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19 May 2012 Understanding the Layers of SharePoint Security Michael Noel - #SPSJHB The first ever all green SharePoint event on earth.

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Presentation on theme: "19 May 2012 Understanding the Layers of SharePoint Security Michael Noel - #SPSJHB The first ever all green SharePoint event on earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 19 May 2012 Understanding the Layers of SharePoint Security Michael Noel - CCO @MichaelTNoel #SPSJHB The first ever all green SharePoint event on earth

2 Michael Noel Author of SAMS Publishing titles “SharePoint 2010 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2007 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2003 Unleashed”, “Teach Yourself SharePoint 2003 in 10 Minutes,” “Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed,” “Exchange Server 2010 Unleashed”, “ISA Server 2006 Unleashed”, and many other titles. Partner at Convergent Computing ( / +1(510)444-5700) – San Francisco Bay Area based Infrastructure/Security specialists for SharePoint, AD, Exchange, Security

3 SharePoint Security Layers of Security in a SharePoint Environment 1: Infrastructure Security – Physical Security – Best Practice Service Account Setup – Kerberos Authentication 2: Data Security – Role Based Access Control (RBAC) – Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) of SQL Databases – Antivirus 3: Transport Security – Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) from Client to Server – IPSec from Server to Server 4: Edge Security – Inbound Internet Security (Forefront UAG/TMG) 5: Rights Management

4 Infrastructure Security Layer

5 Service Account NameRole of Service AccountSpecial Permissions COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-SetupSharePoint Installation AccountLocal Admin on all SP Servers (for installs) COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-SQL SQL Service Account(s) – Should be separate admin accounts from SP accounts. Local Admin on Database Server(s) (Generally, some exceptions apply) COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-Farm SharePoint Farm Account(s) – Can also be standard admin accounts. RBAC principles apply ideally. N/A COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-SearchSearch AccountN/A COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-ContentDefault Content Access Account Read rights to any external data sources to be crawled COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-ProfDefault Profiles Access Account Member of Domain Users (to be able to read attributes from users in domain) and ‘Replicate Directory Changes’ rights in AD – Temporary Farm Admin and Local Admin (for provisioning of UPA). COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-AP-SPCA Application Pool Identity account for SharePoint Central Admin. DBCreator and Security Admin on SQL. Create and Modify contacts rights in OU used for mail. COMPANYABC\SRV-SP-AP-DataApplication Pool Identity account for the Content related App Pool (Portal, MySites, etc.) Additional as needed for security. N/A Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Sample List of Service Accounts

6 Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Enable Kerberos When creating any Web Applications in Classic-mode, USE KERBEROS. It is much more secure and also faster with heavy loads as the SP server doesn’t have to keep asking for auth requests from AD. Kerberos auth does require extra steps, which makes people shy away from it, but once configured, it improves security considerably and can improve performance on high-load sites. Should also be configured on SPCA Site! (Best Practice = Configure SPCA for NLB, SSL, and Kerberos (i.e.

7 Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Kerberos Step 1: Create the Service Principal Names Use the setspn utility to create Service Principle Names in AD, the following syntax for example: – Setspn.exe -A HTTP/ DOMAINNAME\MYSiteAppAccount – Setspn.exe -A HTTP/mysite DOMAINNAME\MYSITEAppAccount – Setspn.exe -A HTTP/ DOMAINNAME\HOMEAppAccount – Setspn.exe -A HTTP/sp DOMAINNAME\HOMEAppAccount

8 Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Kerberos Step 2: Enable Kerberos between SP and SQL Use setspn to create SPNs for SQL Service Account SPNs need to match the name that SharePoint uses to connect to SQL (Ideally SQL Alias, more on this later) Syntax similar to following: – Setspn.exe -A MSSQLSvc/spsql:1433 COMPANYABC\SRV-SQL-DB – Setspn.exe –A MSSQLSvc/ COMPANYABC\SRV-SQL-DB MSSQLSvc = Default instance, if named instance, specify the name instead In this example, SRV-SQL-DB is the SQL Admin account and is the alias used to connect to SQL server (Listener/Client Access Point if using AlwaysOn Availability Groups with SQL 2012)

9 Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Kerberos Step 3: Allow Accounts to Delegate (Optional) Required only for Excel Services and other impersonation applications. On all SP Computer accounts and on the Application Identity accounts, check the box in ADUC to allow for delegation. – In ADUC, navigate to the computer or user account, right-click and choose Properties. – Go to the Delegation tab – Choose Trust this user/computer for delegation to any service (Kerberos)

10 Layer 1: Infrastructure Security Kerberos Step 4: Enable Kerberos on Web Application Go to Application Management – Authentication Providers Choose the appropriate Web Application Click on the link for ‘Default’ under Zone Change to Integrated Windows Authentication - Kerberos (Negotiate) Run iisreset /noforce from the command prompt If creating Web App from scratch, this step may be unnecessary if you choose Negotiate from the beginning


12 Layer 2: Data Security Role Based Access Control (RBAC) Role Groups defined within Active Directory (Universal Groups) – i.e. ‘Marketing,’ ‘Sales,’ ‘IT,’ etc. Role Groups added directly into SharePoint ‘Access Groups’ such as ‘Contributors,’ ‘Authors,’ etc. Simply by adding a user account into the associated Role Group, they gain access to whatever rights their role requires. User1User2 Role Group SharePoint Group or direct rights to SP

13 Layer 2: Data Security SQL Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) SQL Server 2008, 2008 R2, 2012 Enterprise Edition Feature Encrypts SQL Databases Transparently, SharePoint is unaware of the encryption and does not need a key Encrypts the backups of the database as well

14 Layer 2: Data Security TDE vs. Cell Level Encryption Available with either SQL 2005, SQL 2008, or SQL 2012 Encrypts individual cells in a database Requires a password to access the cell Requires that columns be changed from their original data type to varbinary Advantage is that only specific info is encrypted Disadvantage is that you cannot use this for SharePoint Databases

15 Layer 2: Data Security TDE vs. File Level Encryption Two forms, older Encrypting File System (EFS) and Bitlocker EFS encrypts data at the File Level Bitlocker encrypts data at the Volume Level Bitlocker Encrypts every file on the disk, not just database files Could be used together with TDE

16 Layer 2: Data Security SQL Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) Limitations Does not encrypt the Communication Channel (IPSec can be added) Does not protect data in memory (DBAs could access) Cannot take advantage of SQL 2008 Backup Compression TempDB is encrypted for the entire instance, even if only one DB is enabled for TDE, which can have a performance effect for other DBs Replication or FILESTREAM data is not encrypted when TDE is enabled (i.e. RBS BLOBs not encrypted)

17 Key and Cert Hierarchy SMK encrypts the DMK for master DB Service Master Key SQL Instance Level DPAPI Encrypts SMK Data Protection API (DPAPI) Windows OS Level DMK creates Cert in master DB Database Master Key master DB Level Certificate Encrypts DEK in Content DB Certificate master DB Level DEK used to encrypt Content DB Database Encryption Key Content DB Level

18 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 1: Creating the Database Master Key (DMK) Symmetric key used to protect private keys and asymmetric keys Protected itself by Service Master Key (SMK), which is created by SQL Server setup Use syntax as follows: – USE master; – GO – CREATE MASTER KEY ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'CrypticTDEpw4CompanyABC'; – GO

19 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 2: Creating the TDE Certificate Protected by the DMK Used to protect the database encryption key Use syntax as follows: USE master; GO CREATE CERTIFICATE CompanyABCtdeCert WITH SUBJECT = 'CompanyABC TDE Certificate' ; GO

20 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 3: Backup the Master Key Without a backup, data can be lost Backup creates two files, the Cert backup and the Private Key File Use following syntax: USE master; GO BACKUP CERTIFICATE CompanyABCtdeCert TO FILE = 'c:\Backup\CompanyABCtdeCERT.cer' WITH PRIVATE KEY ( FILE = 'c:\Backup\CompanyABCtdeDECert.pvk', ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'CrypticTDEpw4CompanyABC!' ); GO

21 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 4: Creating the Database Encryption Key (DEK) DEK is used to encrypt specific database One created for each database Encryption method can be chosen for each DEK Use following syntax: USE SharePointContentDB; GO CREATE DATABASE ENCRYPTION KEY WITH ALGORITHM = AES_256 ENCRYPTION BY SERVER CERTIFICATE CompanyABCtdeCert GO

22 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 5: Enable TDE on the Database(s) Data encryption will begin after running command Size of DB will determine time it will take, can be lengthy and could cause user blocking Use following syntax: USE SharePointContentDB GO ALTER DATABASE SharePointContentDB SET ENCRYPTION ON GO

23 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE Step 6: Monitor the TDE Encryption Progress State is Returned State of 2 = Encryption Begun State of 3 = Encryption Complete Use following syntax: USE SharePointContentDB GO SELECT * FROM sys.dm_database_encryption_keys WHERE encryption_state = 3; GO

24 Layer 2: Data Security SQL TDE: Restoring a TDE Database to Another Server Step 1: Create new Master Key on Target Server (Does not need to match source master key) Step 2: Backup Cert and Private Key from Source Step 3: Restore Cert and Private Key onto Target (No need to export the DEK as it is part of the backup) USE master; GO CREATE CERTIFICATE CompanyABCtdeCert FROM FILE = 'C:\Restore\CompanyABCtdeCert.cer' WITH PRIVATE KEY ( FILE = 'C:\Restore\CompanyABCtdeCert.pvk', DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'CrypticTDEpw4CompanyABC!' ) Step 4: Restore DB

25 Layer 2: Data Security SharePoint Antivirus


27 Layer 2: Data Security SharePoint Antivirus VSAPI Realtime scanning only uses the VSAPI Realtime Scan Settings are Administered through the SharePoint Central Admin Tool – Realtime Options are grayed out in the ForeFront Admin Console

28 Layer 2: Data Security SharePoint Antivirus: FPS Keyword and File Filtering Look for specific keywords (sensitive company info, profanity, etc.) – Block – Simply detect and notify Create Filter List – Add Keywords, either manually or bulk as lines in a text file

29 Layer 2: Data Security SharePoint Antivirus: FPS Profanity Filters New Profanity lists in 11 languages available in SP2 – (Run KeywordInstaller.msi to install) – Import the lists into FF from \Program Files\Microsoft Forefront Security\SharePoint\Data\Example Keywords



32 Layer 3: Transport Security Client to Server: Using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Encryption External or Internal Certs highly recommended Protects Transport of content 20% overhead on Web Servers Can be offloaded via SSL offloaders if needed Don’t forget for SPCA as well!

33 Layer 3: Transport Security Server to Server: Using IPSec to encrypt traffic By default, traffic between SharePoint Servers (i.e. Web and SQL) is unencrypted IPSec encrypts all packets sent between servers in a farm For very high security scenarios when all possible data breaches must be addressed


35 Layer 4: Edge Security Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) 2010

36 Layer 4: Edge Security UAG Comparison with Forefront TMG CapabilityTMG 2010 UAG 2010 Publish Web applications using HTTPSX X Publish internal mobile applications to roaming mobile devicesX X Layer 3 firewallX X Outbound scenarios supportX X Array supportX X Globalization and administration console localizationX X Wizards and predefined settings to publish SharePoint sites and ExchangeX X Rich authentication (for example, one-time password, forms-based, smart card)X X Application protection (Web application firewall)Basic Full Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) support X Information leakage prevention X Granular access policy X Unified Portal X


38 Layer 5: Rights Management Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) AD RMS is a form of Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology, used in various forms to protect content Used to restrict activities on files AFTER they have been accessed: – Cut/Paste – Print – Save As… Directly integrates with SharePoint DocLibs

39 Layer 5: Rights Management Installing AD RMS – Key Storage Select Cluster Key Storage CSP used for advanced scenarios

40 Layer 5: Rights Management Installing AD RMS – Creating the Cluster Name

41 Layer 5: Rights Management Installing AD RMS – Using an SSL Cert for Transport Encryption

42 Layer 5: Rights Management Allowing SharePoint to use AD RMS By default, RMS server is configured to only allow the local system account of the RMS server or the Web Application Identity accounts to access the certificate pipeline directly SharePoint web servers and/or Web Application Service Accounts need to be added to this security list Add the RMS Service Group, the machine account(s) of the SharePoint Server and the Web App Identity accountswith Read and Excecute permissions to the ServerCertification.asmx file in the %systemroot%\inetpub\wwwroot\_wmcs \Certification folder on the RMS server

43 Layer 5: Rights Management Client Accessing AD RMS Documents Effective permissions can be viewed from the document The RMS client will enforce the restrictions

44 Session Summary Determine Security Risk for your SharePoint Environment Identify any Regulatory Compliance Requirements for SharePoint Determine which aspects of SharePoint need to be secured, touching on all five layers of SharePoint Security

45 Michael Noel Twitter: @MichaelTNoel Slides:

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