Pre-writing Know your topic: You can’t write well on a topic if you don’t have any background knowledge about it. Before you begin writing: – Gather sources and information about your topic. – Read about your topic (prompt).
Brainstorming After you decide on a topic, brainstorm for reasons/points for the topic. Use a circle map to brainstorm. Put the main idea (reason for writing) in the middle. Put everything you can think about this main idea in the outer circle. In the frame of reference, write where you located, or gathered, your information. (ex. Self, teacher, textbook, etc.)
Put Main Idea in the Center. Put your reasons for your main idea in the outer circle. Frame of reference: Put your references here.
Choosing points Decide on the three best reasons/points that support your main idea. Make sure your points are varied, different from one another, so that they don’t overlap causing redundancy (repeated ideas). Circle the 3 main points you selected on your circle map.
Choosing points Decide on the three best points and put them in order of importance, from least important to most important, on a flow map. Least Greatest
Opening Paragraph Refer to p. 3 in writing folder. Follow instructions for writing an opening paragraph. Needed parts: 1.Attention getter 2.Main idea statement (by itself) 3.Thesis statement (3 reasons)
Attention getters 1.Ask a question. 2.Make a statement. 3.Give a startling statistic or fact. 4.Tell a short story (anecdote). 5.Use a quote. 6.Define a term.
Opening Paragraph Organization 1. Attention getting sentence 2. Main idea sentence 3. Thesis statement. Example: “Splish! Splash!” went the water as I dove in the shimmering, emerald blue pool. I adore swimming. Swimming is my hobby because it is relaxing, it exercises the body, and it is challenging.
Opening Continued: Sample 2 Ready to experience Southern hospitality at its best? I did during my vacation to Atlanta; it is my favorite vacation spot. I got to visit the Coca Cola Company, tour Martin Luther King’s museum, and shop at the underground mall.
Coherence and Organization Check Three markers needed in different colors Students switch papers (if you desire) 1.Do I/ does my classmate have a main idea or claim? 2.Is my/her/his main idea clear? 3.Do I/ does my classmate have supporting points? Are they appropriate? 4.Is there missing information?
After the Introduction, develop ELABORATION. This is when you provide an explanation and examples to support (back up) your reasons. (1)Transitional word/phrase and topic sentence reason from thesis. (2)Explanation sentence (3)Example sentence(s) (4) Closing sentence Your paragraphs should have at least 4 sentences in this order!
Topic sentences: A topic sentence tells the reader what a specific paragraph will discuss. You have already written the topic sentence for each paragraph when you wrote the thesis statement. A topic sentence should be preceded by a transitional word/phrase. (To begin with, next, finally, for example)
Sample Topic Sentence: Thesis Statement: Reading is my favorite hobby because it is inexpensive, I can choose the topic, and I can do it at my own pace. 1.To begin, reading is my favorite hobby because it is inexpensive.
2 nd Sample Topic Sentence: Thesis Statement: Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company, tour Martin Luther King’s museum, and shop at the underground mall. 1 st paragraph topic sentence (transition), Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I visited the Coca Cola Company.
Sample Topic Sentences, continued Thesis Statement: Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company, tour Martin Luther King’s museum, and shop at the underground mall. 2 nd paragraph topic sentence (transition), Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I had an opportunity to tour Martin Luther King’s museum.
Sample Topic Sentences, continued Thesis Statement: Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company, tour Martin Luther King’s museum, and shop at the underground mall. 3 rd paragraph topic sentence (transition), Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because of the underground mall.
Explanation & Examples This is the most time-consuming step. The explanation must always be followed by an example. The reader should have a clear idea of what you mean after this step. The purpose of explanations and examples is to support your main point/reason.
Explanation Example Explanation Example
You need three sheets of loose leaf Topic sentence= Transition +Topic sentence Skip two lines Explanation= Transition + Define/clarify Skip four lines Example= Transition + Story
After the Intro, develop Elaboration This is when you provide an explanation and examples to support (back up) your reasons. (1)Transition, topic sentence reason from thesis. (2)Explanation sentence. (3)Example sentence(s). (4)Closing sentence. Should have at least 4 sentences in this order!
Explanation (To Explain) To explain means to give specific details for something to make it clear to the reader what you are attempting to say. It is helpful to use transitions like: By this I mean, to explain, this means that
Explanation Explanation is your own personal definition/meaning to your topic sentence. The text can be used as an explanation of your topic sentence. Generally, the text should be used to explain what you mean by the topic sentence and include your own personal twist.
Sample Body Paragraph Including an Explanation Sentence: To begin, Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company. We toured different rooms that depicted different times in the history of the Coca Cola Company. Notice, I made it clear what I mean by “toured.” I provided my own personal meaning for it.
Examples Examples should be specific illustrations (stories) of what you have said in your topic sentence and explanation. Examples could include: Your personal experience with the topic Other’s personal experience with the topic A hypothetical (imaginary) personal experience with the topic Text example
Sample Body Paragraph Including an Example Sentence: To begin, Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company. I toured different rooms that depicted different times in the history of the Coca Cola Company. For example, while visiting a room that looked like a long ago drugstore, I was shown how the cola was mixed by the pharmacist. It was entertaining to watch the pharmacist mix up the coke like a scientist in a laboratory.
Transitions Insert transitions at the beginning of each paragraph. Insert transitions within the actual paragraphs (before explanations and examples). You should have several varied (different) transitions.
Closing Paragraph The closing paragraph must have a minimum of (3) sentences: 1.Paraphrase the main idea sentence from the opening paragraph. 2.Paraphrase the thesis statement (3 points) from the opening paragraph. 3.Closing statement: most important idea, thought, or feeling to leave the reader with. (Can be more than one sentence)
Closing Paragraph To write a high-quality closing paragraph, you have to look at the opening paragraph. Remember a closing paragraph is a summary of the major points of your essay. These major points are included in the opening.
Opening Continued: Sample 2 Are you ready to experience Southern hospitality at its best? I did during my vacation to Atlanta. It is my favorite vacation spot. I got to visit the Coca Cola Company, tour Martin Luther King’s museum, and shop at the underground mall.
Closing Paragraph To summarize, visiting Atlanta was just a dream come true. The Coca Cola Company presented me with many milestones in Coke’s history. I will never forget how connected I felt to Black history at the MLK museum, and the underground mall was a bizarre treat. Atlanta is the place to go if someone wants none ending exploration.
Rough Draft Copy the information from your maps into five paragraphs: 1.Indent: Introductory paragraph 2.Indent: 1 st point body paragraph 3.Indent: 2 nd point body paragraph 4.Indent: 3 rd point body paragraph 5.Indent: Closing paragraph
Bowtie & Clincher Sentence Each body paragraph needs a bowtie sentence. This is the last sentence in each body paragraph. So you should have three: one for each body paragraph! It is a summary of the main topic discussed in the paragraph. WARNING: YOU CAN’T DO THIS UNTIL THE ROUGH DRAFT PHASE because the information from the body paragraph mapping must be written out. (1)Transition, topic sentence including reason from thesis. (2)Explanation sentence (define). (3)Example sentences (story). (4)Closing sentence.
Sample closing sentence for positive influence essay: Paragraph 1 To begin, April is a positive influence because she is supportive. In other words, April gives great advice that helps me get out of sticky situations. For instance, I lost my mom’s wedding ring one summer. I was panicked. I called April and she instantly came rushing over to rescue me. After helping me retrace my steps, we found the ring nestled among some clothes in the laundry basket. April has really gotten me out of some tough spots.
2 nd paragraph In addition to April’s being supportive, she is also a positive influence because she is creative. To clarify, she believes every problem has a solution. One just has to try and find it. Notably, I wanted to join the military when I got out of school, but could not lose the 20 pounds to meet the weight requirement. April had me tape a picture of my chubby self and a picture of the army emblem on the fridge. Every time I wanted to snack, I saw my goal. I lost the weight and was so excited. I can always plan on April to have a plan of action.
3 rd paragraph Most importantly, April is a positive influence because she is motivated. April never gives up on her dreams. She finds a way to make them a reality. For example, April became pregnant while in college, but she did not let that stop her from graduating the next semester in Accounting. April always meets her goal no matter the obstacles.
Sample Body Paragraph Including a Closing Sentence: To begin, Atlanta is my favorite vacation spot because I got to visit the Coca Cola Company. We toured different rooms that depicted different times in the history of the Coca Cola Company. For example, We visited a room that looked like a long ago drugstore and was shown how the cola was mixed by the pharmacist. Visiting the plant was a highlight of my trip.
Tips for Drafting For the first draft, only focus on getting your ideas on paper in a logical order. Put a question mark over a word and in the margin if you can’t remember how to spell a word.
Tips for Drafting Once you finish, 1.Go back and look for outlawed words. 2.Replace them with better, more descriptive words. 3.Use more examples or strengthen examples (add more detail). 4.Use transitions to glue your ideas together.
Pair Goals 1.Orally rehearse- read your essay to your partner; if you notice errors, stop & edit. 2.Proofread and initial that you agree that the section is free of each error in a paragraph.
Revising P 21: THERE SHOULD BE NO COLORS, 3-5, IN THE INTRO OR CLOSING! 1.outlawed words- Highlight in ANY COLOR (OL) 2.IN RED INK, CROSS OUT repeated words and attempt to replace with other words. 3.Underline explanation with a red pen. If missing write “NO EXPLANATION in RED in the margin”. 4.Underline examples with green. “NO EXAMPLE in GREEN in the margin”. 5.Underline other/extra elaboration & CLOSING SENTENCES with blue. If missing write NO CLOSE 6.Circle transitions with orange. They should have at least 7! 7.Circle with red pen & write (AWK) over Awkwardly written sentence. 8.Circle words in purple that are used wrong in write (WC) over them.
EDITING CHECKLIST (PEER EDIT) USING A RED PEN/MARKER/COLORED PENCIL Use proofreading marks to find 1.Agreement problems- sub/verb, pronoun, ant 2.Tense problems- past tense, present tense, etc. 3.Grammar problems- using a noun where an adjective should be 4.Punctuation problems 5.Spelling errors 6.Word choice errors (wc)- homophones, homonyms, term does not fit the meaning of the sentence 7.Revise as necessary (Editing may cause you to have to rewrite a total sentence for coherence.) PLEASE USE THE PROOFREADING MARKS ON P. 7 & 8
FINAL DRAFTS DUE _____________ Please get writing folder from shelf. RETURN TO PAIRS FROM YESTERDAY. Make sure your name & your partner’s name is on your proofreading list. RESUME PEER EDITING. ONCE, PEER EDITING COMPLETED, 1.HANDWRITERS CAN BEGIN TO WRITE FINAL DRAFT. 2.TYPERS CAN BEGIN A READING LOG OR BEGIN A NEAT FINAL DRAFT TO TYPE.
Publish Publish using Microsoft Word or handwrite MLA Format (if typed) Use spell check (if typed) Read essay carefully to find any typos or convention problems.
If typing, follow the following rules: Heading (top left): Name ELA Ms. Walker Date (Place Title Here & Centered) Use Times New Roman Use 12 point font & 1’’ margins Double space No pictures, color ink, frilly junk, etc.
Congratulations! You have just completed: Well-structured Well -elaborated LEAP-passing ESSAY!
Please put items in the following order : 1.Rubric (put # in the top right corner) 2.Final draft 3.Rough draft (color-coded) 4.Editing Checklist 5.Revising Checklist 6.Mapping packet 7.Other mapping (TOPIC SENT PACKET- STAPLED ON LOOSE LEAF) Staple in the above order & pass it to the front. **Slide info. may vary.