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Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE ZONES CIVIL SOCIETY FORUM United Nations, New York April 29, 2010 Adele Buckley Arctic Security WG.

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Presentation on theme: "Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE ZONES CIVIL SOCIETY FORUM United Nations, New York April 29, 2010 Adele Buckley Arctic Security WG."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE ZONES CIVIL SOCIETY FORUM United Nations, New York April 29, 2010 Adele Buckley Arctic Security WG of Canadian Pugwash, Pugwash Council

2 2 1. Climate Change > Polar Ice Melts 2. Arctic climate affects the global climate

3 3

4 4 Arctic security environment All Arctic nations are increasing their military presence

5 5 Circumpolar nations add new military hardware Clockwise: Russia – submarine; Russia – surface warship; Norway – armed Arctic patrol vessel; Norway – 4 ice capable vessels of this class ; Norway – armed Arctic patrol vessel [Rob Huebert, Univ. of Calgary – Arctic Security Challenges & Issues- Ottawa, 01/28/10]

6 6 Ice capable conflict and surveillance vessels Clockwise: Sweden/Finland- Arctic exercise 2009; Canada-Northern exercises; Canada – Arctic Offshore patrol vessel; Denmark –armed, ice capable inspection vessel [Rob Huebert]

7 7 A military presence – not a surprising development –collaboration is possible Search and rescue Environmental problems, e.g. oil spill Surveillance of shipping lanes __________________________ The current level of threat is low. Now is the time for political collaboration “Ridding the Arctic of Nuclear Weapons A Task Long Overdue”

8 8 A collaboration – aboriginals & academics GPS for Nunavut Hunters [Univ.Calgary, National Snow& Ice Ctr, Inuit hunters of Clyde River, ISIUOP] 2006 – 2009 Environmental researchers and geomatics engineers design and field test a new tool for hunters - GPS* equipped PDA* and weather station; touch interface with icons OVER TIME: A valuable qualitative and quantitative picture of land, sea and ice and how Inuit use the it {yes, Arctic peoples must be Involved in ANWFZ negotiations} * Global Positioning System ** Personal Digital Assistant

9 9 New technology – could monitor compliance with an Arctic NWFZ treaty Unmanned smart sub*, Explorer, maps the under-ice seabed Could the smart sub be a surveillance tool for nuclear submarines? *Submarine Engineering Ltd., British Columbia with Defence Research & Development Canada

10 10 International law (UNCLOS) will resolve sovereignty claims on continental shelves

11 11 UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea) Because there are no territorial claims beyond the UNCLOS exclusive economic zones (EEZ), denuclearization of the entire Arctic Ocean would require, at the least, an agreement between all nuclear weapon states, notwithstanding the UNCLOS requirement of preservation of the high seas for peaceful purposes

12 12 Establishing an Arctic Nuclear- Weapon-Free Zone Emulate other Arctic agreements, obtained through peaceful collaboration There are many NWFZs – Northern hemisphere has only Central Asia NWFZ and Mongolia Two NWS have sovereign territory in the Arctic; ANWFZ would be a giant step toward denuclearization Ideally, ANWFZ would be synchronized with other efforts in international arms control & disarmament

13 13 THE MAIN CHALLENGES Many circumpolar nations are part of NATO, a nuclear alliance. Arctic nations U.S. and Russia are nuclear weapon states Arctic territory (land) in the United States is free of nuclear weapons; the Russian Federation relies upon the Arctic region in basing, deployment and transit of nuclear weapons Security policy and planning of the Arctic circumpolar states does not yet include an Arctic NWFZ

14 14 MEETING THE CHALLENGES Each nuclear weapon-free zone is specific to the geography and politics of the participating sovereign states [flexibility in negotiation is implied] For example: rules for transit of nuclear weapons vary from zone to zone. Arctic peoples must be at the negotiating table Nations must proceed with urgency, being mindful of the need to assist the Arctic/High North peoples – indigenous and non-indigenous – for preservation of the environment, security from conflict, and adaptation to climate change.

15 15 Policy/plans recommended for Arctic Nuclear Weapon States Decrease the role of nuclear weapons in military planning Require NATO, in creating a new Strategic Concept, to accommodate the possibility of an ANWFZ Cooperate with the Arctic non-nuclear weapon states -Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden - to enable those states to agree to establish a NWFZ in their own territories, as recommended in “Call for an Arctic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone”, the declaration of a conference in Copenhagen, in August 2009” [ ] Enable removal of Russian Federation nuclear weapons from the Arctic by negotiating a significant, verifiable arms control treaty that would enable strategic parity between Russia & U.S.

16 16 Policy/Plans for Arctic NNWS Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden Work cooperatively to enable a nuclear weapon-free zone to be established in their own territories north of the Arctic Circle; include the nuclear weapons states in these discussions, as a prelude to these states taking steps to include their own territories in the ANWFZ Actively promote a step-by-step approach, involving at first the terrestrial territory, followed by negotiations for sea and airspace Require NATO to remove any restrictions on a NATO member country that would mitigate against establishing the ANWFZ, such as an agreement to station nuclear weapons on their territory in time of war

17 17 Fostering the ANWFZ formation with assistance from institutions and civil society International treaties covering many issues relevant to the Arctic/High North require negotiation in the near term. The Arctic Nuclear- Weapon-Free Zone, the subject of a lengthy negotiation in itself, would not take precedence. The expectation of an ANWFZ must, however, be a background to each negotiation and international meeting on Arctic matters. Civil society groups and academia can contribute: expertise and new research; report findings to the circumpolar governments; recommend action Connect with relevant United Nations reviews and conferences. REMINDER: the Non-Proliferation Treaty Article VII encourages any group of states to conclude regional agreements Keep the ANWFZ at the forefront of their interaction with all nuclear and Arctic non-nuclear governments until such time as these governments are committed to carrying the process forward

18 18 Campaign Goal Keep the ANWFZ proposal at the forefront in interaction with all nuclear and Arctic non- nuclear governments until such time as these governments are committed to carrying the process forward Establishment of an Arctic Nuclear Weapon- Free Zone is a confidence building step toward nuclear disarmament

19 19 Benefits to Arms Control and Disarmament Planning and negotiating for an Arctic NWFZ will complement the efforts of governments and civil society groups who are working on other facets of arms control and disarmament. An Arctic NWFZ treaty would create the controls that would greatly diminish or eliminate the possibility of terrorists transporting nuclear material by Arctic sea lanes. Continued cooperation between G8 partners and the Russian Federation, e.g. cleanup of the large quantities of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear submarine operations As states discuss an ANWFZ, there could be early action on securing fissile material that is located in the Arctic.

20 20 Civil society support for ANWFZ “Safeguard the Arctic by establishing an Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone” a statement by the Canadian Pugwash Arctic Security WG Leaders in national Pugwash groups have endorsed the formation of an ANWFZ – Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden

21 21 Contact information Canadian Pugwash Arctic Security WG Adele Buckley Michael Wallace Steven Staples Report: Ridding the Arctic of Nuclear Weapons, A Task Long Overdue (M. Wallace & S. Staples) Additional Arctic Information: see


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