Presentation on theme: "The University of Texas at Tyler Dr. Marilyn Young MANA3311 –Organizational Behavior & Leadership: Chapters 12, 3,5, 6 & 7 College of Business and Technology."— Presentation transcript:
What Managers Do Managerial Activities Make decisions Allocate resources Direct activities of others to attain goals Managerial Activities Make decisions Allocate resources Direct activities of others to attain goals
PlanningControlling LeadingOrganizing The Functions of Management
The Roles of Management InformationalInterpersonal Decisional
E X H I B I T 1-1a Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
E X H I B I T 1-1b Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
E X H I B I T 1-1c Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
The Skills That Managers Need The Skills That Managers Need TechnicalTechnicalHumanHumanConceptualConceptual
Katz’s Essential Management Skills Technical Skills –The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Human Skills –The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups Conceptual Skills –The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
Managerial Activities TraditionalManagement Networking Communication Managing Human Resources
E X H I B I T 1-2 Allocation of Activities by Time
The Study of Organizational Behavior Individual Group Organization Study of OrganizationalBehavior Social Psychology Political Science Anthropology Psychology Sociology
Levels of OB Analysis Individuals Groups Structures
Challenges and Opportunity for OB Responding to Economic Pressures Responding to Globalization Managing Workforce Diversity Improving Customer Service Improving People Skills Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with Temporariness
Challenges and Opportunity for OB Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work- Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior Creating a Positive Work Environment Improving Ethical Behavior
Domestic Partners Domestic Partners Major Workforce Diversity Categories Race Race Non-Christian Non-Christian National Origin National Origin Age Age Disability Disability Gender Gender
Improving People Skills Personal Insight Workplace Skills Concepts and Theories
Empowering the Workforce Managers Are Giving Up Controls Workers Are AcceptingResponsibility
Coping with “” Coping with “Temporariness” The Nature of Work Is ChangingOrganizations Are Also Changing
Stimulating Innovation and Change Maintaining flexibility Improving quality Introducing new products and services
Improving Quality and Productivity Total Quality ManagementCorporateReengineering
What Is Quality Management? 1.Intense focus on the customer. 2.Concern for continuous improvement. 3.Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. 4.Accurate measurement. 5.Empowerment of employees. E X H I B I T 1–6
4Provide in-house advisers 4Create protection mechanisms 4Write and distribute codes of ethics 4Give seminars, workshops, & training Improving Ethics
Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
Flexibility Factors Flexibility Factors Strength Factors Strength Factors Other Factors Other Factors Basic Physical Abilities
Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
Other Factors 7.Body coordination 8.Balance 9.Stamina Other Factors 7.Body coordination 8.Balance 9.Stamina Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors 1.Dynamic strength 2.Trunk strength 3.Static strength 4.Explosive strength Strength Factors 1.Dynamic strength 2.Trunk strength 3.Static strength 4.Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 5.Extent flexibility 6.Dynamic flexibility Flexibility Factors 5.Extent flexibility 6.Dynamic flexibility E X H I B I T 2–2 Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.
The Ability-Job Fit Abilities of the employee Requirements of the job
Ability-Job Fit The Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
Biographical Characteristics MaritalStatus Gender Tenure Age
. Age –Older workers bring experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. Gender –Few differences between men and women that affect job performance. Race (the biological heritage used to identify oneself) –Contentious issue: differences exist, but could be more culture- based than race-based.
Methods of Shaping Behavior Methods of Shaping Behavior NegativeReinforcementNegativeReinforcementPositiveReinforcementPositiveReinforcement ExtinctionExtinctionPunishmentPunishment
Reinforcement contingencies - relationships between a person’s behavior and the consequences resulting from it Negative reinforcement (avoidance) people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events Punishment - decreasing undesirable behavior by using undesirable consequences Extinction – no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish in strength Positive reinforcement -people learn to perform behaviors leading to the the desired outcomes
Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude The opinion or belief segment of an attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
What Are Attitudes? Cognitive component Affective component Behavioral component
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Types of Attitudes Job satisfaction Job involvement Organizational commitment
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Job Performance –Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! –The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors –Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Customer Satisfaction –Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism –Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. 3-71
What are the Major Job Attitudes? Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth Psychological Empowerment Influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
And Yet More Major Job Attitudes… Perceived Organizational Support (POS) –Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well- being. –Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. –High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. Employee Engagement –The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. –Engaged employees are passionate –Organizational Commitment
Causes of Job Satisfaction Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. After about $40,000 a year (in the U. S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs.
ProductivityProductivity AbsenteeismAbsenteeism TurnoverTurnover JobSatisfaction and Employee PerformanceJobSatisfaction Performance
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance depends on Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance depends on Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Individuals seek to reduce this gap, or “dissonance”
Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes ? Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true! Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: Importance of elements Degree of individual influence Rewards involved in dissonance
Job Satisfaction How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? –Job satisfaction declined to 50.7% in 2000 –Decline attributed to: Pressures to increase productivity Less control over work
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity –Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. –Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism –Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover –Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. –Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers.
In general, when we think of attitudes and organizations, we think of 1) Job Satisfaction 2) Happiness 3) Job Involvement 4) Mood at work 5) Organizational Commitment 6) 1 and 2 7) 1, 3, and 5 Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes
Ernesto is the known as the Donut Hut King--- every day he brings donuts and coffee to the 1.Job satisfaction 2.Organizational citizenship behavior 3.Productivity 4.Job involvement 5.Conscientiousness Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes Write down three things someone could do at work that would constitute an OCB. Compare your list with a neighbor’s.
What is Personality? The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others; measurable traits a person exhibits. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Personality Determinants Heredity Environment Situation Personality Determinants Heredity Environment Situation
Style of Decision Making Judgmental (J) Perceptive (P) Preference for Decision Making Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Type of Social Interaction Introvert (I) Extrovert (E) Preference for Gathering Data Intuitive (N) Sensing (S) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality Types Extroverted or Introverted (E or I) Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) Thinking or Feeling (T or F) Perceiving or Judging (P or J) Personality Types Extroverted or Introverted (E or I) Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) Thinking or Feeling (T or F) Perceiving or Judging (P or J)
Personality Traits Reserved Less Intelligent Affected by Feelings Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-Minded Outgoing More Intelligent Emotionally Stable Dominant Happy-Go-Lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive
Machiavellianism Conditions Favoring High Machs Direct interaction Minimal rules and regulations Distracting emotions Conditions Favoring High Machs Direct interaction Minimal rules and regulations Distracting emotions
Type A and B Personalities Type A Behavior Pattern - a pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability Type B behavior pattern - a pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style - Type A - overall edge in job performance, especially tasks involving time pressure or solitary work; impatient with coworkers - Type B - perform better on complex tasks that require accuracy rather than speed
Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organizationally relevant? Locus of control Self-monitoringSelf-enhancing Self esteem Machiavellianism Chapter Check-Up: Personality Discuss with your neighbor how each of the three traits above would influence a college instructor’s behavior, and where you think your teacher falls with respect to each of them.
Chapter Check-Up: Personality Alison arrives to class and realizes that she’s forgotten her homework to turn in. She says “Oh man, it’s just not my lucky day today.” Alison has ______________. Alison arrives to class and realizes that she’s forgotten her homework to turn in. She says “Oh man, it’s just not my lucky day today.” Alison has ______________. Alison has a high external locus of control. Alison believes that things outside of her control determine what happens. If Alison works on a team with you, and you have a very high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think the two of you might have? Discuss with a friend.
Julia is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover, she’s at the top of her class. She’s so busy that sometimes, she forgets to stop and eat lunch. Julia can be easily characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality. Chapter Check-Up: Personality
Types of Values TerminalValuesTerminalValuesInstrumentalValuesInstrumentalValues
Generational Values Cohort Entered Workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant Work Values Veterans1950-196465+Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Boomers1965-198540-60sSuccess, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Xers1985-200020-40sWork/life balance, team- oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Nexters2000- Present Under 30Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team- oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships 4-113
Power Distance Low distance: relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance: extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. Vs.
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued. Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women. Vs.
In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with each other. Country J, according to Hofstede’s Framework, is probably low on what dimension? Chapter Check-Up: Values CollectivismCollectivism Long Term OrientationLong Term Orientation Uncertainty AvoidanceUncertainty Avoidance Power DistancePower Distance How would a College or University in Country J differ from your College or University? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a neighbor.
Selective Perception –People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes Halo Effect –Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects –Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Another Shortcut: Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalization Profiling –A form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single, often racial, trait.
Specific Applications in Organizations Employment interview Performance expectations Performance evaluation Employee effort Employee loyalty
Specific Shortcut Applications in Organizations Employment Interview –Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants –Formed in a single glance – 1/10 of a second! Performance Expectations –Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities Performance Evaluations –Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance –Critical impact on employees
Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model E X H I B I T 5-3
Rational Model of Decision Making Problem Identify and Define Problem Develop Alternatives A1A1 A2A2 A3A3 A4A4 AnAn Evaluate Alternatives + A1A1 A1A1 A2A2 A2A2 AnAn AnAn Criteria Weight the Criteria T E C H Set Decision Criteria Choice Make Optimal Decision
The Three Components of Creativity Creativity The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. Three-Component Model of Creativity Proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation. E X H I B I T 5–4 Source: T.M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,” California Management Review, Fall 1997, p. 43.
How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations
Intuitive Decision Making u High uncertainty levels u Little precedent u Hard to predictable variables u Limited facts u Unclear sense of direction u Analytical data is of little use u Several plausible alternatives u Time constraints
What Is Motivation? Direction Persistence Intensity
The Motivation Process UnsatisfiedNeedTension BehaviorDrives SatisfiedNeedReduction of Tension
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Self Actualization ActualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
Early Theories of Motivation These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory –Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs There is a hierarchy of five needs. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Assumptions –Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied –Must move in hierarchical order Lower Order External Higher Order Internal
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
Cognitive Evaluation Theory Goal-Setting Theory –Management by Objectives (MBO) Self-Efficacy Theory –Also known as Social Cognitive Theory or Social Learning Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Contemporary Theories of Motivation 6-156
Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. –Higher efficacy is related to: Greater confidence Greater persistence in the face of difficulties Better response to negative feedback (work harder) –Self-Efficacy complements Goal-Setting Theory. Given Hard Goal Higher Self-Set Goal Increased Confidence Higher Performance
Increasing Self-Efficacy Enactive mastery –Most important source of efficacy –Gaining relevant experience with task or job –“Practice makes perfect” Vicarious modeling –Increasing confidence by watching others perform the task –Most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him- or herself Verbal persuasion –Motivation through verbal conviction –Pygmalion and Galatea effects - self-fulfilling prophecies Arousal –Getting “psyched up” – emotionally aroused – to complete task –Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the task
Theory X Workers Dislike Work Avoid Responsibility Little Ambition Theory Y Workers Enjoy Work Accept Responsibility Self-Directed
Theory X (traditional approach) Theory Y (modern approach) Distrusting Accepting, promotes betterment Orientation toward people Low (disinterested) High (very interested) Interest in working Basically Lazy Need to achieve and be responsible Assumptions about people Work when pushed Work when appropriately trained and recognized Conditions under which people will work hard Theory X Versus Theory Y
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors Quality of supervision Rate of pay Company policies Working conditions Relations with others Job security Quality of supervision Rate of pay Company policies Working conditions Relations with others Job security Career Advancement Personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement Career Advancement Personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0
Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction Quality of supervision Pay Company policies Physical working conditions Relations with others Job security Hygiene factors Job Dissatisfaction Promotion opportunities Opportunities for personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement Motivators Job Satisfaction
Job enrichment – a high degree of control determine how to do their jobs vertical job loading Job enlargement expansion of the content of a job more variety does not increase responsibility nor skills horizontal job loading may help to improve job performance Job Design
Alderfer’s ERG Theory ExistenceExistence rowth G rowth RelatednessRelatedness
ERG Theory Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- level need increases. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- level need increases.
The Theory of Needs DavidMcClelland The Theory of Needs DavidMcClelland Need for Achievement(nAch) Achievement(nAch) Power(nPow) Power(nPow) Affiliation(nAff) Affiliation(nAff)
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
Self-Efficacy Self Esteem, which is…. Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. An individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”) Enhances probability that goals will be achieved Not to be confused with:
Reinforcement Theory Consequences Rewards No Rewards Punishment Behavior
Reinforcement Theory Similar to Goal-Setting Theory, but focused on a behavioral approach rather than a cognitive one. –Behavior is environmentally caused –Thought (internal cogitative event) is not important Feelings, attitudes, and expectations are ignored –Behavior is controlled by its consequences – reinforcers –Is not a motivational theory but a means of analysis of behavior –Reinforcement strongly influences behavior but is not likely to be the sole cause
Adams’ Equity Theory Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. –When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – there is no tension as the situation is considered fair –When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness Underrewarded states cause anger Overrewarded states cause guilt –Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity
Ratio Comparison* Employee’s Perception Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes B Inputs B Outcomes B Inputs B Outcomes B Inputs B < = > Inequity (Under-Rewarded) Equity Inequity (Over-Rewarded) * Where A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent. Equity Theory
Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs (slack off) 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs (slack off) 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job)
Social Comparison Person A Person B Outcomes Inputs Outcomes Inputs Angry Guilty Underpayment inequity for Person A Overpayment inequity for Person B Less Than Outcomes Inputs Outcomes Inputs Satisfied Equitable payment for Person A Equitable payment for Person B Equal To Equity Theory Overpayment inequity for Person A Underpayment inequity for Person B Greater Than Outcomes Inputs Outcomes Inputs Guilty Angry
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. Expectancy of performance success Instrumentality of success in getting reward Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes
Self-Efficacy Self Esteem, which is…. Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. An individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”) Enhances probability that goals will be achieved Not to be confused with:
Elizabeth’s boss starts out the day each morning saying, “Bet you wish you didn’t have to be here, huh?” Knowing this, which theory gives us insight as to why Elizabeth may not be motivated at work? Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
Elizabeth’s boss may well be a Theory X manager, as s/he assumes employees don’t like work and/or want to be there. Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
If you study really hard and only get a B on an exam, but your classmate barely studies at all and gets an A, what theory will help explain why you feel less motivated to go to class? Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
What theory would say that this man, who knows he works hard and is performing well, will be motivated by a gym membership for being a high performer? Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
Expectancy Theory. Would a gym membership be considered a motivator or hygiene factor, according to Herzberg? Discuss with a classmate. Chapter Check-Up: Motivation