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Building blocks for multimodal metaphors: Iconic segments and artistic parodies in cartoons Ludmilla A’Beckett Cagliari, 20-24 June 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Building blocks for multimodal metaphors: Iconic segments and artistic parodies in cartoons Ludmilla A’Beckett Cagliari, 20-24 June 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building blocks for multimodal metaphors: Iconic segments and artistic parodies in cartoons Ludmilla A’Beckett Cagliari, June 2014

2 Aims  Demonstrate mocking of Delacroix picture “Liberty leading the people” in different cultural contexts  Discuss target domains constructed through parodies of this picture  Discuss various guises of the image of the Liberty  Comment on constituents of this image and its contextual variations

3 Theoretical assumptions  Many cartoonists use famous works of arts as a base for visual realisation of their message  The originality of the multimodal message can be explained through optimal innovation, i.e. the automatic recovery of familiar, salient meaning, which is at the forefront of our mind due to frequency, conventionality and/or prototypicallity (Giora, 2004, El Rafaie, 2013)  Schilperoord (2013) applied the blending theory for interpreting Iwo Jima-inspired editorial cartoons  Schilperoord suggested considering the following cognitive operations in the cartoons’ meaning construction: removal, distortion, insertion and substitution

4 SOURCE-PATH-GOAL structure in interpretation  Implementation of SOURE-PARTH-GOAL structuring in interpretation (Veal, Feyaerts, Forceville 2013, p. 49).  SOURCE can be represented by multiple inputs of the image.  PARTH explains basic operations of combinations.  GOAL includes the TARGET (new situation) and the Rhetorical impact on the audience.  "[Deciding what connotations have been mapped from source to target is the interpretative part of metaphor analysis. (Bounegru and Forceville,p. 213).

5 Liberty who leads the people  In his painting Eugene Delacroix commemorated the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France.  A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the flag of the French Revolution – the tricolour flag which is still France's flag today – in one hand and brandishing a bayonetted musket with the other. The figure of Liberty is also viewed as a symbol of France and the French Republic known as Marianne.

6 The image of Liberty  Liberty strides barefoot and bare breasted being an allegoric figure of a Goddess. Traditionally, in Romantic paintings, having women’s breasts on show indicated power and supernatural strength. The erotic realism of her nudity alludes to ancient winged victories. She spurs the men to their final victory. She is caught up in the heat of the moment (see Jones, 2005).

7 The image of Liberty  Further investigating these ‘symbols’ [language-like properties], which might benefit from art- historical research, will further help assess their special place in multimodal research.(Bonegru and Forceville, 2011, p.225)

8 Evaluation by art- historians Delacroix's political masterpiece does not depict the peaceful and eminently reasonable, not to say bourgeois, outcome of the 1830 Paris uprising, but its moment of anarchic freedom, when anything seemed possible. It is the most enduring image of what revolution feels like, from within: ecstatic, violent, libidinal and murderous (Jones, 2005).

9 Cartoon 1. “Who needs the Chestnut Revolution?” ( Russian coverage of the Orange Revolution) AiF No 48, By A. Dorofeev.  ORANGE REVOLUTIONARIES ARE LARRIKINS, DRUNKARDS AND PROSTITUTES. There are no oppressors to be overthrown.  Tymoshenko’s APPEARANCE: nudity as a sign of narcissism and libidinal power [verbal cues in the text and description of Tymoshenko in the Russian newspapers, e.g. Lady who is pleasant in all respect, Yulia Timoshenko with her sexy hairstyle and fancy dresses... is a lady one lusts after a lot, ‘There are attempts to present Yushchenko and Timoshenko as heralds of liberation. But who lacked freedom and what sort of freedom was lacking in Ukraine? It’s clear that it is not about abstract ideals of democracy.  Barefoot—the mismanagement by the oppositionists leads to the poverty. Leaders try to show their solidarity with the deprived (poor) class. Verbal cues: ‘Every ‘freedom fighter’ costs a fortune for the opposition. According to some sources, a billion dollars has already been spent on the Orange Revolution—and the Ukrainian economy has lost during two weeks of confrontation approximately the same amount.”

10 Revolutionaries - ecstatic, violent, libidinal anarchy  Ilya Repin Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire.  Cossacks—Ukrainian national character  Sultan Mehmed—Putin  They are aroused by Tymoshenko’s nudity; treacherous, perfidious, spontaneous. Negative underpinning of Cossacks’ character.  REVOLUTIONARIES: drunk, vulgar, excited by the prospects of showing off.

11 Conceptual scheme-’barefoot is poor’ AiF, Andrei Dorofeev, ABDUCTION OF THE BEAUTY. The central figure is Catherine from the authorial illustration of the poem Catherine by national Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. Catherine is a poor Ukrainian peasant girl seduced by a Russian army officer. “O lovely maidens fall in love, But not with Moskaly For Moskaly are foreign folk, They do not treat you right. A Moskal will love you for sport, And laughing depart (translated by Vera Rich). Catherine represents Ukraine abducted by Americans—not Moskals. The connotation: Ukraine is gullible, inexperienced and will be dumped later.

12 Conceptual scheme “barefoot is poor”

13 Cartoon 2 by Andrey Dorofeev AiF  THE WESTERN REVOLUTIONARY THOUGHTS AND ACTVITIES IMPORTED TO THE RUSSIAN SOIL ARE  FORNICATION, PROMISCUITY, DEBAUCHERY AND PERVERSION  Stiletto shoes are a symbol of female sexual power (according to the respondents of my survey)  Bare breast and naked bodies+lingerie and blue colour represent sexual innuendo and philandering

14 Cartoon 3 by Andrey Dorofeev  Caption: Does America bring liberty?  AMERICAN LIBERTY = VIOLENCE, DEBAUCHERY, GUNS, UNRESTRAINED INDIVIDUALISM, PORNOGRAPHY  PATH: BARE BREAST and NAKED BODY PARTS+LINGERIE =PORNOGRAPHY, UNRESTRAINED LIBIDO; A TEENAGER WITH PISTOL= VIOLENCE, UNRESTRICTED USE OF GUNS; THE WORSHIPPING FIGURE+DEAD BODIES=INDIVIDUALISM

15 Representation of sexual power by Andrey Dorofeev, AiF  Caption: The hour for serials.  SOAP OPERA IS REPRESENTED BY SEXUAL,VULGUR AND DIRTY TOPICS, BRAINWASHING TECHNIQUES, POPULAR ACTORS and SHALLOW SUBJECTS  PATH: Bare breasts and naked bodies =sexual grip; rubbing and soaping body parts=brainwashing; water in a bowl and saucepan, dirty water=shallow and vulgar topics

16 Australian perspective. Chaos leading the Parliament  Liberty—the first woman and foreign born Prime Minister in Australia. Julia Gillard takes the leadership in the Parliament after the leaders of the Liberal Party suffered defeat. She leaves behind the former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd (from her own party)with his boyish enthusiasm and attitudes. The leader of the opposition (current Prime Minister) Tony Abbott bares her flesh which reveals her feminine nature. Question: Can this woman lead voiceless and powerless? Bare foot=soft climb? Sadami Konchi June 28, 2010.http://sadamisgraffiti.blogspot.com/2010/0 6/joke-joke-joke.html  Chaos = Australia in search of a decent leader. Is she resolute enough to lead the men?

17 Australian perspective, The Australian 2012  Liberty leading the people = the Australian Labour Party and Julia Gillard promoting the communist ideas of class struggle is ready to reverse them if opinion polls find them unpopular.  Path: Bare breast and barefoot Julia Gillard represents solidarity with working class, poor and relying on basic instincts.  David Penberthy, suggested that the idea of class struggle was “stupid” in a country like Australia, and that Gillard might have to back off if the electorate found it unpopular. The cartoon accompanying Penberthy’s piece depicted Gillard as Delacroix’s bare-breasted Liberty leading the people.

18 Bulgaria,2013, Anger at politicians, EU ideals, the energy of youth  During the summer protests in Sofia, on July 14, a group of protesters expressed their anger by recreating Eugene Delacroix’s panting “Liberty Leading the People,” but instead of the French flag, Lady Liberty is proudly holding the Bulgarian flag. The performance was intended to be a “thank you” to the French Ambassador Philippe Autie and German Ambassador Matthias Hoepfner for their support in renouncing back-door dealings with oligarchs in Bulgarian politics. (Sara Lipkis, 2013) recreating

19 Functions of Lady Liberty in new contexts  Representation of changes  Representations of protests  Sometimes it is linked to the female leadership  Representation of freedom—sexual freedom, individualism, violence, anger, challenge to the mighty rulers  Reversals=liberty is a reincarnation of a subversive reaction, ignoble goals or retreat  Nudity=Greek classic tradition  Nudity=sexual grip, libidinal power  Nudity=proletarian and communist ideals

20 Conceptual scheme “barefoot” represents “something”  Barefoot can be an incarnation of the classic tradition. Ancient Greeks have been often portrayed being barefoot  In the tradition of the Russian realistic arts poor peasants are barefoot. The Russian expression “To be naked and barefoot”= to be poor and powerless  In the tradition of Russian classic art “to be barefoot” also= to be free as a child  Some sports require being barefoot in the competition  The conceptual scheme can be blended or amended


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