Presentation on theme: "Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA Present in almost every cell Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent."— Presentation transcript:
Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA
Nuclear DNA Present in almost every cell Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent
Mitochondrial DNA Each cell contains thousands of mt, each containing copies of its DNA Mt DNA is in larger quantities in a cell Nuclear DNA is larger in size
Mt DNA is 16,569 bases in length and consists of 2 different regions Coding Region –Produces 13 proteins, 22tRNAs, 2rRNAs needed for cell respiration –This region has very little variability –So everyone’s DNA in this region will be nearly the same sequence of TGCAs
Coding Region DNA RNA Protein Trait
Control Region This region is highly variable within the human population Consists of 2 subregions HV1 = 342 bpHV2 = 268
Mt DNA is inherited from mom Every sibling will get their mt DNA from their mother Why?
Egg contains 23 chromosomes and cell cytoplasm which contains thousands of maternal mt Sperm contains 23 chromosomes with very little cytoplasm
Zygote = Fertilized Egg When egg and sperm join only female mt survive and are passed onto to new baby.
Maternal Inheritance Pattern with Mt DNA
Mutations occur in the control region of mt DNA at a regular rate and are passed onto children by the mom.
We can compare DNA from the controlling region to other living humans –See how related to you are to each other Compare to prehistoric remains of human fossils –Identify where you DNA originated –Identify ancestral relationships between modern populations Compare your highly variable regions to other species
Mitochondrial Eve Oldest women who would have donated her mtDNA to every ancestor in the world Comparisons can be made by how many variations exist between her DNA and your DNA.
1.Isolate DNA from cheek cells 2.Complete a PCR reaction –Produce millions of extra copies of HV1 on the control region of mtDNA 3.Send amplified DNA away to be sequenced (Identify the exact sequence of TGCAs in HV1 in your mtDNA) 4.Compare your sequence ot classmates and database of prehistoric DNA
1. Isolating DNA
2. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
3. Sequencing DNA Identify the exact sequence of nitrogen bases in HV1 region
4. Making Comparisons Using a database you will compare your mt DNA with: your classmates prehistoric DNA taken from fossilized human remains. other species