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1 osnabrueck.de 1 The Bologna Process Implemented ECTS Workshop Novi Sad April 2006

2 Goals Declaration Objectives Measurable Tools User´s friends Social Dimension Citizen of Europe Employability Lifelong Learning 3 Cycles Learner centred Academic Recognititon Quality Assurance and Enhancement Qualifications Framework Learning Outcomes Levels, Credits ECTS Diploma Supplement Credits Common structure Standards and Guidelines / Register

3 Implementing the Bologna Declaration: The Bologna Process Challenges 2005/ Still Quality Assurance Academic RecognitionQualifications framework Evaluation Accreditation Credit Transfer Credit Accumulation Bachelor Master Doctorate Qualifying Learning Outcomes quantified by credits

4 Phase 1 How to get there – an inductive approach by universities (e.g. „Tuning educational structures in Europe): Employability

5 Learning Chain Learnig outcomes Subject related -Knowledge broadening -Knowledge deepening Generic -Knowledge access and developing Learners Selection (accumulates credits) Learning space (Teaching and learning, Research Learning material, Learning methods...) Change of paradigm Total Quality Management Labour Market

6 Tuning Project Weighted Ranking of the Most Importance Competences (All Subjects) GraduatesEmployersAcademics 1 Capacity for analysis and synthesis 1 Capacity to learn1 Basic knowledge of the field of study 2 Capacity to learn2 Capacity to apply knowledge in practice 2 Capacity for analysis and synthesis 3 Capacity to apply knowledge in practice 3 Capacity for analysis and synthesis 3 Capacity to learn 4 Elementary computing skills 4 Capacity to adapt to new situations 4 Capacity for generating new ideas (creativity) 5 Capacity to adapt to new situations 5 Interpersonal skills5 Capacity to apply knowledge in practice

7 Fundamental Importance: Weighted Ranking of the Least Important Competences ( All Subjects) GraduatesEmployersAcademics Knowledge of a second foreign language LeadershipEthical commitment Ability to work in an international context Knowledge of a second language Interpersonal skills Ethical commitmentAbility to work in an international context Knowledge of a second language Appreciation of diversity and multiculturalism Elementary computing skills Understanding of cultures and customs of other countries Appreciation of diversity and multiculturalism

8 Phase 2 Terminology

9 Definition Learning outcomes / competences  Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand, and / or be able to do at the end of a period of learning

10 Terminology Workload  A quantitative measure of all learning activities that may be feasibly required for the achievement of the learning outcomes Credit  A quantified means of expressing the volume of learning based on the achievement of learning outcomes and their associated workload

11 Terminology Profile  Either the specific (subject) field(s) of learning of a qualification or the broader aggregation of clusters of qualifications of programmes from different fields that share a common emphasis or purpose (e.g. an applied vocational as opposed to more theoretical academic studies) Levels  Representing a series of sequential steps (a development continuum), expressed in terms of generic outcomes, against which typical qualifications can be positioned

12 Phase 3 Link with ECTS – For transfer, accumulation and academic recognition

13  Student-centred system  Based on workload required to achieve learning outcomes  “Convention” that 60 credits represents an annual workload of a full-time student  Allocated to all aspects of study programme  Based on completion + assessment  Respect for the Learning Agreement between student and institutions ECTS - Key Features

14 ECTS - Guidelines  About 40 weeks of full-time learning  Normally 1 credit equals hours  Time to be invested by the learner to achieve the learning outcomes, including independent studies  Credits are allocated in such a way that the first academic degree can be obtained on the basis of credits predetermined in a respective study-programme  This has to be stated in the ECTS documents

15 ECTS - Links  Workload = Learning  Learning assessed=Credits  Requirement=Learning has to be assessed (this must be possible)  „Assessability“=by defining the learning outcomes  Need=adequate method of assessment  Extension (B/C/M) = ECVET

16 Documents  Informationpackage / Course Catalogue  Learning Agreement  Transcript of Records  Diploma Supplement  Extension within Brugges/Copenhagen/Maastricht (B/C/M-Process) Europass  CV, Language Pass, Mobility Pass, Certificate Supplement, Diploma Supplement

17 Phase 3 The Learning Chain in Terms of Bologna

18 18 Learning Chain Tools - Documents Learning Outcomes Subject-related -Knowledge Deepening / Widening Generic -Skills / Competences Knowledge opening / developing QFR-NQR-HQR-SQR Learner Credit Transfer + Accumulation Application /CV / Learning Agreement/ TOR / Mobility Pass Language Pass Diploma/Certificate Supplement Learning Space Teaching and Learning, Research Learning Environment Information Package / Course Catalogue Change of Paradigm Quality Assurance/ -enhancement Standards & Guidelines / Register Labour Market

19 Bologna in Action Indicators EmployabilityLearning Space -wherever- Information Pack. Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Credit Transfer / Accumulation Profile Level Modularisation Learning Outcomes Workload Individual Selection Performance Credits Grade Descriptors

20 Bologna in Action Indicators EmployabilityInformation Package Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Transfer / Accumulation Tuning Dublin Descriptors Structure of a Module Learning Outcomes: Subj. rel. /non subj. rel. Knowledge widening Knowledge deepening Knowledge accessing Instrumental Interpersonal systemic Workload -Effectiveness - Efficiency Individual Selection Interview Portfolio u.a. Performance Credits 5 Grade Local Ranking Qualifications- framework LLL 6x4

21 Phase 4 Qualifications Frameworks – Bundles of learning outcomes to define a qualification – an overview

22 Qualificationsframework -Referenceframework- Levels of Qualifications- -Bachelor -Master -Doctorat Min. of Education Higher Education QFW for EHEA Bologna-Process EU-Commission QFW for LLL Brugges- Copenhagen- Maastricht- Process Described by bundling learning outcomes according to the „Dublin Descriptors“ with Credits Knowledge and understanding Applying k&u Making judgements CommunicationLearn to learn Levels of Qualifications 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 6 – Described by bundling learning outcomes according to descriptors Knowledge & Under- standing SkillsCompetences

23 NQF Onionmodel EQF HQF SQF FQF BQF QRECOGNITIONQRECOGNITION LEARNINGOUTCQLEARNINGOUTCQ

24 41 The European Qualifications Framework for Higher Education The Dublin Descriptors

25 Joint Quality Initiative – Dublin Descriptors Knowledge and understanding –1 (Bachelor) [is] supported by advanced text books [with] some aspects informed by knowledge at the forefront of their field of study... 2 (Master) provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing or applying ideas often in a research context... 3 (Doctorate) [includes] a systematic understanding of their field of study and mastery of the methods of research associated with that field

26 Further criteria –Applying knowledge and understanding –Making judgements –Communication –Learning skills See the following slides:

27 1 (Bachelor) [through] devising and sustaining arguments 2 (Master) [through] problem solving abilities [applied] in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts.. 3 (Doctorate) [is demonstrated by the] ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research* with scholarly integrity.. [is in the context of] a contribution that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work some of which merits national or international refereed publication.. Applying knowledge and understanding

28 Making judgements 1 (Bachelor) [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data.. 2 (Master) [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements with incomplete data.. 3 (Doctorate) [requires being] capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas..

29 1 (Bachelor) [of] information, ideas, problems and solutions.. 2 (Master) [of] their conclusions and the underpinning knowledge and rationale (restricted scope) to specialist and non- specialist audiences (monologue) 3 (Doctorate) with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general (dialogue) about their areas of expertise (broad scope).. Communication

30 1 (Bachelor) have developed those skills needed to study further with a high level of autonomy.. 2 (Master) study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.. 3 (Doctorate) expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement.. Learning skills

31 Phase 41 At European level - Idea of the European Commission within the Brugges Copenhagen-Maastricht Process

32 32 Readability – horizontal / vertical Knowledge & Underst.SkillsCompetences L6L6 advanced knowledge of a field of work or study involving a critical understanding of theories and principles advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, in a complex and specialised field of work or study manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision-making in unpredictable work and study Contexts - lead groups in work and study L7L7 highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge in a field of work Or study, as the basis for original thinking critical awareness of knowledge issues in a field and at the interface Between different fields specialist research and problem- solving skills, including analysis and synthesis, to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields demonstrate leadership and innovation in work and study contexts that are complex, unpredictable and require new strategic approaches take responsibility for continuing personal professional development, for contributing to professional knowledge and practice and for reviewing the strategic performance of teams

33 33 EQF level 1 EQF level EQF level 3 EQF level 4 EQF level 5 EQF level 6 EQF level 7 EQF level 8 Country A Country B Q Q Q NQ F/ NQ S Q Q Q Q Michael Teutsch EU-Kommission

34 Phase 43 At sectoral / discipline level – Example: Bachelor in Business and Management

35 35 Bachelor (180, 210, 240 Credits) has acquired the following knowledge, skills and competences: Orientation: German Qualifications Framework Benchmark Business and Management Knowledge The graduate can … Knowledge broadening Knowledge and understanding of graduates build on the university-entry-level and go far beyond of it. Graduates have a broad and integrated knowledge and understanding. Graduates have demonstrated a broad and integrated knowledge and understanding of the academic basics of their disciplin. Organisations (Enterprises, Plants, Institutions) a nd their elements define, differentiate and understand the relationship. e.g.: Objectives, aims, structures, functions and processes, respecting the individual organisational culture, the individual and institutional behaviour and its internal and external impact Recognise, realise, differentiate and understand the context of the environment of an organisation and its elements. e.g.: economy, environmentt, values and norms, issues of law, politics, society, technology, including their respective impact on management at local, national,and international level. Wissensvertiefung Der Absolvent kann… Sie verfügen über ein kritisches Verständnis der wichtigsten Theorien, Prinzipien und Methoden der Wirtschaft und sind in der Lage, ihr Wissen vertikal, horizontal und lateral zu vertiefen. Ihr Wissen und Verstehen entspricht dem Stand der Fachliteratur, sollte aber zugleich einige vertiefte Wissensbestände auf dem aktuellen Stand der Forschung in ihrem Lerngebiet einschließen. die primären Aktivitäten einfacher Wertschöpfungsketten definieren, erklären und die Zusammenhänge kritisch hinterfragen. Dazu gehört die Orientierung an Märkten: Entwicklung und Funktionsweisen (Ressourcen, Güter und Dienstleistungen) und Kunden: Bedürfnisse (Erwartung und Erfüllung), Pflege der Beziehungen die unterstützenden Aktivitäten der Wertschöpfungskette definieren, erklären und die Zusammenhänge kritisch hinterfragen Dazu gehören: Finanzierung / Controlling: Steuerung der Finanzströme, Informationsversorgung durch internes und externes Rechnungswesen Humanressourcenmanagement Informations- und Kommunikationsmanagement (Inhalte, Systeme und Technologien) Organisationsentwicklung / Change Management

36 Können Der Absolvent kann... WissenserschließungInstrumentalKommunikativSystemisch Instrumentale Kompetenz: - ihr Wissen und Verstehen auf ihre Tätigkeit oder ihren Beruf anzuwenden und Problemlösungen und Argumente in ihrem Fachgebiet zu erarbeiten und weiterzuentwickeln. Systemische Kompetenzen: - relevante Informationen, insbesondere in ihrem Studienprogramm zu sammeln, zu bewerten und zu interpretieren - daraus wissenschaftlich fundierte Urteile abzuleiten, die gesellschaftliche, wissenschaftliche, und ethische Erkenntnisse berücksichtigen; - selbständig weiterführende Lernprozesse zu gestalten. Kommunikative Kompetenzen: - fachbezogene Positionen und Problemlösungen zu formulieren und argumentativ zu verteidigen; - sich mit Fachvertretern und mit Laien über Informationen, Ideen, Probleme und Lösungen austauschen: - Verantwortung in einem Team übernehmen Qualitative und quantitative Methoden und Techniken anwenden Dazu gehören: -Analyse, Synthese, -Problemerkenntnis und –lösung, -Planung und Organisation -Informations-technik handhaben -Informationen aus verschiedenen Quellen aufbereiten, verarbeiten und nutzen - eine 1. Fremdsprache sprechen (Niveau B2 des Europäischen Referenzrahmens) -eine 2. Fremdsprache sprechen (Angebot und Niveau profilabhängig) Effektiv und effizient mit Personen und Gruppen arbeiten Dazu gehören: -sachlich argumentieren -aktiv zuhören - kritisch und selbstkritisch sein -mit allen organisationsrelevanten Gruppen wertebewusst kommunizieren -Verantwortung übernehmen und tragen -effektiv und effizient in Gruppen arbeiten (in einer interdisziplinären Gruppe, mit Experten anderer Disziplinen kommunizieren, Verschiedenartigkeit und Multikulturalität anerkennen, in einem internationalem Umfeld arbeiten, Arbeitsgruppen einrichten und führen) -Entscheidungen durchsetzen Komplexe Situationen erfassen und bewerten und daraus geeignete Verhaltensweisen ableiten Dazu gehören: -selbständig qualitätsbewusst arbeiten -wissenschaftlich arbeiten können -Wissen in komplexen Situationen ergebnisorientiert anwenden -neue Ideen generieren / kreativ sein -reflektiert und kooperativ lernen, -ein Potenzial zum lebensbegleitenden Lernen entwickelt haben -sich auf neue Situationen einstellen -sich der Kulturen, Sitten und Gebräuche anderer Länder bewusst sein; sie prinzipiell kennen und verstehen, -Projekte entwerfen und leiten -initiativ sein und unternehmerisches Denken und Handeln entwickelt haben -Entscheidungen durchsetzen

37 Phase 44 At university level – Example: Osnabrueck University of Applied Sciences, D

38 Learning Outcomes and Levels Bachelor Degree 3 years Level 1 Descriptor Level 2 Descriptor Level 3 Descriptor The ability to demonstrate and / or work with Knowledge and Understan ding Knowledge widening General a broad knowledge of the subject/ discipline in general a broad knowledge of the scope, defining featues, and main areas of a subject/ discipline a broad and integrated knowledge and understanding of the scope, main areas and boundaries of a subject/ discipline knowledge that is embedded in the main theories, concepts and principles understanding of a limited range of core theories, principles and concepts a critical understanding of a selection of the principal theories, principles, concepts and terminology an awareness of the evolving/ changing nature of knowledge and understanding limited knowledge and understanding of some major current issues and specialisms an outline knowledge and understanding of research and equivalent scholarly/ academic processes Module related Knowledge deepening General an understanding of the difference between explanations based in evidence and/ or research and other forms of explanation, and of the importance of the difference detailed knowledge in some areasknowledge that is detailed in some areas and/ or knowledge of one or more specialisations that are informed by forefront developments Module related

39 Terminol ogy To acquire knowledge: define, describe, identify, label, name, outline, reproduce, recall, select, state, present, extract, organise, recount, write, recognise, measure, underline, repeat, relate, match To understand knowledge interpret, translate, estimate, justify, comprehend, convert, clarify, defend, distinguish, explain, extend, generalise, exemplify, give examples of, infer, paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarise, discuss, perform, report, present, restate, illustrate, indicate, find, select, represent, name, formulate, judge, contrast, translate, classify, express, compare Example Accounting: The student can describe and explain the role of Accounting within the Information Management System of a business organisation Accounting: The student can critically discuss and evaluate the various Accounting systems … Accounting: The student can identify and critically evaluate the strategic options of the Information Management Systems of a business organisation Knowledge revealing/ opening and developing General Instrumental - ICT and numeracy skills use a wide range of routine skills and some advanced skills associated with the subject/ discipline - for example use a wide range of use standard applications to process and obtain a variety of information and data use a range of standard applications to process and obtain data Use a range of routine skills and some advanced and specialised skills in support of established practices in a subject/ discipline, for example - use a range of IT applications to support and enhance work - interpret, use and evaluate numerical and graphical data to achieve goals/ targets use a range of numerical and graphical skills in combination use numerical and graphical data to measue progress and achieve goals/ targets use and evaluate numerical and graphical data to measue progress and achieve goals/ targets

40 Subject- related Terminology use, apply, present, formulate, darstellen, examples: present, worik out, calculate, statistically present, statistically underpin, and collect data, evaluate, assess, rank, present graphically, compile, match, put in order, merge, summarise, diagnosize, categorise, propose, work out hypotheses, verify, falsify … Examplel Data processing: The student is aware of some of the general characteristics of data basis. Data processing:: The student can assess the various alternatives to implement an information system Data processing:: The student understands the various activities which are necessary to implement technological change. Interpersonal / communicative - Generic cognitive skills and competences The student has the ability to present and evaluate arguments, information and ideas which are routine to the subject discipline undertake critical analysis, evaluation and/ or synthesis of ideas, concepts, information and issues which are within the common understandings of the subject/ discipline undertake critical analysis, evaluation and/ or synthesis of ideas, concepts, information and issues use a range of approaches to addressing defined and/ or routine problems and issues within familiar contexts use a range of approaches to formulate evidence-based solutions/ responses to defined and/ or routine problems/ issues identify and analyse routine professional problems and issues critically evaluate evidence-based solutions/ responses to defined and/ or routine problems/ issues draw on a range of sources in making judgements use a wide range of routine skills and some advanced skills associated with the subject/ discipline - for example - convey complex ideas in well-structured and coherent form - use a range of forms of communication effectively in both familiar and new contexts use a range of routine skills and some advanced and specialised skills associated with a subject/ discipline- for example - convey complex information to a range of audiences and for a range of purposes use a range of routine skills and some advanced and specialised skills in support of established practices in a subject/ discipline, for example - make formal and informal presentations on standard/ mainstream topics in the subject/ discipline to a range of audiences

41 Knowledge and Understanding Knowledge Widening The ability to / is able to work with …. An awareness about The developing and Dynamic type of knowledge and understanding A broad basis of the subject area / of the disciplines in general Knowledge which is embedded in the essential theories, concepts and principles Level 1 Accounting: -describe and explain the role of accounting as part of the information management system in an organisation …

42 Phase 5 Quality Enhancement : Accreditation and Evaluation

43 Quality Enhancement -Measures -Qualitative measuring is pursued through the achievement of the learning outcomes in the time foreseen (performance) (ex-post) – What? -Qualitative measuring is pursued by grading how the student performed (rating) (ex-post) – How? -Quantitative measuring is pursued by allocating the workload expressed in credits (ex-ante) – How much? -Consequencen of the results measured lead to a formative evaluation, i.e. help to support a continuous quality improvement

44 „ECTS-Grades“ = Rating  Credits = The learner was successful  Grades= How (to which extent) was the learner successful in his performance  Two systems =- Local Grades - Rating in relation to past cohorts (3-5 years)

45 Assessment / Rating Of the successful students  The best 10%  The following 25%  The following 30%  The following 25%  The following 10%  ECTS-Grade AA BB CC DD EE

46 Assessment / Rating  Of the unsuccessful students  Amendments are required before the performance could be considered as „passed“  Significant amendments are required  Grade  FX FF

47 51 External Accreditation and Evaluation Example: Changes in Germany due to Bologna - New Forms of Governance

48 Accreditation and Evaluation  Essential for public funding. Variations in the federal states.  Accreditation Prior to the start of a study-programme Related to a definite point of time  Evaluation Ex-ante / formative (on-line) / ex-post Related to a period of time

49 Accreditation  1 German Accreditation Board  6 Accreditation agencies Broad / regional + transnational Specific / whole of Germany + transnational  Each accreditation agency has one general committee to decide Members from universities, business, organisations, students Supported by the administration of the agencies  Several agencies also have subject oriented committees  Peer review

50 52 Internal Accreditation and Evaluation Example: Osnabrueck University of Applied Sciences, D

51 Evaluation  Internal Quality Enhancement System Description of modules and all learning and teaching relevant information on Intranet Learning and teaching material on Intranet (comparable to open-source facilities: discussion groups, mailing lists, etc.) Every semester:  evaluation of teaching and learning (student questionnaire) – not yet published (teacher receives the filled-in questionnaires)  Evaluation of workload (student questionnaire plus evaluation in module oriented working groups  „Watchdogs“: Internal Faculty and Study Boards (all groups of university members, incl. students are represented)

52 osnabrueck.de 52 6 Achievements So far

53 Where are we in terms of Bologna?  „On the road“ (shuttle service) Regular stocktaking Regular conferences Bologna follow-up groups,…etc.  In short Many stakeholders Not a top-down approach THE reform of the past 30 years European-wide

54 Join forces Bologna


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