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Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Dream or Reality? Section 007 Andrew Scheidel Emily Skaer Elizabeth Golanski.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Dream or Reality? Section 007 Andrew Scheidel Emily Skaer Elizabeth Golanski."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Dream or Reality? Section 007 Andrew Scheidel Emily Skaer Elizabeth Golanski

2 The Obvious Energy Problem  Developing countries population continues to grow along with their Per Capita GDP  The World currently derives 80% of its Energy from fossil fuels  Believe it or not, fossil fuel will hit a production peak in the VERY near future  Higher demand + lower supply = X 1,000,000,000,000 which means no more Escalades and Hummers no more Escalades and Hummers

3 Currently the United States uses 45 % of oil for gasoline purposes Animation of a petrochemical refinery

4 Economics Lesson  Crude oil prices are linked with inflation (high oil = higher costs = prices raised in order to offset higher cost = inflation.  Inflation leads to many problems like: - Less purchasing power - Less purchasing power - A decrease in consumer spending - A decrease in consumer spending

5 The Solution!  Renewable and alternate forms of energy. NOW!  Wind, hydro, solar, tidal, geothermal, and HYDROGEN  The forefront of hydrogen fuel development relates to hydrogen utilization in automobiles  The Hydrogen Fuel Cell System utilizes electrochemical energy yielding water as exhaust

6 First, How Does a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Work? Hydrogen Consists of 1 proton and 1 electron orbiting that proton.

7 How Does a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Work?  Hydrogen gas enters anode  At the same time oxygen enters cathode  Catalysts causes H to split  Protons go through the proton exchange membrane and electrons go through circuit to power motor  Protons, electrons, oxygen recombine to form water


9 Moving on to the Benefits of Hydrogen Fuel Cells  Experience with fuel cells already -NASA  Abundance of Hydrogen -2/3 of the planet is water 2/3 of water is hydrogen  Ensures more stable economy, the abundance offers less energy cost fluctuation  Reduction of CO2 emissions  Only by-product is water

10 Benefits of Hydrogen Fuel Cells  Hydrogen manufacture can be environmentally friendly  Lessons global warming  Reduction in health problems  Energy dependence on foreign nations is reduced  Can be more efficient

11 Benefits of Hydrogen Fuel Cells  Very appealing to consumers  In fact, it is already becoming a reality in California TO THE LEFT shows 15 Hydrogen stations in operation and 9 that are planned in California

12 Now, the Other Side of the Story: Problems with Hydrogen Fuel Cells  Hydrogen may be abundant in water on Earth but it is not directly available like Oxygen is  There are no hydrogen pipelines and there are only 15 stations in the ENTIRE country  Very difficult to distribute  Very difficult to store  Very difficult to transport


14 Problems with Hydrogen Fuel Cells  There are hydrogen reformers that convert other fuels like gasoline to hydrogen -These reformers emit pollution and still use fossil fuels as fuel source - Also reduce hydrogen efficiency  This problem cannot be ignored and leads many to look toward other viable fuel sources using similar technology

15 Solutions to the Problems  Many say there are too many problems with this technology for it to be viable  Incentives for gas stations to start offering hydrogen along with gasoline (subsidies, tax breaks)  To take care of transportation, reformers should be located close to hydrogen fuel stations


17 Solutions to the Problems  New studies have show alternate fuels other than hydrogen would be as efficient -Methanol, propane, natural gas  Increase investment in research and development….big time. A methanol fueled automobile developed by Daimler Chrysler

18 Concluding Remarks  Supporters of hydrogen fuel cells are much too optimistic and are having difficulty thinking realistically  Opposition is too quick to dismiss this as actually being a viable fuel source  These two groups need to begin working together to solve the problems -The government should act as a liaison between the two in order to encourage progress

19 Concluding Remarks  There is not nearly enough being done now  Action must be taken immediately by all groups in order to make this fuel source viable and prevent the economic implications previously mentioned  Must be a collaboration between, government, universities, national research laboratories etc. in order for this to be viable

20 WORKS CITED 1) Bitsche, Otmar, and Gutmann, Guenter Systems for hybrid cars. Journal of Power Sources. 127: ) Smith, Chris Llewellyn. The need for fusion. Fusion Engineering and Design. 74: ) Johnston, Brenda, and Mayo, Michael C Hydrogen: the energy source for the 21st century. Technovation. 25: ) Ahluwali, Rajesh K, Wang, X., and Rousseau, A Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles. Journal of Power Sources. 152: ) The United States Department of Energy. "Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy" (8 March 2006) 6) Elsvier Science Ltd Nickel alloy catalyst for cheap "green" hydrogen. Fuel Cell Bulletin. 9: 3. 7) Agrawal, Rakesh. "Engineers face major challenges to make fuel cell cars reality" (8 March 2006) Agrawal.fuelcells.html 8) Colella, W.G., Jacobson, M. Z., and Golden, D.M Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use and greenhouse gases. Journal of Power Sources. 150: ) Joffe, D., Hart, D., and Bauen, A Modeling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refueling in London. Journal of Power Sources. 131: ) Jeong, Kwi Seong, and Oh, Byeong Soo Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle. Journal of Power Sources. 105: ) MotorsSM. (2005). (8 March 2006). 12) Hydrogen Cars. (2005) (8 March 2006) 13) Hallock, John L., Tharakan, Pradeep J., Hall, Charles, A.S., Jefferson, Michael., Wu, Wei Forecasting the limits to the availability and diversity of global conventional oil supply. Energy. 30: ) Ivanhoe L. F. "Future World Oil Supplies: There is a finite limit" (2 April 2006). 15) Energy Information Division, United States Government. "United States Oil Consumption by Product" (4 April 2006). 16) Nice, Karim. " How Fuel Cells Work" (5 April 2006).

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