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2014 Winter Olympics Pussy Riot Members Attacked by Cossacks Group of Cossacks Attacks Group in Sochi as It Begins Anti-Kremlin Protests Wall Street Journal.

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Presentation on theme: "2014 Winter Olympics Pussy Riot Members Attacked by Cossacks Group of Cossacks Attacks Group in Sochi as It Begins Anti-Kremlin Protests Wall Street Journal."— Presentation transcript:

1 2014 Winter Olympics Pussy Riot Members Attacked by Cossacks Group of Cossacks Attacks Group in Sochi as It Begins Anti-Kremlin Protests Wall Street Journal Feb 20 2014 392871818611650?mg=reno64- wsj& 052702304914204579392871818611650.html

2 Watch the video in the church: Pussy Riot whipped at Sochi Games by Cossacks The Economics of Pussy Riot on YouTube economics-of-pussy-riot-on-youtube Russia's Pussy Riot disowns freed pair

3 eat/19096360


5 2013/how-i-meteored-your-motherland





10 pc JDM Style Stainless Steel 2.5" Inlet Dual Double 2" Outlet Tailpipe Exhaust Muffler Tip Transition Pipe Silencer For Volkswagen Ford Chevrolet Buick Fiat Car Sedan Decorative Trimming Remember After the Breakup of the Soviet Union... Russia must go through a dual transition (see handout from SUNY prof)

11 To “crack” the old economic, political and social institutions, they need to crack the auth_________ state but still create a state strong enough to do that and to function,

12 What is evidence that Putin has made state more authoritarian?







19 /vladimir-putin-offers-solution- super-bowl-ring-scandal-19463019 Sen. John McCain to Russian President Vladimir Putin: Give back the Super Bowl ring ews/2013/sep/4/sen-john-mccain- president-putin-give-back-super- bo/

20 Parties in 2011 parl elections: In pictures: Russia votes

21 The Duma has 450 seats. Parties not making the Duma's 5% threshold: Yabloko, 3.3%, Patriots of Russia 0.97%, Right Cause 0.59% Source: Electoral Commission. Results are based on 96% of the vote. Turnout was 60%. See also: Results:,_2011,_2011 Video of protests: By the Way NGOs observing in US: texas_n_2079150.html texas_n_2079150.html

22 Pussy Riot wear brightly colored balaclavas and use only nicknames during interviews. stage unauthorized provocative guerrilla performances in unusual public locations, which are edited into music videos and posted on the Internet. Their lyrical themes include feminism, LGBT rights, opposition to Russian President Vladimir Putin, whom they regard as a dictator, and links between the leadership of the Russian Orthodox Church and Putin Russian feminist punk-rock collective based in Moscow. Founded in August 2011

23 After time in custody, On August 17, 2012, three members were convicted of hooliganism motivated by religious hatred, and each was sentenced to two years imprisonment The trial and sentence attracted considerable criticism, particularly in the West. The case was adopted by human rights groups including Amnesty International, which designated the women prisoners of conscience, and by a wide range of musicians including Madonna, Sting, and Yoko Ono. Public opinion in Russia was generally less sympathetic towards the women Interviewed On February 21, 2012, five members of the group staged a performance on the steps of Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Their actions were stopped by church security officials. By evening, they had turned it into a music video entitled "Punk Prayer - Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!". The women said their protest was directed at the Orthodox Church leader's support for Putin during his election campaign.

24 Russia votes Inauguration in pictures europe-17983003 europe-17983003


26 Although... Electoral system? Compare to 1996: php php

27 The never-ending presidency IT HAS always been a question of how, not if, Vladimir Putin would retain power in Russia when his second, and (according to the constitution) final presidential term runs out in March 2008. This week Mr Putin lifted the veil. At a congress of the pro-Kremlin United Russia party, he graciously agreed to head its party list at the general election in December. He added that he may become prime minister if the party wins the election and the president is a man he can work with. United Russia is sure to win and, since Mr Putin will hand-pick the president, he will presumably get along with him. So this charade has only one meaning: Mr Putin is staying on, probably for a very long time.

28 SO here’s the order: Lot’s of talk about whether Putin will run for a third consec term but C_________ clearly says no... Good news for democ... He doesn’t so hooray for ________ of ________ Fall 2007, Putin says he won’t run for pres, but he will “head the ticket” for __________ ____________ party Mr. Putin said that he would lead the ticket of Russia’s dominant party in parliamentary elections

29 Then there are Duma elections in Dec: Guess which party gets a majority?

30 Mr. Medvedev and Mr. Putin appear together on campaign posters over Manezh Square near the Kremlin with the slogan, "Together we will win." The outcome of the month-long presidential campaign on Sunday, when voters will cast ballots, is already known. Barring something extraordinary and unforeseen, Mr. Medvedev will win by a landslide and become the Kremlin's new leader Then... The campaign for presidency....

31 Putin Protégé Secures Election Victory Dmitri A. Medvedev, right, attended a post-election event in Moscow with President Vladimir V. Putin on Sunday Then Pres elections in March—________________wins and guess who he appts PM?

32 Dmitry Medvedev takes the Presidential Oath whilst placing his right hand on the Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution. http://www.departments.bucknell.e du/russian/const/ch4.html




36 After Medvedev is in for 4 years....

37 The vote was shown Friday in the State Duma, which passed the first reading of a bill to extend the Russian president’s term.

38 Bill to Extend Russian President’s Term Advances By ELLEN BARRY MOSCOW Nov 15 2008— As a bill extending Russia’s presidency to six years from four barreled through the Russian legislature on Friday, it fell to the old-timers from the Communist Party to put up a fight.Russia “Why do we have to do this today?”Viktor I. Ilyukhin, a Communist legislator, said during discussions Friday in the State Duma, the lower house of Parliament. “Why are we in such a hurry? A strict authoritarian regime has already been established in this country. There is already an unprecedented concentration of power in one person’s hands.” Political opposition leaders have been harshly critical of the proposed change, which is almost assured of becoming law, but opposition parties have little presence in the Duma, and on Friday, the Communists were virtually the only dissenters. In the end, the bill sailed through its first reading in the Duma, passing by a vote of 388 to 58. Fifty-seven of those votes were from Communists, who unanimously opposed the change. The measure must pass two more readings in the lower house, and also be approved by majorities in the upper house and Russia’s regional parliaments. Vladimir Kashin, left, and Gennadi A. Zyuganov of the Russian Communist Party during the debate on extending the term.

39 Duma deputies applaud the passing of legislation that would lengthen the presidential term in November 2008 But don’t think Duma is worthless

40 Russia's Medvedev Inks Law Extending Presidency Move Seen As Paving Way For Vladimir Putin's Return Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, left, and President Dmitry Medvedev. (File Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev has signed a law extending presidential terms from four years to six, the Kremlin said Tuesday, a move seen as paving the way for Vladimir Putin's return to the presidency. Medvedev's final endorsement of the legislation follows its quick approval by the Kremlin-controlled parliament and all of Russia's 83 provincial legislatures. If enacted, the change would not apply to Medvedev's current term, due to end in 2012. Putin, who remains very popular, was barred constitutionally from seeking a third straight term as president. He tapped his longtime protege Medvedev as his favored successor, ensuring Medvedev's landslide election in March

41 Putin Announces Run For President in 2012 And then... Last updated on: September 23, 2011 8:00 PM Russia's President and Prime Minister have unveiled a plan to switch jobs next year. Ending months of intense speculation, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin agreed Saturday that he would run for a third term as President next March. Putin previously served as Russian president from 2000 to 2008. Given Kremlin control of the media and political parties, the 58-year-old leader is all but guaranteed to win again this time. Russia's Constitution has changed and now allows two six-year presidential terms, so a victory could open the doors to a Putin quarter century. If he wins two presidential terms he would be in office until 2024. In recent history, only Joseph Stalin ruled Russia for a similar span.

42 Putin’s Russia Call back yesterday Twelve years after his first election, Vladimir Putin is becoming president of Russia again. The country is a lot harder to control now March 3, 2012

43 Influx of Siloviki As in the days of the KGB, the secret service has become powerful

44 Political clans are entrenched in the Kremlin A number of political clans, rather than political parties, act as distinct and independent political forces in Russia. After the president, Vladimir Putin, removed the last high-profile members of the Yeltsin-era "Family" from power, the siloviki became by far the most prominent political class. According to a study published in 2003, the siloviki—members of the security services, the military and the police—at the time occupied almost 60% of all power positions in Russia, compared with less than 5% during Mikhail Gorbachev's rule. Although the siloviki do not constitute a coherent group, they share a belief in the need for a strong state and a distaste for the wealth and influence acquired by Russia's business oligarchs How come I classify this as “elite recruitment?”



47 As Gazprom Goes, So Goes Russia a pipeline to bring natural gas from Siberia to market As the Kremlin tries to regain influence, the energy giant Gazprom is ballooning. In February, a worker in central Russia helped prepare

48 Mr. Medvedev was sworn in as president on Wednesday, after winning the election in early March, and his ascent confirms that in today’s Russia, the line separating big business and the state is becoming so fine that it’s almost nonexistent. Gazprom and the government have long had a close relationship, but the revolving door between them is spinning especially fast this year: Mr. Medvedev, 42, replaces Mr. Putin as president; Mr. Putin becomes prime minister, replacing Viktor A. Zubkov; and Mr. Zubkov is expected to take Mr. Medvedev’s place as Gazprom’s chairman at a general shareholders meeting in June.Viktor A. Zubkov... It’s hard to overemphasize Gazprom’s role in the Russian economy. It’s a sprawling company that raked in $91 billion last year; it employs 432,000 people, pays taxes equal to 20 percent of the Russian budget and has subsidiaries in industries as disparate as farming and aviation. The company is a major supplier of natural gas to Europe, and it is becoming an important source of gas to fast-growing Asian markets like China and South Korea. In 2005, at the urging of the Kremlin, it bought Russia’s fifth-largest oil company from the tycoon Roman A. Abramovich. If crude oil and natural gas are considered together, Gazprom’s combined daily production of energy is greater than that of Saudi Arabia Especially important excerpts:...

49 Gazprom says that many of the investments that critics once labeled political, such as the purchase of television stations and newspapers, have in fact turned out highly profitable. Now Russian leaders consider Gazprom the template for a new industrial policy. In a globalized world, their thinking goes, strategic Russian companies should be controlled by the government, yet open to the capital and skill of Western investors — just as Gazprom is. It’s a throwback to the Soviet economic model, with an emphasis on gigantism and economies of scale and faith in the pricing power of monopolies. Under Mr. Putin, oil companies were brought back under the Kremlin’s control, and dozens of state-controlled but publicly listed corporations sprung up in industries like energy, metals, aviation and auto manufacturing.


51 Apartment buildings near Krasnaya Polyana are part of an elite ski resort being built by Gazprom, the Russian state gas monopoly nYT 4/24/2006 PetroKremlin” A vast state-run energy conglomerate has been assembled over the past year, some experts say, to fuel Russia's bid to revive Soviet-style great power status. To date, the Kremlin has effectively renationalized almost a third of the formerly private oil-and-gas sector. Other developments also point to growing state ambitions



54 will-not-take-part-in-olympics-46490 24 June 2013 Last updated at 20:10 ET Share this page FIVE years on, Georgia makes up with Russia m/news/world- europe-23010526


56 The Citizen and the State

57 It’s federal.... But it is “asymmetrical federalism The federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—______delegates each—in ________ _________ They do, however, differ in the degree of _________________they enjoy. See SUNY profs explanation in handout

58 Federalism in Russia: The “Vertical of Power” Putin issued an executive decree that re-imposed Moscow’s authority over Russia’s 89 regions and republic by breaking the country into 7 new administrative sections, each headed by its own Kremlin representative “super governors”. Laws gave the president the power to remove a governor if s/he refuses to harmonize local law with national law or the constitution and to sack elected governors and dissolve local legislatures. September 2004: law replaces the election of governors, presidents and other regional leaders with presidential appointments subject to approval by local legislatures eliminates smd for Duma (which helped regional parties and independents)

59 Sergey Ponomarev/Associated Press A woman in a Moscow park reflected a worrying concern in Russia: just one child. Small families are the norm and the population is shrinking. NYT 5/11/2006 Population Policy

60 May 11, 2006 Putin Urges Plan to Reverse Slide in the Birth Rate By C. J. CHIVERSC. J. CHIVERS MOSCOW, May 10 — President Vladimir V. Putin directed Parliament on Wednesday to adopt a 10-year program to stop the sharp decline in Russia's population, principally by offering financial incentives and subsidies to encourage women to have children. Mr. Putin's instructions, issued to a compliant Parliament that follows his orders almost without fail, formed the center of his annual address and signaled a new Kremlin determination to confront a problem that demographers have warned endangers the future of the Russian state. Russia's population, now about 143 million, has been falling since the collapse of the Soviet Union, trimmed by emigration, rising death rates and declining birthrates. Both the government and demographers predict more downward pressure, including H.I.V. infections, that could shrink the population below 100 million by 2050.

61 Russia awards 'order of parental glory' to prolific parents Boosting birthrates is Mr Medvedev's pet cause and has prompted scorn from some quarters It was the gleaming silver gong every idealistic Soviet matron desired: the "Hero Mother" medal conferred on women who bore at least 10 children to serve the nation.

62 The governor of a central province told employers to contribute to a Kremlin campaign to boost the birthrate by giving couples the day off to have sex. And if a woman gives birth in exactly nine months — on Russia’s national day on June 12 — she will qualify for a prize, perhaps even winning a new home. Russia wants to reverse a trend in which the population is shrinking by about 700,000 people a year as births fail to outpace a death rate fueled by AIDS, alcoholism and suicide. This is the third year the Ulyanovsk region, famous as the birthplace of Lenin, has dedicated a day to encouraging couples to produce more babies. Published: September 13, 2007By REUTERS Women posed with their newborn babies in Ulyanovsk, Russia, on Wednesday. Russia: A Day for Making Babies

63 How does Putin crack down on civil society? Tools to control ___________ _________include the______ code (used to investigate sources of income), the process of ________with the authorities, which can be made difficult; and police harassment and arrest on various charges ranging from tax evasion to divulging state secrets

64 Crack down on civil society: Kremlin Puts Foreign NGO’s on Notice MOSCOW, Oct. 19 2006— Scores of foreign private organizations were forced to cease their operations in Russia on Thursday while the government considered whether to register them under a new law that has received sharp international criticism. Among the suspended organizations are some of those most critical of the Kremlin, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, and others, like the National Democratic Institute and the International Republican Institute, that have been accused by Russian officials of instigating or assisting revolutions against other former Soviet republics.

65 Nikita Y. Belykh, right, accepted an appointment as one of the Kremlin's regional governors this month. He said he had felt beaten down as a leading member of Russia's liberal opposition... SO HE HAS BEEN __-________ BY THE STATE... RIGHT? Kremlin Rules Russia’s Liberals Lose Their Voice

66 Maxim Shemetov/Itar-Tass Nikita Y. Belykh, once a Kremlin critic, took a job offered by Prime Minister Vladimir V. Putin.

67 One of Nashi's most prominent rallies featured a trampling of the portraits of Russian human rights activists and opposition leaders. Support for Putin in 2007.... The Kremlin back youth movement: Nashi WATCH /watch?v=CeA6y2vFXg U /watch?v=CeA6y2vFXg U

68 Protests 2011

69 NASHI... today Nashi (Russian: Молодежное демократическое aнтифашистское движение «Наши», Molodezhnoye demokraticheskoye antifashistskoye dvizhenye "Nashi" Youth Democratic Anti-Fascist Movement "Ours!"') is a political youth movement in Russia, [ which declares itself to be a democratic, anti-fascist, anti-'oligarchic-capitalist' movement. Its creation was encouraged by senior figures in the Russian Presidential administration, and by late 2007, it had grown in size to some 120,000 members aged between 17 and 25. On April 6, 2012, the leader of Nashi announced that the movement would be dissolving in the near future, possibly to be replaced by a different organisation. He stated that the movement had been "compromised" during the recent presidential electionRussian [

70 . NASHI TODAY See also kremlin_youth_movement_nashi_to_be_revamped_23621.html kremlin_youth_movement_nashi_to_be_revamped_23621.html And movement-where-will-the-kremlins-youth-go movement-where-will-the-kremlins-youth-go

71 Freedom of Religion Article 14. The Russian Federation shall be a secular state. No religion may be instituted as state- sponsored or mandatory religion. Religious associations shall be separated from the state, and shall be equal before the law.

72 Father Vladimir Pakhachev says children should “know their history and their roots,” and that religion plays a part in that. Welcome or Not, Orthodoxy Is Back in Russia’s Public Schools

73 KOLOMNA, Russia — One of the most discordant debates in Russian society is playing out in public schools like those in this city not far from Moscow, where the other day a teacher named Irina Donshina set aside her textbooks, strode before her second graders and, as if speaking from a pulpit, posed a simple question:Russia “Whom should we learn to do good from?” “From God!” the children said. “Right!” Ms. Donshina said. “Because people he created crucified him. But did he accuse them or curse them or hate them? Of course not! He continued loving and feeling pity for them, though he could have eliminated all of us and the whole world in a fraction of a second.” Nearly two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the return of religion to public life, localities in Russia are increasingly decreeing that to receive a proper public school education, children should be steeped in the ways of the Russian Orthodox Church, including its traditions, liturgy and historic figures. The lessons are typically introduced at the urging of church leaders, who say the enforced atheism of Communism left Russians out of touch with a faith that was once at the core of their identity. The new curriculum reflects the nation’s continuing struggle to define what it means to be Russian in the post-Communist era and what role religion should play after being brutally suppressed under Soviet rule. Yet the drive by a revitalized church to weave its tenets into the education system has prompted a backlash, and not only from the remains of the Communist Party.

74 Opponents assert that the Russian Orthodox leadership is weakening the constitutional separation of church and state by proselytizing in public schools. They say Russia is a multiethnic, pluralistic nation and risks alienating its large Muslim minority if Russian Orthodoxy takes on the trappings of a state religion. The church calls those accusations unfounded, maintaining that the courses are cultural, not religious. In Ms. Donshina’s class at least, the children seem to have their own understanding of a primary theme of the course. “One has to love God,” said Kristina Posobilova. “We should believe in God only.” The dispute came to a head recently when 10 prominent Russian scientists, including two Nobel laureates, sent a letter to President Vladimir V. Putin, protesting what they termed the “growing clericalization” of Russian society. In addition to criticizing religious teachings in public schools, the scientists attacked church efforts to obtain recognition of degrees in theology, and the presence of Russian Orthodox chaplains in the military.Vladimir V. Putin Local officials carry out education policy under Moscow’s oversight, with some latitude. Some regions require the courses in Russian Orthodoxy, while others allow parents to remove their children from them, though they rarely, if ever, do. Other areas have not adopted them.

75 Mr. Putin, though usually not reluctant to overrule local authorities, has skirted the issue. He said in September that he preferred that children learn about religion in general, especially four faiths with longstanding ties to Russia — Russian Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism. But the president, who has been photographed wearing a cross and sometimes attends church services and other church events, did not say current practices should be scaled back. “We have to find a form acceptable for the entire society,” he said. “Let’s think about it together.” Polls show that roughly half to two-thirds of Russians consider themselves Russian Orthodox, a sharp increase since the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Clergy members frequently take part in government events, and people often wear crosses. But Russia remains deeply secular, and most Russians say they never attend church. About 10 to 15 percent of Russians are Muslim, most of whom live in the south, though Moscow and other major cities have large Muslim populations. With emigration and assimilation, the Jewish population has dwindled to a few hundred thousand people, of 140 million. Muslim and Jewish leaders have generally opposed Russian Orthodoxy courses, though some say schools should be permitted to offer them as extracurricular activities.


77 The Russian constitution guarantees freedom of religion. In 2006 Mr. Putin said, "In modern Russia, tolerance and tolerance for other beliefs are the foundation for civil peace, and an important factor for social progress." But as the Kremlin officially voices support for religious tolerance, Protestant congregations are regularly referred to as "sects" and must obtain official permission before doing any kind of religious outreach. A group known as the Evangelical Baptists is one of the few Protestant groups with an official place of worship, but they were barred from renting a theater for a Christian music festival and are not allowed to hand out toys at an orphanage.

78 Other groups are forced to meet in small private homes like this one, where a congregation of Seventh-day Adventists now meets, after being evicted from their meeting hall by the police.

79 Protestant congregations in Stary Oskol are required to register their churches with the government in order to do anything more than conduct prayer in private homes.

80 Sergei Matyukh, a Lutheran priest, led a prayer in another home service, this one jointly held by a Lutheran group and a Methodist group. The service is held in support of the Methodist group, which was recently shut down by local officials, after several visits by the F.S.B., the successor to the K.G.B.

81 Pastor Vladimir Pakhomov, the leader of the Methodist congregation, tried to register his church with the local government. His registration was rejected, and he lost his court appeal. He could now face arrest for any religious behavior considered proselytizing. "They have made us into lepers to scare people away," he said.

82 The Belgorod region, a Russian Orthodox stronghold, has been on the forefront of a substantial anti-Protestant campaign. In 2001, during Mr. Putin's first term, the region enacted its own law to restrict Protestant proselytizing.... Oooh what a good example of the fact that _______________ism leads to a diversity in public policy

83 A recently opened Orthodox Russian church on the outskirts of Stary Oskol, another sign of the church's dominance in the region

84 B. Crack down on oligarchs See bbc video on oligarchs 16276956

85 Mikhail Khodorkovsky arriving at his trial in Moscow with his ever-present entourage of prison guards. Great slide show: y-t.html?_r=1 y-t.html?_r=1


87 With this new campaign, seemingly aimed at tying up the loose ends before a parliamentary election in the fall that is being carefully stage-managed by the Kremlin, censorship rules in Russia have reached their most restrictive since the breakup of the Soviet Union, media watchdog groups say. “This is not the U.S.S.R., when every print or broadcasting outlet was preliminarily censored,” Masha Lipman, a researcher at the Carnegie Moscow Center, said in a telephone interview. Instead, the tactic has been to impose state ownership on media companies and replace editors with those who are supporters of Mr. Putin — or offer a generally more upbeat report on developments in Russia these days. The new censorship rules are often passed in vaguely worded measures and decrees that are ostensibly intended to protect the public. Late last year, for example, the prosecutor general and the interior minister appeared before Parliament to ask deputies to draft legislation banning the distribution on the Web of “extremist” content — a catch phrase, critics say, for information about opponents of Mr. Putin. On Friday, the Federal Security Service, a successor agency to the K.G.B., questioned Garry Kasparov, the former chess champion and opposition politician, for four hours regarding an interview he had given on the Echo of Moscow radio station. Prosecutors have accused Mr. Kasparov of expressing extremist views.


89 Russian Racism Late last year, polling firm Levada Centre said 53 percent of 1,600 respondents supported the phrase “Russia for the Russians”, while the numbers supporting a limit on immigration were markedly higher than the year beforeA demonstration organized by the Movement Against Illegal Immigration (DPNI) in November saw around 5,000 marching under banners of “Russia for the Russians” and “Russia, forwards Some political groups have flirted with racism, and the Rodina (Motherland) party was barred from Moscow elections last year for a campaign advertisement that said “let’s clean the city of rubbish” over pictures of immigrants from the Caucasus.

90 Russain Racism: candidate 8231647.stm Russian racism 15 minutes ABC report Ultra nationalists 2011 ultranationalists-march-moscow_n_2072359.html

91 Could Russia’s Ultranationalists Subvert Pro-Democracy Protests? World Affairs e/could-russia%E2%80%99s- ultranationalists-subvert-pro-democracy- protests e/could-russia%E2%80%99s- ultranationalists-subvert-pro-democracy- protests

92 Russian Racism CSKA Moscow: Russian side punished again for racist abuse

93 Medvedev Warns Against Ethnic Attacks Riot police officers patrolled Manezh Square in Moscow on Monday, two days after unrest there. Dec 2010 Mr. Medvedev’s statement, delivered in steely tones on national television, attempted to rein in unrest that erupted over the weekend. Thousands of young men massed outside Red Square on Saturday, attacking both police officers and passers-by who had the dark complexions of migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus. Since then, the police have reported beatings, stabbings and shootings of people who were not ethnic Russians, often by groups of young people. Dec 2010 Abc soccer 2010 against caucuses pwPytTQtY pwPytTQtY

94 Russia’s anti-gay law Mr Putin throws bones to his supporters 3/08/russia-s-anti-gay-law—video interview Human rights in Russia Grim to be gay The plight of gays prompts calls for a boycott of the Sochi Olympics

95 Chechnya: an oil rich Islamic break away Republic in the Caucuses Region


97 August and September 1999. A series of apartment-block bombs brought terror to Russian cities, killing nearly 300 people in The attacks came as Russian troops drove Islamic insurgents from Chechnya out of the neighbouring North Caucasian republic of Dagestan. Soon afterwards Russia sent thousands of troops into Chechnya itself to smash the guerrillas. This time the war proved popular with the Russian public who voted in large numbers for the pro-Kremlin Unity party, backed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, in December's parliamentary election.

98 Fall 2002 Chechen rebels seize theatre—rescue is a fiasco; o ver 100 people died from the effects of toxic knockout gas sprayed by security forces into a central Moscow theater, where Chechen fighters - including 19 female shakhidy, or "martyrs" - were holding 800 hostages 2 doctors remove body of female hostage taker Special forces and Interior Ministry troops taking up positions around the theater, which was seized Wednesday by a group of armed men during a performance of "Nord-Ost."

99 The bloodiest rebel atrocity took place at a school in Beslan, North Ossetia, in 2004. Rebels seized the school on the first day of the autumn term, with more than 1,000 pupils, parents and teachers inside. The siege ended in a bloodbath, in which more than 330 people died

100 This video image shows insurgent leader Doku Umarov as he claims responsibility for last month's deadly suicide bombing at Russia's largest airport. It was not clear when or where the video was recorded Wathc: chechen-militant-doku-umarov-moscow-domodedovo- airport-bombing-terrorist

101 President Kadyrov: Assassinated in 2004 A controversial referendum in March 2003 approved a new constitution, giving Chechnya more autonomy but stipulating that it remained firmly part of Russia. Akmad Kadryov elected president; then killed by a bomb attack in a stadium. New Kremlin backed president : Alkhanov People fled from the scene in terror

102 . Former rebel sworn in as new president of Chechnya April 5, 2007 The new Chechen president, Ramzan Kadyrov, takes the oath in the Chechen town of Gudermes A 30-year-old amateur boxer who is accused by human rights groups of murdering and kidnapping civilians was this morning inaugurated as the new president of the war-torn republic of Chechnya. Ramzan Kadyrov, a former rebel turned Moscow loyalist who has his own militia army, was installed as president in a lavish ceremony in Gudermes, Chechnya's second-largest city, 20 miles east of the capital, Grozny. Human rights groups allege that security forces under Mr Kadyrov's control abduct and torture civilians suspected of ties to Chechnya's separatist rebels. Some observers also suggest he was behind last year's murder of Anna Politkovskaya, the investigative journalist who had documented Chechnya's plight. Mr Kadyrov denies involvement. Her killers have not been caught. This morning hundreds of high-profile guests gathered to see Mr Kadyrov presented with the Chechen flag and coat of arms. Moscow has poured huge funds into rebuilding Grozny and Chechnya, and insists that the region has now returned to normal. Mr Kadyrov has taken much of the credit for this. Large posters with his picture and streets named after both him and his father have helped create a personality cult. "I've been coming here and working here on and off for five years," Pavel Tarakanov, 25, the head of Moscow-based Civil Society group told Reuters news agency this morning. "But in the last half a year Kadyrov has changed Chechnya beyond all recognition." With help from Mr Kadyrov's militias, Russian forces have wiped out most insurgent leaders and driven the rebels into mountain hideouts from where they launch occasional attacks

103 Valentina Basargina, in her house, burned last month by arsonists. The police suspected her nephew of joining the insurgency. September 29, 2008 To Smother Rebels, Arson Campaign in Chechnya By C. J. CHIVERSC. J. CHIVERS

104 News Analysis Summer 2009 Chechnya and Its Neighbors Suffer a Relapse Kazbek Vakhayev/European Pressphoto Agency On Aug. 17, a blast at the police headquarters in Nazran, the capital of Ingushetia, killed 25 people and wounded 280. A period of calm has ended in Ingushetia, Chechnya and Dagestan Ramzan A. Kadyrov is the president of Chechnya. Do we see co-option here?

105 Cult of Putin vladimir-putin/index.html?iid=article_sidebar

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