2 Photography is the art of life. Refer to the following basic principles for avoidance of unnecessary errors. You do not make photos, you do create photos. There are good photos but no principle for what is good; Not everybody trusts the painting,but it is who that trusts the photo. It's a great achievement if there are 12 significant photos in any year. —— Ansel Adams
3 Note: Cannon DSLR is used as the example in the steps. We should understand preliminarily the basic functions of the camera prior to the shooting. Now, pick up your camera and follow me to find out the basic functions of individual parts of the camera and set the various parameters for it. Settings of the camera
4 1. Shutter The shutter speed affects directly the exposure value in the same light condition. Low shutter speed may lead to the overexposure while the high speed resulting in the underexposure. At present, most cameras are provided with the program Shutter Priority, i.e. the exposure is controlled automatically by the camera allowable for the appropriate adjustment of the shutter speed by the photographer provided that the requirement of exposure is satisfied; the camera presents proper exposure via auto-adjustment of aperture. The shutter speed should not be set less than 1/50s in gerneral or the probability of blurred photo will be high. (Note: 1/125s is used for the photo of the people in normal speed, 1/250 for people in running, 1/500 for fast movement such as diving, car and so on, and 1/1000s is the optimal speed for high-speed movement.) Shutter speed 1/400s Shutter speed 1/2s It is found that the shutter speed should be increased to photo the moving objects, otherwise the blurred image may occur.
5 2. Aperture The three modes including Av, Tv and M (A, T and M) of SLR correspond to Apperture Priority, Shutter Priority and Full Manual, respectively. The setting range of apperture when the photography is conducted in the general sunlight outdoors: f/4 - f/8, the best image quality should be gained in such range. In left figure, the photo is taken via focusing on the label of beer bottle in the forefront with different apperture values. As shown in the figure, the depth of field is larger when the apperture is smaller. F2.8F4F5.6 F8F11F16
6 3. Sensitivity The sensitivity (ISO) is the sensitive degree of photosensitive materials to the ligh ray. The higher the photoperceptivity,the higher the ISO, however, the more noises, crude image and decreased quality are resulted. Thus the higher ISO setting is not applicable for the photography of high-quality piture, such as figure, still life and close-up shot, etc. ISO 200ISO 1600 Note: ISO is used generally with the shutter. That said, the increase of ISO and shutter facilitate to shoot the moving scene while the apperture is fixed. ISO 200 Shutter speed 1/50sISO 800 Shutter speed 1/200s ISO sensitivity G1 is equivalent to shutter speed G1, to increase ISO is a really good solution when the light ray is not satisfied.
7 4. White balance The white balance is controlled via the adjustment of the image to make the photo color shot in different light ray conditions consistent with the visual color of scene exactly. The ligh ray has its own color, for example, the light emitting from fluorescent lamp is in greenish while the light from tungsten lamp is reddish or orangish. The role of white balance is to compensate the influence of the light color. The selection of Auto-white balance (AWB) is sufficient in general, however, other individual options of white balance may be selected if the hue is not ideal in the specific condition. SunlightCloudy dayTungsten lampWhite fluorescent lamp The color variety in different modes
8 5. Metering Mode Metering modes include: Evaluative metering, Partial metering, Center-weighted average metering and Spot metering The commonly used metering is the evaluative metering that is used to perform the multi-segment metering over the entire image. However, the spot metering is the better choice in the scene full of the interwoven shade and shadow. Shoot with spot metering mode Shoot with evaluative metering mode The evalutive metering is used to calculate averagely the overall brightness of the image, thus the figure in the scene is darkened. The adequate exposure will be easily obtained if the metering is done only to the brightness of the figure in the metering mode with limited metering range.
9 6. How to hold the camera The correct posture in holding the camera is necessary not only to accomplish the photography smoothly, but also to affect greatly the quality of the photo taken. To prevent the hand from shake, it is necessary to know well the correct camera-holding method. Hold horizontally Hold vertically Incorrect holding method Correct holding method
Compo- sition 10 The first important step in photography is the composition! For a good photographic scene, the resulted effect may be insignificant if your composition is not done well. Even an plain corner, perhaps, after being composed elaborately by the photographer, will present a vivid photo.
1. Classic composition rule "golden section" "Golden section" is believed to be the most beautiful figure with significant aesthetic value. 11 The individual parts of Mona Lisa are painted following the proportion of Golden section, have you identified them?
The photographed subject is placed on an arbitrary straight line or on the intersection point of straight lines, such arrangement is better in concordance with the people's visual habit. (The middle-third auxiliary line in the camera can be called out to provide help in composition.) 12 "Rule of the thirds" is the simplified version of "Golden section",
13 The subject of scene should be placed on the position of the point in golden section to balance horizontally the scene and hightlight the subject.
14 The viewer will concentrate more on the expression of the figure in the scene. The figure conrresponding to the large area of machine on the left side increases the livingness of the scene and keeps the scene balaced horizotally without appearance of any sign of unstable gravity center.
15 Rule of the thirds is followed although the figure has not been placed on the forefront position in the scene.
16 2. Blank in the painting The blank means "subtraction"; Do not leave the scene full and stuffy; An appropriate blank should be retained for room of imagination, which is also an effective method in pursuiting artistic conception in photography. The full scene produces a very depressive and breathless feeling. The adequate blank of sky increases the dynamic effect of the scene.
17 3. Issues of horizontal line The horizontal line can not be used to halve the scene and it should not cross the head or neck in shooting the figure. The horizontal line cannot be tilted. When shoot the building, the perspective should be avoided at first, thus keeping the photoed building subject standing horizontally; and the avoidance of low/high angle shot is necessary when the wide-angle lens is used, otherwise the building will tilt centrally or peripherally in the scene. (Perspective problem) the house tilted obviously in the above figure. The problem in this photo is the high horizontal line, in which MM seems to be falling into the water resulting the unbalanced scene. (in shooting, the horizontal line should not be placed outside 1/3--1/2 of the scene. )
18 Subject 1. The subject should be highlighted. In general, a main center of interest should be provided in a work to express the theme. The photoed subject may be a person, an item or a group of people or items. There are many elements in the scene with ratherly prominent visual points such as figures in near view, image in driving mirror of model car,a yellow car on the left side and the distant passerbies in the street, the focusing point will be unconcentrated due to the presence of too many elements.
19 The shooting angle of the lens and the position of photographer may be changed frequently to obtain the optimal effect as to simplify the background of scene and reduce disordered unnecessary elements due to the limit of the scene occasionally. The subject is interfered by too many cluttered elements in the background of scene. Simple and clear background of scene highlights the subject.
To highlight the subject is a simple method to draw people's attention. There is simple and commonly used method Blurred backgound. The blurred background leads to the obscured items to which the viewers may be unconcentrated. The shallow depth of field can be obtained by use of the large apperture (such as 1.8), far focus and camera with large area of sensor (such as full-frame DSLR). If the trees in the photo locate also within the depth of field, they will disperse the attention of the viewers. The couple is highlighted via blurred background. The blurred background concentrates the attention of viewers on the eyes of figure in the photo.
21 2. Focusing issues Most digital cameras are provided with auto-focus (AF) function to adjust automatially the focal length; simply direct the camera toward the object to be photoed and press the shutter to complete the shooting, such easy operation, however, may result in incorrect focusing occasionally. Two reasons in unfocusing: Shake of the camera: Once the occurrence of shake when the shutter is pressed following the laborious adjustment of the focal length, it blurs the entire image. Solution: Tighten your arms and stand stably, it's better to use the tripod. Out of focus: This occurs when the focusing position lies front or back although the focal length is adjusted correctly. Solution: Select the better focusing mode and align to the focus while shooting.
22 The focusing point not on the subject makes it out of focus.
23 The sun should be used as the main light source in natural light condition. For the insufficient light may present due to the limit of actual environment, we will apply the following methods to compensate such cases as much as possible: 1. Increase ISO value. ISO defines the photoperceptivity of sensitive materials (Cmos). The higher the ISO, the higher the photoperceptivity, however, the more noises, crude image and decreased quality may be resulted. ISO is generally not set more than 800 or it may be increased appropriately if the camera is provided with noise reduction for high-ISO sensitivity. 2. Increase apperture. The more the light in, the smaller the apperture figure set; it is applied also to control the depth of field which is larger when the apperture is lowered. 3. Use of tripod (for purpose of the decrease of the shutter speed). In general, the photo is blurred when the shutter speed is lower than 1/50s. If the tripod is used, the blurred image due to the "shake" of camera will be prevented regardless how "slow" the shutter speed is set. (It has to be noted that the shake ocurring instantly when the finger contacts the shutter may affect the definition of the image.) 4. Use of photoflash. Light ray
24 Pixels: 3264 X 2448 Resolution: 150dpi Clear expression on the subject,and manifest information of the industry. The use of photo is warranted by the customer with written approved documents. The license agreement of portraint should be provided if there is figure included in the photo. Require ments of the picture