Introduction Chunking course content 1.Utilizing instructional design techniques used to organize content 2.Storyboarding 2a.Linear Model vs. Hypertext Model 2b. Lesson construction
1. UTILIZING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES USED TO ORGANIZE CONTENT
IGNITE Model of OnlineCourse Design Grouping Intervals Novelty Interconnect -edness Tech Integration Environment (Tompkins, 2007)
What is chunking? 1. Grouping content so that working memory (taking in what is new) is not overloaded
What is chunking? 1. Grouping content so that working memory (taking in what is new) is not overloaded 2. Limiting content so that connections can be made to schematic structures of long term memory (what is already known)
Metaphor: Dance steps A dance is made up of a series of steps. When learning a dance, dancers first learn a ‘chunk of steps, typically correlating to music (8 beats). Once learned, each set of steps becomes one “chunk” or more complex step. When steps are combined into a dance – with practice- the entire dance becomes one ‘chunk.’
CHAT How are classroom courses typically “chunked”?
What can be chunked online? 1.Course Content – what is being learned – Objectives – Concepts, facts, generalizations, principles, etc. – Processes – Problems Objective 1 Principles ProblemsProcedures Terms
What else can be chunked online? 2.Course Organization – Course Resources – Course Processes: Activities - Assignments – Assessments – Course Layout (see course map handout) – Course Schedule – Course Materials Text Presentations Discussions Lecture Notes Course Unit Module 2 Module 1 Lesson Assignment Assessment Activity
PPT™ Voicethread™ Podcast Digital Presentations Instructions Templates Examples Handouts Video Tutorial Reading Materials What more can be chunked online? 3. Course Resources
Process of Chunking Course Content Existing Design Objectives Units? Chapters? Assignments? Schedule? Topics? Questions? Metaphor? Process? Shift to Modules Lessons + activities + assignments + events Opportunities for practice Relate to Course Scope Length of modules Sequence: linear/non- linear Benchmark/assessment points
Example: Module Chunking Template Dates: January 13 Through February 10 Objective: To identify historical technology trends in education, cite supporting evidence of such trends, and explain their significance. Print Readings : 1.Reiser, Chapters 1-3 Reading Log Questions 2.Burbules, Chapter 1 Reading Log Questions Activities/Assignments: Task 1 completed by February 10-17 (about 3 hours) Required Class Chat on January 21 or 22 at 6 PM (1 hour) Task 2 completed by February 3 (about 4 hours) Task 3 completed by February 10-17 (about 8 hours total) Required Class Chat on February 10 or 11 (1 hour) UNDERLINE denotes link to course resource
Keep in mind when chunking… Objectives From module Attached to: Lesson, Activity, Assignment, Event Time Length Sequence Duration Reading Materials When Relation to objective Media CMS Web 2.0 Tele- conference Interactivity Learner behaviors Instructor Actions
Example: “Assignment” Chunking Podcast Text Video Introduce Chat Discussion Forum Virtual world Interact Technology Feedback Report Practice Present Document Produce Demonstrate BENCH MARK
Activity Chunking can differ across disciplines with a focus on: Foundational concepts Procedures Problem solving Applied skills What will differ across disciplines? Levels of education (undergraduate, graduate)?
Time: How much? 1 chunk = 15-20 minutes 3 chunks = 1 lesson 3 lessons = 1 unit 3 units = 1 module 5 modules = entire course NetNet
Intervals? 1.Time needed to process new information 2.Time needed to prepare processed information 3.Time needed to respond (synchronous events) Recommendation: Provide time estimates for assignments and asynchronous activities.
Example Intervals Principle 1.Time is needed to process new information 1.Time is needed to prepare processed information 1.Time is needed to respond (synchronous events) Application 1.Read (2 hours), watch (20 min., discuss (1 hour chat) the chapter on social conflict (over 3 days) 2.Create a Voicethread™ that illustrates your position on the causes of and solutions for social conflict (1 week) 3.In chat, count to 10 before responding
Key Points for Chunking Keep the learner in the forefront Use time frameworks Use consistent chunking strategies Relate objectives and interactivity to chunks Relate activities- assignments-assessments (Gobet, 2005)
Activity Chunk a Lesson Take 5 minutes Using your module that you drafted for Session 1, select one part that might be considered a lesson. Determine: What is focus of ‘lesson’ – objective? Topic? Question? Other? How much time is needed? What resources are needed? What activity, if any, will learners or instructor perform? What media is needed?
Why storyboard? 1.Plan the connection between course “chunks” 2.Troubleshoot gaps 3.Check for even distribution of content 4.Maps connections between different parts of the course (e.g., tools, activities, assignments, events, etc.).
Instructor-directedLearner-directed Linear (Static Environment) Non-linear (Dynamic Environment) New learning, little reliance on learner to organize Simple Obvious connections Making connections of parts to the whole
ACTIVITY Review the following course. http://freshmancomp.ning. com/ http://freshmancomp.ning. com/ (Password protected, only home page is viewable) What is clear or confusing? Post responses in chat.
Why is layout critical? Individual differences principle Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners. Design effects are stronger for high-spatial learners than for low-spatial learners. Richard E. Mayer
Visual Organization & Cues Segmenting principle: People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in learner- paced segments rather than as a continuous unit. Application: Limit number of ‘screens’ so that learner can directly relate to topic or task at hand. Signaling principle: People learn better when the words include cues about the organization of the presentation. Application: Use headings, icons, or visual dividers to draw attention to key areas.
MODULE 3 OBJECTIVES: ………….. WhenWhat HappensWhat is Due MondayDiscussion #4 WednesdayListen to PodcastAssignment #5 FridayChat #3
Visual Organization & Cues Coherence principle: People learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. Application: Keep it simple – images, sounds, text, color should direct and inform, not distract. Pre-training principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts. Application: Provide read access to a glossary, pop- ups, FAQ, image database, references, etc.
Assignment #5 1.Listen to (.wav) or Read (.pdf) Instructions 2.Participate in Discussion #5 3.Post your research to ++++ by Wednesday
Key Points for Storyboarding Keep the learner in the forefront Keep visual layout consistent Select appropriate format for content and developmental level of learner
Homework, Part 1 1.Take the module you began in Day 1. 2.Download Session 2 Assignment Handout in Course Site. 3.Chunk the module into: – Lessons with Activities Assignments Assessments 4.Post document to Course Site Day 2 Homework.
Homework, Part 2 1.Explore eLearning tools. http://elearningtools.wetpaint.com/ 2.What tools are a good fit for you? 3.What instructional application is missing? 4.These tools will be discussed in Session 3.