Presentation on theme: "George Lawson IR100 - The structure of international society: contemporary international society (week 3) Lecture slides Original citation: Lawson, G."— Presentation transcript:
The Traditional (Coxian) Agenda an anarchical system in which sovereign states are concerned primarily with their own security Westphalia: an intellectual ‘big bang’ – establishes norms of ‘sovereign territoriality’ and non-intervention 1919: a disciplinary ‘big bang’ – establishes a Western IR enterprise concerned with the causes of war and the potential for peace, i.e. the precariousness of order But: hierarchy vs. anarchy global modernity vs. Westphalia and 1919
Global Modernity Industrialization The modern state Ideologies of progress Image Placeholder Image: Cartoon globe with buildings and flying objects. Subscription resource: No URL: https://encrypted- tbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTTPR8i4Yl qq3Cb2Pp5UZjn7QeWMyIx0DHqDiB1vKMkxdTySi ML Edited: No This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party.
The Industrial Revolution Extension world market, e.g. global trade x25 British power: 20% of world’s industrial output 1890; FDI rises from $500 million 1825 to $19.5 billion 1914; colonization – Britain conquers 100,000 square miles/year Migration: 50 million Europeans emigrate million laborers leave India, China, Malaya, Java
The Modern State Permanent bureaucracies and militaries, e.g. state personnel Prussia/Germany from 55,000-1 million, Infrastructure and communications, e.g. sending messages from Britain to India 1830s: 6 months via sailing ship 1850s: 1 month via rail and steamship 1870s: 1 day via telegraph 1900s: simultaneous via telephone
The Invention of Progress Great international exhibitions, e.g. Philadelphia 1876 Modern universities, e.g. LSE established 1895 Academic disciplines, e.g. IR established … when? Ideologies Liberalism Socialism Racism Standards of civilization
Key points Interconnections drive historical development Relations between societies intensify Differences between societies magnify The result: a power shift from Asia to Europe/the west a power gap between states at the forefront of the great transformation and those without industrialization, modern statehood and ideologies of progress a core-periphery international order
A New Power Shift? Image Placeholder Image: G. John Ikenberry Subscription resource: No URL: dva9p8yk6pqdg43affntccty Edited: No This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party.
The Liberal Ascendancy Modernity = Liberal Autocracies = Weak Liberalism binds states into systems of mutual cooperation and mutual advantage ‘The liberal imagination is vast and the ideas and designs for liberal international order are extraordinarily wide ranging. At its most basic, liberal internationalism offers a vision of an open, rule-based system in which states trade and cooperate to achieve mutual gains.’
Hmmm. Maybe. But then again … Differences within liberalism, e.g. Europe vs. US The solution to the crisis of liberalism is … more liberalism? The dark side of liberalism: inequality and violence Is Ikenberry right? Rise of BRICS Stability of authoritarian capitalism Shifting centre of gravity within world economy
Conclusion – decentred globalism Image Placeholder Image: Map of the world created through social connections. Subscription resource: No URL: d_facebook_world-420x0.jpg Edited: Yes, Facebook logo and date removed. This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party.