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1 1 The impact of the European Qualifications Framework for the Design of University Curricula and Syllabi National Conference: Higher Education in Serbia – The Implementation of Bologna Process in Economics and Management Studies University of Kragujevac, Nov

2 Qualificationsframework -Referenceframework- Levels of Qualifications -Bachelor -Master -Doctorat Min. of Education Higher Education QFW for EHEA Bologna-Process EU-Commission QFW for LLL Brugges- Copenhagen- Maastricht- Process Described „horizontally“ according to the „Dublin Descriptors“ with Credits Knowledge and understanding Applying k&u Making judgements CommunicationLearn to learn Levels of Qualifications 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 6 – Describes learning progress Qualifications are builtby bundling learning outcomes according to descriptors Knowledge & Under- standing SkillsCompetences

3 Why should we consider the two?


5 Issues to be considered There is no national qualifications framework in Serbia yet: –Will there be an overarching or one covering all educational and vocational areas? –Will there be one for higher education only? –Could a sectoral qualifications framework be useful? –Is there an interest in establishing an institutional qualifications framework? –Any benefit for a qualifications framework at faculty level?

6 Key Issue 1 Both EQF (Bologna / LLL) present a matrix of learning outcomes –Learning outcomes are presented as a progression of learning according to criteria (descriptors) and level –Learning outcomes state what the learner is expected to know and able to do at an identified stage of the learning process.

7 Joint Quality Initiative – Dublin Descriptors Knowledge and understanding –1 (Bachelor) [is] supported by advanced text books [with] some aspects informed by knowledge at the forefront of their field of study... 2 (Master) provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing or applying ideas often in a research context... 3 (Doctorate) [includes] a systematic understanding of their field of study and mastery of the methods of research associated with that field

8 Readability – horizontal / vertical Knowledge & Underst.SkillsCompetences L6L6 advanced knowledge of a field of work or study involving a critical understanding of theories and principles advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, in a complex and specialised field of work or study manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision-making in unpredictable work and study Contexts - lead groups in work and study L7L7 highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge in a field of work Or study, as the basis for original thinking critical awareness of knowledge issues in a field and at the interface Between different fields specialist research and problem- solving skills, including analysis and synthesis, to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields demonstrate leadership and innovation in work and study contexts that are complex, unpredictable and require new strategic approaches take responsibility for continuing personal professional development, for contributing to professional knowledge and practice and for reviewing the strategic performance of teams

9 Competences vs Learning Outcomes and credits The learner acquires competences through learning, both subject and non-subject related (generic) competences. Competences are more than the sum of learning outcomes. They may be revealed in a final thesis, or in professional life or in any situation of day-to-day life. Learning outcomes are those parts of competences which have been assessed. All formal education and training programmes stipulate learning outcomes

10 Competences vs Learning Outcomes and credits As credits can only be awarded on the basis of assessment, a learner acquires credits for having achieved respective learning outcomes. In other words: In formal teaching and learning programmes only those competences may be stipulated and documented by credits which can be assessed. These competences are specified as learning outcomes

11 Qualifications vs learning outcomes and credits Qualifications are defined bundles of planned learning outcomes („profile“) Their „quality value“ is characterised by descriptors from a „qualifications framework“ Their „quantity value“ is characterised by allocated credits according to ECTS or ECVET All qualifications contain a qualitative and a quantitative element

12 EQF LLL vs EQF Bologna The EQF LLL does not describe qualifications, the EQF Bologna does. The EQF LLL is a matrix of learning outcomes, descriptors and levels defining progression in learning in each descriptor – from level to level. No credits are allocated A qualification is made up by a bundle of learning outcomes, formed by vertical / horizontal / lateral combinations LO Credits are allocated to qualifications

13 EQF LLL vs EQF Bologna The EQF Bologna describes qualifications The EQF Bologna is a matrix of learning outcomes, descriptors and levels defining progression in learning in each descriptor – from qualification to qualifiation. A qualification is made up by a bundle of learning outcomes which is formed by horizontal combinations of learning outcomes Credits are allocated.

14 Lessons learned Compatibility is achieved through the learning matrix, not through the qualifications or credits This procedure allows for coherence and consistency This is documented by the „onion model“ including sectoral and institutional frameworks

15 National Qualifications Frameworks Example: Germany

16 The German Qualifications Framework Level Competence Bachelor / Master / Doctorate KnowledgeKnowledge- broadening Knowledge- deepening SkillsKnowledge- developing and accessing instrumental communicative - interpersonal systemic

17 Sectoral Qualifications Framework Bachelor level – Betriebswirtschaftslehre = Business Studies

18 Learning Technology development Human resource management - Staff Procurement Infrastructure of the institution – Learning Space InboundLogistics Recruitin g Students OperationsTeaching and andLearning Outbound logistics logisticsExams Marketin g and sales Employ- ment support Servic e Con- tinuing Edu Primary activities Supportactivities Margin Added Value MarginAddedValue

19 Value Chain Network School value chain Vocational school Job value chain Value Chain of the Instituion of Higher Education Employer´s value chain Other institution´s value chain Self- employment ´s value ch. Learner´s value chain

20 Principles in Practice Information process Employability et al Learning Space Information Pack. Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Credit Transfer / Accumulation Profile Level Modularisation Learning Outcomes Workload Individual Advice/ Selection Performance Credits Grade Descriptors

21 Learning Chain Learnig outcomes Learners Learning space Change of paradigm Total Quality Management Labour Market

22 22 Desired „Can Do“ Profile - Communication / Ability to work in teams 99% (Tuning Empl 5) Can analyse 88% (3) Problem solving 97% (2) Broad subject related knowledge 87% (Academics 1) Learn to learn 97% (1) Knowledge about the EN 78% - Independent working 96% - Managerial competence 70% (bottom 5) Adaptability 96% (4) Specialisation 68% -

23 Learning Chain A PROMISE LO Subject related -Broad knowledge Generic -communicate, solve problems, learn, adapt, analyse, (manage) Learners Necessitates Advice/ Selection; accumulates credits, may make use of transfer Learning space Teaching and learning, materials, methods, forms of assessment, suitable to demonstrate in the time specified, workload and level indicated,credits and grades allocated = LO achieved Change of paradigm New Governance in many MS Total Quality Management Accreditation, Evaluation Standards and Guidelines Labour Market

24 Tuning Bologna in Action Indicators EmployabilityInformation Package Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Transfer / Accumulation Dublin Descriptors Structure of a Module Learning Outcomes: Subj. rel. /non subj. rel. Knowledge widening Knowledge deepening Knowledge accessing Instrumental Interpersonal systemic Workload -Effectiveness - Efficiency Individual Advice/Selection Interview Portfolio u.a. Performance Credits 5 Grade Local Ranking Qualifications- framework LLL

25 Wissen und Verstehen von Absolventen bauen auf der Ebene der Hochschulzugangsberechtigung auf und gehen über diese wesentlich hinaus. Absolventen haben ein breites und integriertes Wissen und Verstehen der wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen ihres Lerngebietes nachgewiesen: Knowledge broadening The student is able to …. Define and differentiate organisations and their elements and unterstand their relationship. Recognise and differentiate the environment of organisations and their elements, and understand their relationship. Explain and assess concepts and tools of management Level 6 This may embrace: Purposes, objectives, structures, functions and processes respecting the particular organisational culture, both the individual and institutional Behaviour and the internal and external effects. Economy, environment, values and norms, law, politics, society, technology, including their respective effects on Management at local, national and International level. Processes and methods of effective and and efficient leadership of organisations. This includes knowledge about theories, models and and decision making Within a strategic and operative context.

26 Sectoral Qualifications Framework Master level – Betriebswirtschaftslehre = Business Studies

27 27 Master programmes in business studies may distinguish three types in the light of employability due to the target group and the time-schedule. For each type the profile – either more research or application oriented – has to be specified additionally. The graduate is… Type 1 Specialist -Objective: Professional start in a defined area or professional development -sequential to the first degree or after work experience -first degree in the discipline Study-programmes for this target group normally specialise on a selection of the following learning outcomes, in particular in the area of knowledge deepening. The graduate wants… Type 1 To update and consolidate his knowlege and acquire detailed knowledge about selected business subject areas (e.g. functions, type of enterprises, business sectors, regional characteristics, buying and sales markets, topical issues, such es business ethics). Type 2 Generalist -Objective: Professional start in a broad area -more often sequential to the first degree -first degree not in the same discipline Study-programmes for this target group normally achieve the following learning outcomes, which helpt to improve employability by enlarging the scope of activities in comparison to that of the first degree. Because of a lack of or little work experience the subject related emphasis is on concepts and theories. Type 2 To transfer generic competences of the first degree on to the new stuy-area. Broad basic knowledge with possible deepening of business related areas (e.g. functions, type of enterprises, business sectors, regional characteristics, buying and sales markets, topical issues, such es business ethics).. Type 3 Generalist -Objective: Professional development -minimum of 2-years professional experience -first degree normally not in the same discipline Study-programmes for this target group nromally take into account the business experience and the learning outcomes achieved in the first cycle programme by extending them to managerial competences. Type 3 To transfer generic competences of the first study-programme and the experiences gained in practice on to the new study-area. Broad basic knowledge in business related areas (e.g. functions, type of enterprises, business sectors, regional characteristics, buying and sales markets, topical issues, such es business ethics) and managerial competences. Orientation framework Master – Profile-in-demand Learner´s Perspective

28 Institutional Qualifications Framework Design of a learning matrix for the university / faculty

29 Profile of Institution Centre of Learning Excellence Based on applied research For a particular region Networking internationally Providing programmes effectively and efficiently according to the needs of the learner and of all stakeholders

30 Learning Outcomes and Levels Bachelor Degree 3 years Level 1 Descriptor Level 2 Descriptor Level 3 Descriptor The ability to demonstrate and / or work with Knowledge and Understan ding Knowledge widening General a broad knowledge of the subject/ discipline in general a broad knowledge of the scope, defining featues, and main areas of a subject/ discipline a broad and integrated knowledge and understanding of the scope, main areas and boundaries of a subject/ discipline knowledge that is embedded in the main theories, concepts and principles understanding of a limited range of core theories, principles and concepts a critical understanding of a selection of the principal theories, principles, concepts and terminology an awareness of the evolving/ changing nature of knowledge and understanding limited knowledge and understanding of some major current issues and specialisms an outline knowledge and understanding of research and equivalent scholarly/ academic processes Module related Knowledge deepening General an understanding of the difference between explanations based in evidence and/ or research and other forms of explanation, and of the importance of the difference detailed knowledge in some areasknowledge that is detailed in some areas and/ or knowledge of one or more specialisations that are informed by forefront developments Module related

31 Knowledge and Understanding Knowledge Widening The ability to / is able to work with …. An awareness about The developing and Dynamic type of knowledge and understanding A broad basis of the subject area / of the disciplines in general Knowledge which is embedded in the essential theories, concepts and principles Level 1 Accounting: -describe and explain the role of accounting as part of the information management system in an organisation …

32 Consequences at faculty level: Example cooperation –Forms of cooperation Strategic Alliances „Dual“ Study-Programmes –Models for Curricula design Platform Hub-and-spoke One-stop-shop Screwdriver institution

33 Common Platform – plus customised modules = individual study-programmes

34 One-stop-shop FH OS Regional E&T Center Uni OS BA Lingen Bereich Nordhorn Bereich Bramsche Bereich Quakenbrück Bereich Melle

35 HUB LH HUB UA Atlantik Hub-and-Spoke Code Sharing Berlin FMO Düsseldorf Hannover LA New York Dallas Spokes

36 Further curricula elements Structures Modularisation –Organisation and Communication –Electives Block week Projects Placement Dissertation Mobility window

37 Curricular Form of Mobility Window Type I Full Semester = 30 Credits Learning Outcomes 30 Credits Learning Outcomes of the Semester abroad have to be defined as a whole and not according to individual modules

38 Curricular Form of Mobility Window Type II Full Semester = 30 Credits MM Learning Outcomes defined for 1 MOCCA Module (MM) plus 5 „traditional“ Modules

39 Curricular Form of Mobility Window Type III Full Semester = 30 Credits MMM MMM Learning Outcomes defined for 6 modules including Mobile Learning Outcomes (M) inherent in all modules taught at the host institution

40 Learning Chain Tools at work Learning Outcomes Subject-related -Knowledge Deepening / Widening Generic -Skills / Competences Knowledge opening / developing QFR-NQR-HQR-SQR Learner Credit Transfer + Accumulation Application /CV / Learning Agreement/ TOR / Mobility Pass Language Pass Diploma/Certificate Supplement Learning Space Teaching and Learning, Research Learning Environment Information Package / Course Catalogue Change of Paradigm Quality Assurance/ -enhancement Standards & Guidelines / Register Labour Market

41 41 Thank You for having invited me been patient with me I hope you will be successful in your work

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