students. If you do not have access to the real objects, you may make color pictures of the items on this slide or use toy versions that can be purchased from a local dollar store. Participants should reflect on what they experienced after the demonstration by examining the teacher and student behaviors. They should include the following: Teacher: Used real objects or pictures of them Gave commands Created a friendly, safe environment by smiling Used gestures to make meaning clear Gave praise that was clear through intonation Involve all learners Students: Paid attention Responding to commands by physically doing as asked Recognize key vocabulary Help other students Not required to speak or repeat key terms

29 Picture Timeline Arrange the items, dates, descriptions, and pictures in the correct chronological order to create a timeline Take turns telling a partner about the important acts and events that lead up to the American Revolution SLIDE 29: Grades 5 & 8. TEKS: (b) (2) (B); (b) (26) (D); (b) (4) (A); (b) (30) (C); (b) (30) (C); (b) (1) (B). Sequencing activities are critical for ELLs in social studies. Under Activity 3, you can cut up the elements of the picture timelines and have participants work in pairs. They will arrange the timeline elements in the correct chronological order to create a timeline. Then they can take turns telling each other about the important acts and events that lead up to the American Revolution. An alternative would be to give participants the various elements and ask them to simply match the items. Some questions you might ask as a follow-up might include: Why is this event significant? How did this act or event contribute to causing the American Revolution? How do you think this act or even affected the American colonists? Could his problem have been solved differently? How? Activity 3 helps students with language that show chronological relationships, such as: first, then, next, finally, etc. These cohesive devices are essential for comprehending and expressing content area information in the social studies.

30 Talk Information Gap Games SLIDE 30:
Teachers must design lessons which allow opportunities for students to talk. Students would speak using their everyday language to share their thoughts with another person or in a cooperative group.

31 Information Gap Work with a partner
One partner will be A and the other will be B Stand back to back with your partner Use the stem questions to ask your partner for the missing information and record the answers you get Use the information on your sheet to answer your partner’s questions Check with your partner at the end to make sure you have all the appropriate information SLIDE 31: Grades: 3-6th TEKS: (b) (16) (E); (b) (22) (C); (b) (25) (C); (b) (3) (B). Activity 4 - Information Gap activities require students to work together cooperatively. Each student is given certain information, but is missing other information. They must use language to ask for and receive the missing information. Because students might be tempted to copy from one another, for this activity, ask students to stand back to back. This prevents copying and forces students to use language and seek clarification. Furthermore, this activity can reinforce important social studies concepts. Spanish or English Handouts An easy way to create Information Gap activities is to use the charts and graphs from the TAKS released test. You can also find tables and charts newspapers and magazines. You would delete some of the information of the charts and graphs and add some stem questions.

32 Games What kinds of games have you used with your students?
Why were those games effective? SLIDE 32: Ask participants the following questions and facilitate a discussion about the use of games. Games are a fun and effective way to promote language learning. Action games such as “Simon Says” and “Duck, Duck, Goose,” along with finger games such as “Where is Thumbkin?” and “The Itsy Bitsy Spider” are appropriate for early elementary students. Index-card games based on categories and “Twenty Questions” or “What’s My Line?” are examples of games that are suitable for upper elementary students. Games are especially helpful when the repetition of words or concepts is necessary to increase a student’s knowledge of vocabulary and concepts that require memorization. It is recommended that competition be downplayed for most games, that the rules be few, and that they be clearly explained and demonstrated before play is begun.

33 Transform Language experience Human sentences Journals SLIDE 33:
The most challenging classroom activities are those that fall in Quadrant D, which are context-reduced and cognitively challenging. These are the activities that involve a lot of reading and writing.

34 Language Experience Approach
The “experience” to be written about may be a drawing, something the student brought from home, a group experience planned by the teacher (i.e., field trip, party, etc.), or simply a topic to discuss. The student is asked to tell about his/her experience. The student then dictates his/her story or experience to the teacher, aide, volunteer, or another student. The writer copies down the story exactly as it is dictated verbatim. The teacher reads the story back, pointing to the words, with the student reading along. SLIDE 34: The Language Experience Approach (LEA) has a number of features that enhance whole language learning for ELLs. Students learn that what they say is important enough to be written down; they learn how language is encoded by watching as their oral language is put into ‘ print’ and they use familiar language—their own—in follow-up activities. Follow-up Activities: Beginning—students search for certain words and underline them, read the story in chorus, or participate in an oral cloze activity. Intermediate—students unscramble sentences, choose words and make cards for a word bank, or match sentence strips to sequenced pictures from a story

35 Language Experience Approach
The student reads the story silently and/or aloud to other students or to the teacher. The experience stories are saved and can be used for instruction in all types of reading skills. When student are ready, they can begin to write their own experience stories. Students can rewrite their own previous stories as their language development progresses, and then illustrate them to make books for other students to read. SLIDE 35: After explaining LEA, it is often helpful to demonstrate. Ask for a volunteer from the group and have that person come to the front of the room and sit in a chair facing a flip chart. Ask the volunteer to tell you about what they did last night or in the morning. Ask they are dictating their experience, write what they say verbatim on the flip chart. Make sure you use correct mechanics (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, etc.). You can repeat what you are writing as you write it if the volunteer goes too fast. Then ask the group the following questions: Can you find the word “I” in the story (only ask this question if that word is present)? Can you find a color word (again only if it is present)? Can you find the word “the”? Can you find a word within a word? Can you find a capital letter? Can you find a period? Have them point to the things you ask about and underline them.

36 Human Sentences You will be given a card with a word on it
Arrange yourselves in order to make a sentence that is historically accurate and grammatically correct Have a spokesperson read the sentence aloud SLIDE 36: Although the suggested sentence is from the high school Social Studies curriculum, the human sentence activity may be used to reflect the content of any grade level. 1. Make cards with one word each to create the following sentence about the Black Death: The Black Death killed one-third of the people in Western Europe. 2. Distribute cards to 11 volunteers and ask participants to arrange themselves to make a sentence. 3. Ask participants about the process they used to make their sentence. Ask participants for ideas about why this activity is beneficial for ELLs. Some answers might include: that it take away the concern about spelling correctly, it reviews and reinforces important social studies concepts, it is a cooperative activity, and it provides a model for writing, which is often challenging for ELLs.

37 Dialogue Journals Make sure each student has a notebook to use for journal writing Be sure students know they can write about anything in their journals, that they won’t be graded, and that noone but the teacher will read them Be sure to respond to each journal entry With pre-literate students, you must write your response while they are watching, sounding it out as you write, and point to the words as you reread your response SLIDE 37: A dialogue journal is a written conversation in which a student and a teacher communicate regularly (daily, weekly, etc.) over a semester, school year, or course. Students write as much as they choose and the teacher writes back regularly, responding to the students’ questions comments, introducing new topics, or asking questions. The teacher is a participant in an ongoing written conversation with the student, rather than an evaluator who corrects or comments on the student’s writing. Dialogue journals provide another context for language and literacy development. Students have the opportunity to use language in a non-threatening atmosphere, while interacting with someone who is proficient. Because the interaction is written, it allows students to use reading and writing in purposeful ways and provides a natural, comfortable bridge to other kinds of writing.

38 Dialogue Journals Never correct student entries. You may ask about something that is unclear or you may choose to model a correct form in your response if that seems natural Try not to dominate the “conversation.” Let the students initiate topics SLIDE 38: No Notes

39 Vocabulary Word Sorts Concept Definition Map
Verbal-visual word association SLIDE 39: As mentioned earlier, one of the most challenging aspects of social studies for ELLs is the technical vocabulary. In order for students to master CALP, they need lots of activities to help them acquire the content area vocabulary. The next several slides offer three practical suggestions for helping students develop content area vocabulary for social studies.

40 Word Sorts Sort the following words into these categories (-tion, -sion, -tation): Revolution, tension, frustration, taxation, representation, vision, plantation, mission, participation, solution, passion, transition, nation SLIDE 40: Grades: 5 and 8 TEKS: (b) (25) (B); (b) (26) (A); (b) (30) (B); (b) (31) (A). Ask participants to work alone or together to sort the words related to the American Revolution into the categories provided. Then ask participants if there is another way to sort the terms that is based on meaning instead of structure. During a closed word sort, students categorize words or phrases which have been previously introduced, into groups pre-determined by the teacher. Students sort the words according to meaning, similarities in structure, derivations, or sounds. The objectives for this activity are as follows: -To introduce words related to content concepts -To reinforce spellings and word structure An alternative is an open word sort, in which students categorize words or phrases into their own categories. They may choose to categorize words according to meaning or other similarities. This simple activity requires students to think at very high levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

41 Concept Definition Map
SLIDE 41: This graphic organizer is useful to help students internalize difficult concepts in the social studies curriculum. The target concept should be written in the center box. Above it goes the working classroom definition or the definition in the students’ own words. This should not be a dictionary definition as they are often just as challenging as the concept students are trying to acquire. Below the concept are spaces for descriptions. Those can be words or pictures. To the right of the concept are three boxes for examples. Again, those can be pictures or words. The Concept Definition Map (Activity 5) may be completed together as a class, with a partner, or individually.

42 Verbal-Visual Word Association
Term BICS Personal Association Definition: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Synonym: Conversational, social, everyday, interpersonal Antonym: CALP SLIDE 42: The Verbal-Visual Word Association is an index card strategy. Students divide the index card into 4 sections. The definition that goes in the lower left-hand section should not be copied from the dictionary or glossary, but should be a classroom working definition or the students’ definition in their own words. The personal association is a picture, sketch, or drawing that will help the student remember the term. The information in the lower right-hand section does not have to include synonyms and anonyms. Instead, students could write the term in their L1, write a sentence using the term, or make an association to the historical significance of the term. Verbal-Visual Word Association cards should be not created for every term or concept students need to learn. However, if there is a term that is particularly difficult, this activity can help. These may be organized by making holes in the corner and clipping them together with a binder ring.

43 Linking Instruction to Assessment
Tests are appropriate for varying levels of Spanish and English language proficiency Use a diversity of measures, such as: portfolios, observations, anecdotal records, interviews, checklists, and criterion-referenced tests to measure content knowledge and skills Take into account students’ backgrounds, including their educational experiences and parents’ literacy Add context to assessment tasks with familiar visual prompts, questions for small group discussion and individual writing, and activities that mirror learning processes with which students are familiar Allow extra time to complete or respond to assessment tasks Make other accommodations, such as permitting students to use dictionaries or word lists SLIDE 43: For many ELLs assessment is an obstacle. Often classroom instruction for ELLs includes non-traditional activities and strategies that tap into students’ creativity and background knowledge. However, too often the assessments are very traditional and mimic state assessments, like TAKS. This disconnect between instruction and assessment is not only confusing for the student, but unfair. Teachers should consider alternative assessments as a fair way to assess content area knowledge for students who lack complete control over the language. The tips on this slide represent things teachers should consider in order to conduct fair and accurate assessment.

44 Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students
Jigsaw SLIDE 44: Divide participants into 5 expert groups. Each group will be responsible for reading one section of the ERIC Digest article (Activity 7) entitled “Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students.” Each group will be assigned one of the following sections: Nonverbal Assessment Strategies K-W-L Charts Oral Performance or Presentations Oral and Written Products Portfolios After each expert group has read their section and discussed what is important about it, they will number off. Have each group number off from 1 to the number of the smallest expert group. Any extras can choose a number from 1 to that number. Based on their number, participants will reorganize into new groups with at least one expert for each section. They will take turns sharing what they read and learned. Example: If you have 22 participants, you will begin with 5 groups: 2 groups of 5 and 3 groups of 4. After reading and discussing, each group will number off from 1 to 4. The 2 groups of 5 will let one person choose a number 1 – 4. Then they will reorganize into 4 new groups to share what they read and learned.

45 CASH Graphic C Cognitive A Affective S Success H Help
What is something you learned about how and why you should develop language in social studies? A Affective How do you feel about incorporating culture into your classroom? S Success What strategy/activity are you willing to implement that will have a direct impact on student success? H Help What resources will you use to help you in your classroom? SLIDE 45: The CASH graphic is used to help participants reflect on their learning. Ask participants to reflect on these questions. They should all stand up and take turns sharing their response to one of these questions for which they have a thoughtful answer. After each participant shares, they may sit down. When everyone is seated, the presenter may choose to also share a reflection about the training.

46 Module Assessment Complete the assessment provided in the handouts.
Participants are expected to get at least 70 percent of the assessment items correct to demonstrate mastery of the content of this module. SLIDE 46: The assessment for this module consists of 10 items found on under Activity 7. A passing score would be 7 out of 10 correct. Activity 8: Selected References and Selected Websites.

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