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CERN an (unusual) introduction Rolf-Dieter Heuer Director-General, CERN India and CERN – Visions for Future Collaboration Mumbai 28 February 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "CERN an (unusual) introduction Rolf-Dieter Heuer Director-General, CERN India and CERN – Visions for Future Collaboration Mumbai 28 February 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 CERN an (unusual) introduction Rolf-Dieter Heuer Director-General, CERN India and CERN – Visions for Future Collaboration Mumbai 28 February 2011

2 United Kingdom and CERN / September The Mission of CERN Push back the frontiers of knowledge E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was matter like within the first moments of the Universe’s existence? Develop new technologies for accelerators and detectors Information technology - the Web and the GRID Medicine - diagnosis and therapy Train scientists and engineers of tomorrow Unite people from different countries and cultures

3 3 CERN was founded 1954: 12 European States Today: 20 Member States ~ 2300 staff ~ 2300 staff ~ 790 other paid personnel ~ 790 other paid personnel > users > users Budget (2011) ~1000 MCHF Budget (2011) ~1000 MCHF ~ 2300 staff ~ 2300 staff ~ 790 other paid personnel ~ 790 other paid personnel > users > users Budget (2011) ~1000 MCHF Budget (2011) ~1000 MCHF 20 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania 5 Applicants for Membership of CERN: Cyprus, Israel, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey 8 Observers to Council: India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and UNESCO New status of Associate Membership 20 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania 5 Applicants for Membership of CERN: Cyprus, Israel, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey 8 Observers to Council: India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and UNESCO New status of Associate Membership

4 Breaking the Walls between Cultures and Nations since 1954 Breaking the Walls between Cultures and Nations since 1954

5 Opening the door… CERN Council opened the door to greater integration in particle physics when it recently unanimously adopted the recommendations to examine the role of CERN in the light of increasing globalization in particle physics. Particle physics is becoming increasingly integrated at the global level. Council’s decision contributes to creating the conditions that will enable CERN to play a full role in any future facility wherever in the world it might be. The key points agreed by Council include: All states shall be eligible for Membership, irrespective of their geographical location; A new Associate Membership status is to be introduced to allow non- Member States to establish or intensify their institutional links with CERN; Associate Membership shall also serve as the obligatory pre-stage to Membership. Participation in Global Projects wherever sited 5

6 Primary motivation for research: CURIOSITY Results of Research: Fundamental Research ↔ Applied Research Knowledge / Know-how ↔ Application / Use Culture ↔ Technology Primary aim of fundamental research – KNOWLEDGE Primary aim of applied research – APPLICATIONS Fundamental and applied research are inseparably connected

7 Fundamental Research Fundamental research results in gain of knowledge/know-how But also results in applications Applications from the research itself (time frame and areas are not predictable) Applications from the tools and methods needed to perform the research Fundamental research Is innovation Needs innovation Drives innovation

8 Essential Ingredients to Drive Innovation A concrete project with ambitious goals & a deadline Highly competent and motivated teams in all domains and at all levels Open collaboration with competent partners Prestigious universities and research institutes Industrial partners for key technologies Learning from others, sharing the results freely Investment in training and education

9 Innovation in Fundamental Research Large scientific projects stimulate innovation Space : Apollo missions, Space Station, Pioneer/Voyager Missions Particle Physics : accelerators in general at CERN : LEP, LHC Pushing back the frontiers of technology. CERN Examples: Superconductivity, magnets, cryogenics, vacuum, survey/metrology. Transport and installation of heavy equipment. Solid-state detectors resistant to high-intensity radiation. Large-scale industrial control systems. Electronic and information systems. Project management and co-ordination.

10 CERN’s Tools – Innovation at all Levels The world’s most powerful accelerator: Large Hadron Collider (LHC) A 27 km long tunnel filled with high-tech instruments Equipped with thousands of superconducting magnets Accelerates particles to energies never obtained before Produces particle collisions creating microscopic “big bangs” Very large sophisticated detectors Four experiments each the size of a cathedral Hundred million measurement channels each Data acquisition systems treating Petabytes per second Top level computing to distribute and analyse the data A Computing Grid linking ~200 computer centres around the globe Sufficient computing power and storage to handle 15 Petabytes per year, making them available to thousands of physicists for analysis

11 11 Example: medical application Accelerating particle beams Detecting particles Large-scale computing (Grid) Grid computing for medical data management and analysis Medical imaging CERN Technologies - Innovation Tumour Target

12 Detection of Container Contents with a Multi-wire Chamber (G. Charpak - Nobel Prize Physics 1992) Detectors for Industry

13 Breaking the Wall of Communication 22 years ago: the Web was born Breaking the Wall of Communication 22 years ago: the Web was born... and today ?

14 One of the most extensive computer systems in the world… To analyse the data, tens of thousands of computers around the world are being harnessed in the Grid. The laboratory that gave the world the web, is now taking distributed computing a big step further. Breaking the Wall of Communication: yesterday the Web, today the Grid Breaking the Wall of Communication: yesterday the Web, today the Grid

15  Address - fundamental science questions at the forefront of research and technology  Need - large and sustained infrastructures - global collaboration on long time scales  Provide - unique equipment - challenging requests for high technology and innovation - stimulating ideas which in turn attract good people - occasion to bring people together Large-scale Science Projects

16 Survey in March 2009 They do not all stay: where do they go? 2500 PhD students in LHC experiments Age Distribution of Scientists - and where they go afterwards

17 “Discovery” of Standard Model through synergy of hadron - hadron colliders (e.g. Tevatron) lepton - hadron colliders (HERA) lepton - lepton colliders (e.g. LEP, SLC) Past few decades

18 United Kingdom and CERN / May Enter a New Era in Fundamental Science Start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), one of the largest and truly global scientific projects ever, is the most exciting turning point in particle physics. Exploration of a new energy frontier proton-proton collisions at E CM up to 14 TeV Exploration of a new energy frontier proton-proton collisions at E CM up to 14 TeV LHC ring: 27 km circumference CMS ALICE LHCb ATLAS + LHCf, MoEDAL, TOTEM

19 : Decisive Years Experimental data will take the floor to drive the field to the next steps: LHC results  13 (T2K, DChooz, etc..)  masses (Cuore, Gerda, Nemo…) Dark Matter searches ……. 19  2012 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics

20 Road beyond the Standard Model through synergy of hadron - hadron colliders (LHC + upgrades) lepton - hadron colliders (LHeC ??) lepton - lepton colliders (ILC/CLIC ?) Next decades

21 The machine which will complement and extend the LHC best, and is closest to be realized, is a Linear e + e - Collider with a collision energy of at least 500 GeV. PROJECTS :  TeV Colliders (CMS energy up to 1 TeV)  Technology ~ready ILC with superconducting cavities  Multi-TeV Collider (CMS energies in multi-TeV range)  R&D CLIC  Two Beam Acceleration 21 Linear e + e - Colliders

22 Results from LHC will Guide the Way Expect Period for decision enabling on next steps earliest 2012 (at least) concerning energy frontier Similar situation concerning neutrino sector Θ 13 We are NOW in a new exciting era of accelerator planning-design-construction-running and need intensified efforts on R&D and technical design work to enable these decisions; global collaboration and stability on long time scales (don‘t forget: first workshop on LHC was 1984) 22

23 … Facts today Facilities for HEP (and other sciences) becoming larger and more expensive. Funding not increasing. Fewer facilities realisable. Time scales becoming longer. Laboratories are changing missions.  More coordination and more collaboration required 23

24 CERN Education Activities Scientists at CERN Academic Training Programme Young Researchers CERN School of High Energy Physics CERN School of Computing CERN Accelerator School Physics Students Summer Students Programme School of Computing Norway, nd Latin American School of High Energy Physics Mexico, 2003 CERN Teacher Schools International and National Programmes 24

25 CERN / February 2011 CERN Education Activities CERN Teacher Programme Participants: 1998 – December 2010

26 CERN / February 2011 CERN Education Activities

27 Large-scale Science Projects - Summary - address fundamental science questions - stimulate general interest - fascinate and inspire - stimulate fantasy - increase knowledge - educate - train scientists and engineers for tomorrow - drive innovation and technology - are global by nature - need international collaboration and understanding - need giving and sharing

28 Today, the LHC is attracting immense attention, it is possibly THE most watched science project  CERN is in the spotlight of the general public, the journalists, and, and, and... Fascinating science Addresses long standing questions of mankind Forefront science Forefront technologies Sociological experiment Fascinating Science Why?

29 Large International Collaborations a place where people learn to work together collaboration and competition diversity: good opportunity to recognize differences, accept them and learn to use them influence the way of thinking, planning at general level information sharing: role of computing in internationalization and communication experience can be used by individuals and in other fields  management through ‘common goals’  management by ‘convincing partners’ Sociology

30 … and bring the world together CERN – Innovate, discover, publish, share


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