Presentation on theme: "Evo Morales South America’s First Indigenous President Alex “Sasha” Basta Sarah Espinoza Sarah Livingston Austin Rodill."— Presentation transcript:
Evo Morales South America’s First Indigenous President Alex “Sasha” Basta Sarah Espinoza Sarah Livingston Austin Rodill
Evo Morales Born October 26, 1959 in Isallavi, Bolivia Began working at age 7 herding Llamas Joined the Bolivian military Moved to Chapare where his family farmed crops of coca
Evo Morales: Life 80’s he became active in regional coca- growers union, and in 1985 was elected the groups general secretary. In the mid 90’s Bolivia was suppressing coca production with US. He founded a national political party- the leftist Movement Toward Socialism. Won a seat in the House of Deputies in 1997
Evo Morales: Political Life In 2005 MAS presidential election he won 54% of votes and became the first Indian president. Sworn in in 2006 he pledged to reduce poverty among the countries indian population, and increase taxes on the wealthy. A recall referendum on Morales’s leadership was held in Aug and two thirds of the voters supported the continuance of his presidency.
Bolivian Political System Type of Government: Republic of Bolivia, now “Plurational State of Bolivia” 3-prang power: executive, legislative, judicial President is both Chief of State and the Head of Government, cabinet appointed by president Legal System
Indigenous Peoples & Demographics A multi-ethnic society Amerindian groups: Aymaras, Quechuas, Chiquitanos, Guarani, and Los Mojenos Make up 55% of the population 2/3 of people live in poverty
Indigenous Rights Multiple factors have been encroaching on indigenous land. (oil, farming, drug trafficking, urbanization) A new constitutional framework. One of the most “forward thinking” in Latin America Utilizes international human rights standards But is he dividing the nation more? Many people say this is a victory for the marginalized indigenous groups!
Importance of National Executive in Bolivia President Juan Evo Morales Ayma. The president is elected in a five year term by the popular vote. The Bolivian president is the head of state, head of government (executive power is exercised by the government)
How Morales is Different from other Executives Revising a new "constitution" was favored by Bolivians but also put fear on his administration "The document also contains two other articles that are likely to devastate the democracy. One creates a special class of people deemed to have pure Indian blood, granting them special privileges including designated seats in the legislature."(Wall Street Journal)
Countries that followed suit Guatemala Ecuador Mexico Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru, Ecuador, and Mexico are home to 90% of Latin America’s million indigenous
Guatemala Mayan organizations have challenged the class-based discourse Organizations have been created to be more responsive to the indigenous communities and concerns Accord on Identity and Rights of Indigenous Peoples (1995) Final Peace Accord (1996)
Ecuador Ecuadorian indigenous movement has shaped state policy on bicultural education, territorial autonomy, and agrarian reform ECUARUNARI in the Andes region One of four major regional groupings of CONAIE Ecuador on forefront of struggle between multinational corporations and indigenous groups
Mexico Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas- January 1, 1994 Indigenous autonomy and cultural respect alongside democracy Accords on Indigenous Rights and Culture (1996) Struggling with implementation Indigenous groups trying to create stronger link between themselves and partisan politics
Future Implications Boliva capable of maintaining economic reform process in poverty-sensitive manner Massive educational reform needed to lessen educational gap between elite and poor Need for partisan think tanks and generally, more competition among parties Sustainable poverty reduction will require constructive involvement of political parties
Questions Is this a stable precedent that has been set in Latin America? Do you think this is solely a move for more executive power? Can you foresee the the newly-deepened ethnic divisions being a problem in the future?
References Castillo, R. (March 2006). The indigenous movement in Mexico: Between electoral politics and local resistance. Latin American Perspectives, 33, doi: / X Ruge, D. (2009). Indigenous rights in Latin America: The gap between doctrine and reality. Human Rights & Human Welfare, 9, Retrieved from: latinamerica2/digest-human%20rights%20in%20latin%20america %20vol%202-indigenousrights.pdf. Yashar, D. (October 1998). Contesting citizenship: Indigenous movements and democracy in Latin America. Comparative Politics, 31, Retrieved from: ?seq=1. (2013, August 7). Ecuarunari inició consultas para definir diálogo con el gobierno. El Telégrafo. Retrieved from: consultas-para-definir-dialogo-con-el-gobierno.html.
References Cont. Mandaville, A. (October 2004). Bolivia’s political party system and the incentives for pro-party reform. National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, Retrieved from: 1852_bo_propoor_100104_full_0.pdf. Llana-Miller, S. (January 2009). Bolivia sets new global high mark for indigenous rights. The Christian Science Monitor World/Americas/2009/0127/p01s01-woam.html/ (page)/2
References Cont. Bolivia Facts: Bolivia Government. Bolivia Bella /0127/p01s01-woam.html/(page)/2http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/ Fromherz, N. (October 2010). The Rise and Fall of Bolivia’s Evo Morales. How South America’s First Indigenous President Lost his Way. Council on Foreign Relations. World/Americas/2009/0127/p01s01-woam.html/ (page)/2