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Chapter 25 TRANSITION TO MODERN AMERICA America Past and Present.

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1 Chapter 25 TRANSITION TO MODERN AMERICA America Past and Present

2 The Second Industrial Revolution U.S. developed the highest standard of living in the worldU.S. developed the highest standard of living in the world The 1920s and the second revolutionThe 1920s and the second revolution Electricity replaced steamElectricity replaced steam Modern assembly introducedModern assembly introduced p.720

3 The Automobile Industry Auto makers stimulated sales through model changes, and…Auto makers stimulated sales through model changes, and… …advertising/marketing crucial to growth…advertising/marketing crucial to growth Auto industry fostered other businessesAuto industry fostered other businesses Autos encouraged suburban sprawlAutos encouraged suburban sprawl p

4 Patterns of Economic Growth New technologies meant new industries: radio and motion picturesNew technologies meant new industries: radio and motion pictures 1929 ~ Successful NBC Radio Network1929 ~ Successful NBC Radio Network Structural changeStructural change Professional managers replaced individual entrepreneursProfessional managers replaced individual entrepreneurs Corporations became the dominant business formCorporations became the dominant business form Marketing & national brands spreadMarketing & national brands spread Big business weakened regionalism, brought uniformity to AmericaBig business weakened regionalism, brought uniformity to America p

5 Glenwood Stove Ad p.721

6 Glenwood Stove Ad p.721 The American economy of the 1920s saw explosive growth in the consumer-goods industries

7 Economic Weaknesses Railroads poorly managedRailroads poorly managed Coal displaced by petroleumCoal displaced by petroleum Farmers faced decline in exports, pricesFarmers faced decline in exports, prices Had expanded production to meet WWI needsHad expanded production to meet WWI needs Weakest part of the economyWeakest part of the economy Growing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managersGrowing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managers Middle class began to speculate in the stock market ~ 1920s were prosperousMiddle class began to speculate in the stock market ~ 1920s were prosperous p

8 City Life in the Jazz Age Rapid increase in urban populationRapid increase in urban population Skyscrapers symbolized the new mass culture & most visible symbol of the new citiesSkyscrapers symbolized the new mass culture & most visible symbol of the new cities Communities of home, church, & school were absent in the citiesCommunities of home, church, & school were absent in the cities New ideas, new creativity, new perspectivesNew ideas, new creativity, new perspectives Tribune Tower, in Chicago, won $50k prize for building designTribune Tower, in Chicago, won $50k prize for building design p

9 Women & the Family Ongoing crusade for equal rightsOngoing crusade for equal rights 19 th Amendment ~ 1920 Women’s Suffrage19 th Amendment ~ 1920 Women’s Suffrage “Flappers” sought individual freedom“Flappers” sought individual freedom Most women remained in domestic sphereMost women remained in domestic sphere Discovery of adolescenceDiscovery of adolescence Teenaged children no longer needed to workTeenaged children no longer needed to work Indulged their craving for excitementIndulged their craving for excitement p

10 The Roaring Twenties Sports, like golf and baseball, became much more part of national popular cultureSports, like golf and baseball, became much more part of national popular culture Crime waves flourished as wellCrime waves flourished as well Decade of celebritiesDecade of celebrities Gertrude Ederle ~ Olympic Gold MedallistGertrude Ederle ~ Olympic Gold Medallist First woman to swim across the English Channel ~ 1926First woman to swim across the English Channel ~ 1926 Died 2003 at 98Died 2003 at 98 Charles LindberghCharles Lindbergh First to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean ~ 1927First to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean ~ 1927 Spirit of St. LouisSpirit of St. Louis p

11 The Flowering of the Arts Alienation from 20s’ mass cultureAlienation from 20s’ mass culture "Exiled" American writers put US in forefront of world literature"Exiled" American writers put US in forefront of world literature T.S. EliotT.S. Eliot Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway F. Scott FitzgeraldF. Scott Fitzgerald Writers like Sinclair Lewis & H.L. Mencken criticized flaws and contradictions of 1920sWriters like Sinclair Lewis & H.L. Mencken criticized flaws and contradictions of 1920s Harlem Renaissance ~ African Americans prominent in music, poetryHarlem Renaissance ~ African Americans prominent in music, poetry Langston HughesLangston Hughes p

12 The Rural Counterattack Rural Americans identified urban culture with Communism, crime, immoralityRural Americans identified urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality Progressives attempted to force reform on the American peopleProgressives attempted to force reform on the American people Upsurge of bigotryUpsurge of bigotry An era of repressionAn era of repression p

13 The Fear of Radicalism 1919: “Red Scare”1919: “Red Scare” Illegal roundups of innocent peopleIllegal roundups of innocent people Forcible deportation of aliensForcible deportation of aliens 1927: Sacco & Vanzetti electrocuted (Italians)1927: Sacco & Vanzetti electrocuted (Italians) Accused of robbery & murderAccused of robbery & murder Shaky evidence & inappropriate trail proceedingsShaky evidence & inappropriate trail proceedings p

14 Prohibition 18th Amendment gave fed govt power to pass Volstead Act of 1920 that prohibits production, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages18th Amendment gave fed govt power to pass Volstead Act of 1920 that prohibits production, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages Consumption of alcohol reducedConsumption of alcohol reduced Prohibition resented in urban areasProhibition resented in urban areas Bootlegging/crime became big businessBootlegging/crime became big business Lucrative smuggling businessLucrative smuggling business p

15 The Ku Klux Klan 1925 ~ Klan membership hit 5M1925 ~ Klan membership hit 5M Attack on urban cultureAttack on urban culture Defense of traditional rural valuesDefense of traditional rural values Targets: Catholics, Jews, African Americans, womenTargets: Catholics, Jews, African Americans, women Violence & internal corruption resulted in a large reduction in Klan activity by 1930Violence & internal corruption resulted in a large reduction in Klan activity by 1930 p

16 Immigration Restriction 1924 ~ National Origins Act1924 ~ National Origins Act 150k person quota on immigration150k person quota on immigration Quotas favored northern EuropeansQuotas favored northern Europeans Mexican immigrants exempted from quotaMexican immigrants exempted from quota p

17 The Fundamentalist Challenge Fundamentalism ~ Stress on traditional Protestant orthodoxy, biblical literalismFundamentalism ~ Stress on traditional Protestant orthodoxy, biblical literalism 1925 ~ Scopes Trial discredited fundamentalism among intellectuals1925 ~ Scopes Trial discredited fundamentalism among intellectuals Re: Teaching evolution in schoolRe: Teaching evolution in school Dayton, TennesseeDayton, Tennessee John Scopes ~ Bio TeacherJohn Scopes ~ Bio Teacher Fundamentalists strengthened grassroots appeal in new churchesFundamentalists strengthened grassroots appeal in new churches p.737

18 Politics of the 1920s Republican party apparently dominantRepublican party apparently dominant Urban wing of the Democratic party emerged as the most powerful forceUrban wing of the Democratic party emerged as the most powerful force p

19 Harding, Coolidge, & Hoover Republican presidents appealed to traditional American valuesRepublican presidents appealed to traditional American values Harding died in office of heart attackHarding died in office of heart attack Bribery scandals broke after his deathBribery scandals broke after his death Teapot Dome ~ Naval oil reservesTeapot Dome ~ Naval oil reserves Coolidge honesty & integrity reassured the nation following Harding death/scandalCoolidge honesty & integrity reassured the nation following Harding death/scandal Hoover represented the self-made manHoover represented the self-made man p.738

20 Republican Policies Return to "normalcy"Return to "normalcy" Tariffs raisedTariffs raised Corporate, income taxes cutCorporate, income taxes cut Spending cutSpending cut Coolidge blocked Congressional aid to farmers as unwarranted interferenceCoolidge blocked Congressional aid to farmers as unwarranted interference Government-business cooperationGovernment-business cooperation p

21 The Election of 1924 Beginning in 1922, the Democrats made inroads into the GOP’s majority in Congress. Large cities were swinging toward the Democratic column, foreshadowing increases in strength in urban areas p.740

22 The Election of 1928 Democrat Al Smith carried urban voteDemocrat Al Smith carried urban vote Governor of New YorkGovernor of New York Roman CatholicRoman Catholic Republican Herbert Hoover won raceRepublican Herbert Hoover won race MidwesternerMidwesterner ProtestantProtestant Beneath the surface, there were striking similarities between the candidatesBeneath the surface, there were striking similarities between the candidates Religion the campaign’s decisive issueReligion the campaign’s decisive issue p

23 p.741

24 The Old & the New Old historical view ~ The Depression ended the spirit of the twentiesOld historical view ~ The Depression ended the spirit of the twenties New historical view ~ The twenties laid the foundations of modern AmericaNew historical view ~ The twenties laid the foundations of modern America p.741

25 Chapter 25 TRANSITION TO MODERN AMERICA America Past and Present End


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