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Episodic Memory (memory for episodes; also called autobiographical memory) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Episodic Memory (memory for episodes; also called autobiographical memory) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Episodic Memory (memory for episodes; also called autobiographical memory) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory Memory for natural settings

2 Episodic Memory (memory for episodes) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory Memory for natural settings

3 Memory impliciations for natural settings top-down influences schemas scripts thematic effects memory distortions misinformation effects false memory with strong confidence

4 Top-down influences schema (plural: schemata) framework of past experiences integrate new info into framework

5 Top-down influences schema (plural: schemata) framework of past experiences integrate new info into framework script (a type of schema) organised set of events that occur consistently as a part of a larger whole use the script to help process the larger event (classroom script, restaurant script, show script)

6 script (a type of schema) organised set of events that occur consistently as a part of a larger whole use the script to help process the larger event (classroom script, restaurant script, show script) frames – details within the script u

7 script (a type of schema) unmentioned (unknown) details in an event filled in by default values (i.e., what usually happens) predicts that memory errors should occur e.g., miss lecture; classmate fills you in on the lecture u

8 script (a type of schema) predicts that memory errors should occur e.g., miss lecture; classmate fills you in on the lecture Did Jones have a demonstration in his lecture?

9 script (a type of schema) predicts that memory errors should occur e.g., miss lecture; classmate fills you in on the lecture Did Jones have a demonstration in his lecture?... likely to answer “yes” even though classmate didn’t say anything about it

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13 script (newer term for schema) Script Pointer Plus Tag hypothesis atypical events tagged added to overall memory memory for unusual events details should be quite good (probably better than usual events after a correction for guessing because the unusual events are not likely to be guessed)

14 Top-down influences thematic effects intitial information (e.g. title or name) can influence how we process and later remember information

15 ___________’s seizure of power. ____________strove to undermine the existing government to satisfy his political ambitions. Many of the people of his country supported his efforts. Sulin and Dooling (1974)

16 Gerald Martin’s seizure of power. Gerald Martin strove to undermine the existing government to satisfy his political ambitions. Many of the people of his country supported his efforts.

17 Adolf Hitler’s seizure of power. Adolf Hitler strove to undermine the existing government to satisfy his political ambitions. Many of the people of his country supported his efforts.

18 5 minutes later a recognition test Lure (new sentence) “Gerald Martin was obsessed by the desire to conquer the world.” “Adolf Hitler was obsessed by the desire to conquer the world.” Participants more frequently indicated (incorrectly) that the Hitler sentence was identical to one presented earlier. Knowledge about Hitler influenced memory for the story.

19 Kintsch (1974) suggests that thematic effects reflect different aspects of memory reproduction – accurate recall construction – inferences made during encoding reconstruction – incorporate knowledge on post hoc basis later recall the reconstruction, not the original

20 Memory for natural settings top-down influences schemas scripts thematic effects memory distortions misinformation effects false memory with strong confidence

21 ball

22 Loftus & Palmer (1974) Phase 1: showed film of car accident Phase 2: subjects estimated speed of the car

23 Loftus & Palmer (1974) Phase 1: showed film of car accident Phase 2: subjects estimated speed of the car Manipulation: in the test, used different verbs to describe the accident How fast were the cars going when they _____________ each other? Verbs: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted

24 Loftus and Palmer (1974) Results: Speed estimate by verb condition. ConditionSpeed Estimate (mph) smashed40.8 collided39.3 bumped38.1 hit34.0 contacted31.8

25 Loftus and Palmer (1974) Type of verb clearly influenced the speed estimate. More powerful verbs produced higher speed estimates. semantic influence of verb on memory Experiment 2 Verbs: smashed, hit, or no speed estimate (control) one week after received follow up questions e.g., Did you see any broken glass?

26 Loftus and Palmer (1974) Results: Proportion of Ps giving a “yes” response. Condition“Yes” saw broken glass smashed.32 hit.14 control.12

27 Loftus and Palmer (1974) Results: Proportion of Ps giving a “yes” response. Condition“Yes” saw broken glass smashed.32 hit.14 control.12 Verb influenced not only speed estimates but memory for details of the event. False memory for broken glass.

28 Interference paradigm A-B, A-D paradigm learn a list of unrelated pairs of words (A-B) orchid – terrace later learn list of unrelated pairs of words (A-D) re-pair 1 st word with new word orchid – martini or learn a list of new unrelated pairs (C-D; control) pebble – martini

29 Interference paradigm A-B, A-D paradigm (Ashcraft uses A-B, A-C) learn a list of unrelated pairs of words (A-B) orchid – terrace later learn list of unrelated pairs of words (A-D) re-pair 1 st word with new word orchid – martini or learn a list of new unrelated pairs (C-D; control) pebble – martini finally get a test for B term; A - e.g., orchid -

30 Interference paradigm A-B, A-D paradigm finally get a test for B term; A - e.g., orchid - compared to learning C-D pairing, learning of A-D pairing hurts ability to recall B with A as the cue (A - ????) that is for recall of A - ???? (where B is the answer) A-B, A-D < A-B, C-D retroactive interference

31 Interference paradigm What causes retroactive interference? A – B forgotten? unlearning B, D competeresponse competition Interference theorists obtained pretty good evidence against unlearning but support for response competition.

32 Misinformation effect (Loftus et al., 1978) Phase 1: Slide sequence of car being driven critical item seen (stop sign) Phase 2: Narrative or no narrative on the event critical misinfo (give way sign) Phase 3: Forced choice RGN test stop orgive way ?

33 Misinformation effect (Loftus et al., 1978) Proportion of subjects choosing the stop sign. Stop Control group.75 Misinfo group.41 (Stop was correct.)

34 Misinformation effect (Loftus et al., 1978) Proportion of subjects choosing the stop sign. Stop Control group.75 Misinfo group.41 (Stop was correct) Clearly, poorer performance in misinfo group. Loftus et al.: original memory impaired (obliterated)

35 Misinformation effect (Loftus et al., 1978) A-BPhase 1: Slide sequence of car being driven critical item seen (stop sign) A-DPhase 2: Narrative or no narrative on the event critical misinfo (give way sign) Phase 3: Forced choice RGN test stop orgive way ?... can’t tell whether unlearning or response competition.

36 Misinformation effect (McKlosky & Zaragosa, 1985) Phase 1: Slide sequence of car being driven critical item seen (stop sign) Phase 2: Narrative or no narrative on the event critical misinfo (give way sign) Phase 3: Forced choice RGN test stop or give way stop orschool crossing ? Neutral lure (equivalent of C-D) should eliminate response competition.

37 Misinformation effect (McKlosky & Zaragosa, 1985) Proportion of subjects choosing the stop sign. Stop/Give WayStop/School Crossing Control group Misinfo group (6 experiments) No evidence for unlearning. Evidence for response competition.

38 demo

39 Memory for natural settings top-down influences schemas scripts thematic effects memory distortions misinformation effects false memory with strong confidence

40 Memory for natural settings false memory with strong confidence DRM paradigm Deese (1959) Roediger & McDermott (1995) list of strong associates of a critical word that is NOT presented high false recall (and high false recognition) for critical lure

41 Memory for natural settings Roediger & McDermott (1995) “all remembering is constructive... ” in this case, associative responses are likely activated during encoding, providing the illusion that they were presented Important: Just because someone reports details or is confident (or both) does not mean that a memory is accurate

42 Memory for natural settings top-down influences schemas scripts thematic effects memory distortions misinformation effects false memory with strong confidence

43 Episodic Memory (memory for episodes) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory Memory for natural settings


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