Presentation on theme: "ES2307: Progressive Education Week 3 Child-centred education: Steiner and Montessori Tutor: Joan Walton."— Presentation transcript:
ES2307: Progressive Education Week 3 Child-centred education: Steiner and Montessori Tutor: Joan Walton
“Whereas Dewey defined educational purpose in terms of the individual’s integration into a modern society, the Europeans laid greater stress on ‘self- realisation’ and the inner growth of the individual”(Jones 1983:28) For Dewey, it became essential that both society and democratic communities were continually evolving, both intellectually and morally.
In keeping with his understanding that humans develop innately, Dewey contended that “the moral is not to leave them (the children) alone to follow their own ‘spontaneous development’, but to provide an environment which shall organise them’ (1916: 134) Dewey believed that learning was a lifelong process; he saw learning taking place within the processes of constant evolution, both within and individual and their society, which originated from the practical social questions which arose out of everyday life.
Key (1900) declared this was the dawning of the ‘century of the child’. Psychological developments allowed for greater understanding of emerging cognitive and spiritual pathways. Holistic philosophies encouraged respect and reverence for child and beliefs. Steiner and Montessori at the forefront of revolution which saw it as desirable that education focus on child’s individual, self- directed growth and development.
Recognised the importance of children as independent learners on paths of development. These paths could be clearly mapped out as there was greater understanding of how the mind worked. Both placed an emphasis on using creative play and art as methods to develop intellectual faculties. Children encouraged to learn in mixed-age groupings and open play areas.
Placed great emphasis on spirituality as the key to growth for both the individual and society. Both the individual and society are part of a larger spiritual world. A major aim in a child’s education is to create a spiritually enhanced world. Categorised child’s development into 7 year stages – which paralleled the evolution of the world – physical, spiritual/emotional, rational, then integration of spiritual and rational. Saw history and child development as part of a larger spiritual view of the world.
Believed that children learned best when they were free to work and play in a carefully prepared, nurturing environment. Created prepared environments where children worked with specially designed learning materials to suit their stage of development. Developed apparatus and tasks which allowed child to act directly on individual aspects of the real world. As each stage was completed, child allowed to progress to the next.
What should the purpose of school education for children be? What subjects should be taught as part of the school curriculum? What methods should be used to teach children in schools? If you were designing a ‘progressive school’, what would be included in your plan?